Avoid splitting a multi-byte character when trimming a name.
[rsync/rsync.git] / rsync.yo
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9e3c856a 1mailto(rsync-bugs@samba.org)
db8f3f73 2manpage(rsync)(1)(29 Jun 2008)()()
ddf8c2b0 3manpagename(rsync)(a fast, versatile, remote (and local) file-copying tool)
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4manpagesynopsis()
5
ddf8c2b0 6verb(Local: rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [DEST]
868676dc 7
8f61dfdb 8Access via remote shell:
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9 Pull: rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST:SRC... [DEST]
10 Push: rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST:DEST
41059f75 11
8f61dfdb 12Access via rsync daemon:
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13 Pull: rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST::SRC... [DEST]
14 rsync [OPTION...] rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC... [DEST]
15 Push: rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST::DEST
16 rsync [OPTION...] SRC... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/DEST)
41059f75 17
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18Usages with just one SRC arg and no DEST arg will list the source files
19instead of copying.
039faa86 20
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21manpagedescription()
22
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23Rsync is a fast and extraordinarily versatile file copying tool. It can
24copy locally, to/from another host over any remote shell, or to/from a
25remote rsync daemon. It offers a large number of options that control
26every aspect of its behavior and permit very flexible specification of the
27set of files to be copied. It is famous for its delta-transfer algorithm,
28which reduces the amount of data sent over the network by sending only the
29differences between the source files and the existing files in the
30destination. Rsync is widely used for backups and mirroring and as an
31improved copy command for everyday use.
32
33Rsync finds files that need to be transferred using a "quick check"
34algorithm (by default) that looks for files that have changed in size or
35in last-modified time. Any changes in the other preserved attributes (as
36requested by options) are made on the destination file directly when the
37quick check indicates that the file's data does not need to be updated.
1874f7e2 38
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39Some of the additional features of rsync are:
40
b8a6dae0 41itemization(
b9f592fb 42 it() support for copying links, devices, owners, groups, and permissions
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43 it() exclude and exclude-from options similar to GNU tar
44 it() a CVS exclude mode for ignoring the same files that CVS would ignore
43cd760f 45 it() can use any transparent remote shell, including ssh or rsh
d38772e0 46 it() does not require super-user privileges
41059f75 47 it() pipelining of file transfers to minimize latency costs
5a727522 48 it() support for anonymous or authenticated rsync daemons (ideal for
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49 mirroring)
50)
51
52manpagesection(GENERAL)
53
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54Rsync copies files either to or from a remote host, or locally on the
55current host (it does not support copying files between two remote hosts).
56
57There are two different ways for rsync to contact a remote system: using a
58remote-shell program as the transport (such as ssh or rsh) or contacting an
59rsync daemon directly via TCP. The remote-shell transport is used whenever
60the source or destination path contains a single colon (:) separator after
61a host specification. Contacting an rsync daemon directly happens when the
62source or destination path contains a double colon (::) separator after a
ba3542cf 63host specification, OR when an rsync:// URL is specified (see also the
754a080f 64"USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION" section for
ba3542cf 65an exception to this latter rule).
15997547 66
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67As a special case, if a single source arg is specified without a
68destination, the files are listed in an output format similar to "ls -l".
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69
70As expected, if neither the source or destination path specify a remote
71host, the copy occurs locally (see also the bf(--list-only) option).
72
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73Rsync refers to the local side as the "client" and the remote side as the
74"server". Don't confuse "server" with an rsync daemon -- a daemon is always a
75server, but a server can be either a daemon or a remote-shell spawned process.
76
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77manpagesection(SETUP)
78
79See the file README for installation instructions.
80
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81Once installed, you can use rsync to any machine that you can access via
82a remote shell (as well as some that you can access using the rsync
43cd760f 83daemon-mode protocol). For remote transfers, a modern rsync uses ssh
1bbf83c0 84for its communications, but it may have been configured to use a
43cd760f 85different remote shell by default, such as rsh or remsh.
41059f75 86
faa82484 87You can also specify any remote shell you like, either by using the bf(-e)
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88command line option, or by setting the RSYNC_RSH environment variable.
89
8e987130 90Note that rsync must be installed on both the source and destination
faa82484 91machines.
8e987130 92
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93manpagesection(USAGE)
94
95You use rsync in the same way you use rcp. You must specify a source
96and a destination, one of which may be remote.
97
4d888108 98Perhaps the best way to explain the syntax is with some examples:
41059f75 99
faa82484 100quote(tt(rsync -t *.c foo:src/))
41059f75 101
8a97fc2e 102This would transfer all files matching the pattern *.c from the
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103current directory to the directory src on the machine foo. If any of
104the files already exist on the remote system then the rsync
105remote-update protocol is used to update the file by sending only the
106differences. See the tech report for details.
107
faa82484 108quote(tt(rsync -avz foo:src/bar /data/tmp))
41059f75 109
8a97fc2e 110This would recursively transfer all files from the directory src/bar on the
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111machine foo into the /data/tmp/bar directory on the local machine. The
112files are transferred in "archive" mode, which ensures that symbolic
b5accaba 113links, devices, attributes, permissions, ownerships, etc. are preserved
14d43f1f 114in the transfer. Additionally, compression will be used to reduce the
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115size of data portions of the transfer.
116
faa82484 117quote(tt(rsync -avz foo:src/bar/ /data/tmp))
41059f75 118
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119A trailing slash on the source changes this behavior to avoid creating an
120additional directory level at the destination. You can think of a trailing
121/ on a source as meaning "copy the contents of this directory" as opposed
122to "copy the directory by name", but in both cases the attributes of the
123containing directory are transferred to the containing directory on the
124destination. In other words, each of the following commands copies the
125files in the same way, including their setting of the attributes of
126/dest/foo:
127
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128quote(
129tt(rsync -av /src/foo /dest)nl()
130tt(rsync -av /src/foo/ /dest/foo)nl()
131)
41059f75 132
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133Note also that host and module references don't require a trailing slash to
134copy the contents of the default directory. For example, both of these
135copy the remote directory's contents into "/dest":
136
137quote(
138tt(rsync -av host: /dest)nl()
139tt(rsync -av host::module /dest)nl()
140)
141
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142You can also use rsync in local-only mode, where both the source and
143destination don't have a ':' in the name. In this case it behaves like
144an improved copy command.
145
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146Finally, you can list all the (listable) modules available from a
147particular rsync daemon by leaving off the module name:
148
faa82484 149quote(tt(rsync somehost.mydomain.com::))
14d43f1f 150
bb9bdba4 151See the following section for more details.
14d43f1f 152
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153manpagesection(ADVANCED USAGE)
154
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155The syntax for requesting multiple files from a remote host is done by
156specifying additional remote-host args in the same style as the first,
157or with the hostname omitted. For instance, all these work:
675ef1aa 158
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159quote(tt(rsync -av host:file1 :file2 host:file{3,4} /dest/)nl()
160tt(rsync -av host::modname/file{1,2} host::modname/file3 /dest/)nl()
161tt(rsync -av host::modname/file1 ::modname/file{3,4}))
675ef1aa 162
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163Older versions of rsync required using quoted spaces in the SRC, like these
164examples:
675ef1aa 165
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166quote(tt(rsync -av host:'dir1/file1 dir2/file2' /dest)nl()
167tt(rsync host::'modname/dir1/file1 modname/dir2/file2' /dest))
675ef1aa 168
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169This word-splitting still works (by default) in the latest rsync, but is
170not as easy to use as the first method.
675ef1aa 171
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172If you need to transfer a filename that contains whitespace, you can either
173specify the bf(--protect-args) (bf(-s)) option, or you'll need to escape
174the whitespace in a way that the remote shell will understand. For
175instance:
675ef1aa 176
f92e15ef 177quote(tt(rsync -av host:'file\ name\ with\ spaces' /dest))
675ef1aa 178
5a727522 179manpagesection(CONNECTING TO AN RSYNC DAEMON)
41059f75 180
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181It is also possible to use rsync without a remote shell as the transport.
182In this case you will directly connect to a remote rsync daemon, typically
183using TCP port 873. (This obviously requires the daemon to be running on
184the remote system, so refer to the STARTING AN RSYNC DAEMON TO ACCEPT
185CONNECTIONS section below for information on that.)
4c3b4b25 186
1bbf83c0 187Using rsync in this way is the same as using it with a remote shell except
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188that:
189
b8a6dae0 190itemization(
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191 it() you either use a double colon :: instead of a single colon to
192 separate the hostname from the path, or you use an rsync:// URL.
2c64b258 193 it() the first word of the "path" is actually a module name.
5a727522 194 it() the remote daemon may print a message of the day when you
14d43f1f 195 connect.
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196 it() if you specify no path name on the remote daemon then the
197 list of accessible paths on the daemon will be shown.
f7632fc6 198 it() if you specify no local destination then a listing of the
5a727522 199 specified files on the remote daemon is provided.
2c64b258 200 it() you must not specify the bf(--rsh) (bf(-e)) option.
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201)
202
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203An example that copies all the files in a remote module named "src":
204
205verb( rsync -av host::src /dest)
206
207Some modules on the remote daemon may require authentication. If so,
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208you will receive a password prompt when you connect. You can avoid the
209password prompt by setting the environment variable RSYNC_PASSWORD to
faa82484 210the password you want to use or using the bf(--password-file) option. This
65575e96 211may be useful when scripting rsync.
4c3d16be 212
3bc67f0c 213WARNING: On some systems environment variables are visible to all
faa82484 214users. On those systems using bf(--password-file) is recommended.
3bc67f0c 215
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216You may establish the connection via a web proxy by setting the
217environment variable RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair pointing to
218your web proxy. Note that your web proxy's configuration must support
219proxy connections to port 873.
bef49340 220
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221You may also establish a daemon connection using a program as a proxy by
222setting the environment variable RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG to the commands you
223wish to run in place of making a direct socket connection. The string may
224contain the escape "%H" to represent the hostname specified in the rsync
225command (so use "%%" if you need a single "%" in your string). For
226example:
227
228verb( export RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG='ssh proxyhost nc %H 873'
229 rsync -av targethost1::module/src/ /dest/
230 rsync -av rsync:://targethost2/module/src/ /dest/ )
231
84e1a34e 232The command specified above uses ssh to run nc (netcat) on a proxyhost,
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233which forwards all data to port 873 (the rsync daemon) on the targethost
234(%H).
235
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236manpagesection(USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION)
237
238It is sometimes useful to use various features of an rsync daemon (such as
239named modules) without actually allowing any new socket connections into a
240system (other than what is already required to allow remote-shell access).
241Rsync supports connecting to a host using a remote shell and then spawning
242a single-use "daemon" server that expects to read its config file in the
243home dir of the remote user. This can be useful if you want to encrypt a
244daemon-style transfer's data, but since the daemon is started up fresh by
245the remote user, you may not be able to use features such as chroot or
246change the uid used by the daemon. (For another way to encrypt a daemon
247transfer, consider using ssh to tunnel a local port to a remote machine and
248configure a normal rsync daemon on that remote host to only allow
249connections from "localhost".)
250
251From the user's perspective, a daemon transfer via a remote-shell
252connection uses nearly the same command-line syntax as a normal
253rsync-daemon transfer, with the only exception being that you must
254explicitly set the remote shell program on the command-line with the
255bf(--rsh=COMMAND) option. (Setting the RSYNC_RSH in the environment
256will not turn on this functionality.) For example:
257
258verb( rsync -av --rsh=ssh host::module /dest)
259
260If you need to specify a different remote-shell user, keep in mind that the
261user@ prefix in front of the host is specifying the rsync-user value (for a
262module that requires user-based authentication). This means that you must
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263give the '-l user' option to ssh when specifying the remote-shell, as in
264this example that uses the short version of the bf(--rsh) option:
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265
266verb( rsync -av -e "ssh -l ssh-user" rsync-user@host::module /dest)
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267
268The "ssh-user" will be used at the ssh level; the "rsync-user" will be
754a080f 269used to log-in to the "module".
bef49340 270
754a080f 271manpagesection(STARTING AN RSYNC DAEMON TO ACCEPT CONNECTIONS)
bef49340 272
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273In order to connect to an rsync daemon, the remote system needs to have a
274daemon already running (or it needs to have configured something like inetd
275to spawn an rsync daemon for incoming connections on a particular port).
276For full information on how to start a daemon that will handling incoming
49f4cfdf 277socket connections, see the bf(rsyncd.conf)(5) man page -- that is the config
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278file for the daemon, and it contains the full details for how to run the
279daemon (including stand-alone and inetd configurations).
bef49340 280
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281If you're using one of the remote-shell transports for the transfer, there is
282no need to manually start an rsync daemon.
bef49340 283
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284manpagesection(EXAMPLES)
285
286Here are some examples of how I use rsync.
287
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288To backup my wife's home directory, which consists of large MS Word
289files and mail folders, I use a cron job that runs
41059f75 290
faa82484 291quote(tt(rsync -Cavz . arvidsjaur:backup))
41059f75 292
f39281ae 293each night over a PPP connection to a duplicate directory on my machine
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294"arvidsjaur".
295
296To synchronize my samba source trees I use the following Makefile
297targets:
298
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299verb( get:
300 rsync -avuzb --exclude '*~' samba:samba/ .
301 put:
302 rsync -Cavuzb . samba:samba/
303 sync: get put)
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304
305this allows me to sync with a CVS directory at the other end of the
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306connection. I then do CVS operations on the remote machine, which saves a
307lot of time as the remote CVS protocol isn't very efficient.
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308
309I mirror a directory between my "old" and "new" ftp sites with the
faa82484 310command:
41059f75 311
faa82484 312tt(rsync -az -e ssh --delete ~ftp/pub/samba nimbus:"~ftp/pub/tridge")
41059f75 313
faa82484 314This is launched from cron every few hours.
41059f75 315
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316manpagesection(OPTIONS SUMMARY)
317
14d43f1f 318Here is a short summary of the options available in rsync. Please refer
faa82484 319to the detailed description below for a complete description. verb(
c95da96a 320 -v, --verbose increase verbosity
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321 --info=FLAGS fine-grained informational verbosity
322 --debug=FLAGS fine-grained debug verbosity
44d98d61 323 -q, --quiet suppress non-error messages
1de02c27 324 --no-motd suppress daemon-mode MOTD (see caveat)
44d98d61 325 -c, --checksum skip based on checksum, not mod-time & size
16edf865 326 -a, --archive archive mode; equals -rlptgoD (no -H,-A,-X)
f40aa6fb 327 --no-OPTION turn off an implied OPTION (e.g. --no-D)
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328 -r, --recursive recurse into directories
329 -R, --relative use relative path names
f40aa6fb 330 --no-implied-dirs don't send implied dirs with --relative
915dd207 331 -b, --backup make backups (see --suffix & --backup-dir)
44d98d61 332 --backup-dir=DIR make backups into hierarchy based in DIR
915dd207 333 --suffix=SUFFIX backup suffix (default ~ w/o --backup-dir)
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334 -u, --update skip files that are newer on the receiver
335 --inplace update destination files in-place
94f20a9f 336 --append append data onto shorter files
84e1a34e 337 --append-verify --append w/old data in file checksum
09ed3099 338 -d, --dirs transfer directories without recursing
eb06fa95 339 -l, --links copy symlinks as symlinks
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340 -L, --copy-links transform symlink into referent file/dir
341 --copy-unsafe-links only "unsafe" symlinks are transformed
342 --safe-links ignore symlinks that point outside the tree
41adbcec 343 --munge-links munge symlinks to make them safer
f2ebbebe 344 -k, --copy-dirlinks transform symlink to dir into referent dir
09ed3099 345 -K, --keep-dirlinks treat symlinked dir on receiver as dir
f2ebbebe 346 -H, --hard-links preserve hard links
c95da96a 347 -p, --perms preserve permissions
2d5279ac 348 -E, --executability preserve executability
dfe1ed5e 349 --chmod=CHMOD affect file and/or directory permissions
1c3344a1 350 -A, --acls preserve ACLs (implies -p)
eb7e7b24 351 -X, --xattrs preserve extended attributes
d38772e0 352 -o, --owner preserve owner (super-user only)
c95da96a 353 -g, --group preserve group
d38772e0 354 --devices preserve device files (super-user only)
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355 --specials preserve special files
356 -D same as --devices --specials
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357 -t, --times preserve modification times
358 -O, --omit-dir-times omit directories from --times
2624e005 359 -J, --omit-link-times omit symlinks from --times
d38772e0 360 --super receiver attempts super-user activities
9439c0cb 361 --fake-super store/recover privileged attrs using xattrs
c95da96a 362 -S, --sparse handle sparse files efficiently
d100e733 363 -n, --dry-run perform a trial run with no changes made
f7a2ac07 364 -W, --whole-file copy files whole (w/o delta-xfer algorithm)
c95da96a 365 -x, --one-file-system don't cross filesystem boundaries
3ed8eb3f 366 -B, --block-size=SIZE force a fixed checksum block-size
44d98d61 367 -e, --rsh=COMMAND specify the remote shell to use
68e169ab 368 --rsync-path=PROGRAM specify the rsync to run on remote machine
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369 --existing skip creating new files on receiver
370 --ignore-existing skip updating files that exist on receiver
47c11975 371 --remove-source-files sender removes synchronized files (non-dir)
ae76a740 372 --del an alias for --delete-during
8517e9c1 373 --delete delete extraneous files from dest dirs
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374 --delete-before receiver deletes before xfer, not during
375 --delete-during receiver deletes during transfer (default)
fd0a130c 376 --delete-delay find deletions during, delete after
ae76a740 377 --delete-after receiver deletes after transfer, not before
8517e9c1 378 --delete-excluded also delete excluded files from dest dirs
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379 --ignore-missing-args ignore missing source args without error
380 --delete-missing-args delete missing source args from destination
b5accaba 381 --ignore-errors delete even if there are I/O errors
866925bf 382 --force force deletion of dirs even if not empty
0b73ca12 383 --max-delete=NUM don't delete more than NUM files
3610c458 384 --max-size=SIZE don't transfer any file larger than SIZE
59dd6786 385 --min-size=SIZE don't transfer any file smaller than SIZE
c95da96a 386 --partial keep partially transferred files
44cad59f 387 --partial-dir=DIR put a partially transferred file into DIR
44d98d61 388 --delay-updates put all updated files into place at end
a272ff8c 389 -m, --prune-empty-dirs prune empty directory chains from file-list
c95da96a 390 --numeric-ids don't map uid/gid values by user/group name
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391 --usermap=STRING custom username mapping
392 --groupmap=STRING custom groupname mapping
393 --chown=USER:GROUP simple username/groupname mapping
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394 --timeout=SECONDS set I/O timeout in seconds
395 --contimeout=SECONDS set daemon connection timeout in seconds
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396 -I, --ignore-times don't skip files that match size and time
397 --size-only skip files that match in size
398 --modify-window=NUM compare mod-times with reduced accuracy
abce74bb 399 -T, --temp-dir=DIR create temporary files in directory DIR
5b483755 400 -y, --fuzzy find similar file for basis if no dest file
915dd207 401 --compare-dest=DIR also compare received files relative to DIR
2f03ce67 402 --copy-dest=DIR ... and include copies of unchanged files
b127c1dc 403 --link-dest=DIR hardlink to files in DIR when unchanged
32a5edf4 404 -z, --compress compress file data during the transfer
bad01106 405 --compress-level=NUM explicitly set compression level
2b967218 406 --skip-compress=LIST skip compressing files with suffix in LIST
44d98d61 407 -C, --cvs-exclude auto-ignore files in the same way CVS does
16e5de84 408 -f, --filter=RULE add a file-filtering RULE
8a6f3fea 409 -F same as --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'
16e5de84 410 repeated: --filter='- .rsync-filter'
2acf81eb 411 --exclude=PATTERN exclude files matching PATTERN
44d98d61 412 --exclude-from=FILE read exclude patterns from FILE
2acf81eb 413 --include=PATTERN don't exclude files matching PATTERN
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414 --include-from=FILE read include patterns from FILE
415 --files-from=FILE read list of source-file names from FILE
fa92818a 416 -0, --from0 all *from/filter files are delimited by 0s
82f37486 417 -s, --protect-args no space-splitting; wildcard chars only
3ae5367f 418 --address=ADDRESS bind address for outgoing socket to daemon
c259892c 419 --port=PORT specify double-colon alternate port number
04f48837 420 --sockopts=OPTIONS specify custom TCP options
b5accaba 421 --blocking-io use blocking I/O for the remote shell
44d98d61 422 --stats give some file-transfer stats
a6a27602 423 -8, --8-bit-output leave high-bit chars unescaped in output
955c3145 424 -h, --human-readable output numbers in a human-readable format
eb86d661 425 --progress show progress during transfer
44d98d61 426 -P same as --partial --progress
b78296cb 427 -i, --itemize-changes output a change-summary for all updates
7a2eca41 428 -M, --remote-option=OPTION send OPTION to the remote side only
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429 --out-format=FORMAT output updates using the specified FORMAT
430 --log-file=FILE log what we're doing to the specified FILE
431 --log-file-format=FMT log updates using the specified FMT
09a54c39 432 --password-file=FILE read daemon-access password from FILE
09ed3099 433 --list-only list the files instead of copying them
ce795fcd 434 --bwlimit=RATE limit socket I/O bandwidth
faa82484 435 --write-batch=FILE write a batched update to FILE
326bb56e 436 --only-write-batch=FILE like --write-batch but w/o updating dest
44d98d61 437 --read-batch=FILE read a batched update from FILE
0b941479 438 --protocol=NUM force an older protocol version to be used
84e1a34e 439 --iconv=CONVERT_SPEC request charset conversion of filenames
44d98d61 440 --checksum-seed=NUM set block/file checksum seed (advanced)
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441 -4, --ipv4 prefer IPv4
442 -6, --ipv6 prefer IPv6
81c453b1 443 --version print version number
b8a6dae0 444(-h) --help show this help (see below for -h comment))
6902ed17 445
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446Rsync can also be run as a daemon, in which case the following options are
447accepted: verb(
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448 --daemon run as an rsync daemon
449 --address=ADDRESS bind to the specified address
ce795fcd 450 --bwlimit=RATE limit socket I/O bandwidth
bdf278f7 451 --config=FILE specify alternate rsyncd.conf file
2206abf8 452 -M, --dparam=OVERRIDE override global daemon config parameter
bdf278f7 453 --no-detach do not detach from the parent
c259892c 454 --port=PORT listen on alternate port number
a2ed5801 455 --log-file=FILE override the "log file" setting
4b90820d 456 --log-file-format=FMT override the "log format" setting
04f48837 457 --sockopts=OPTIONS specify custom TCP options
24b0922b 458 -v, --verbose increase verbosity
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459 -4, --ipv4 prefer IPv4
460 -6, --ipv6 prefer IPv6
b8a6dae0 461 -h, --help show this help (if used after --daemon))
c95da96a 462
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463manpageoptions()
464
465rsync uses the GNU long options package. Many of the command line
466options have two variants, one short and one long. These are shown
14d43f1f 467below, separated by commas. Some options only have a long variant.
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468The '=' for options that take a parameter is optional; whitespace
469can be used instead.
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470
471startdit()
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472dit(bf(--help)) Print a short help page describing the options
473available in rsync and exit. For backward-compatibility with older
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474versions of rsync, the help will also be output if you use the bf(-h)
475option without any other args.
41059f75 476
bdf278f7 477dit(bf(--version)) print the rsync version number and exit.
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478
479dit(bf(-v, --verbose)) This option increases the amount of information you
14d43f1f 480are given during the transfer. By default, rsync works silently. A
faa82484 481single bf(-v) will give you information about what files are being
951e826b 482transferred and a brief summary at the end. Two bf(-v) options will give you
41059f75 483information on what files are being skipped and slightly more
951e826b 484information at the end. More than two bf(-v) options should only be used if
14d43f1f 485you are debugging rsync.
41059f75 486
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487In a modern rsync, the bf(-v) option is equivalent to the setting of groups
488of bf(--info) and bf(--debug) options. You can choose to use these newer
489options in addition to, or in place of using bf(--verbose), as any
490fine-grained settings override the implied settings of bf(-v). Both
491bf(--info) and bf(--debug) have a way to ask for help that tells you
492exactly what flags are set for each increase in verbosity.
493
494dit(bf(--info=FLAGS))
495This option lets you have fine-grained control over the
496information
497output you want to see. An individual flag name may be followed by a level
498number, with 0 meaning to silence that output, 1 being the default output
499level, and higher numbers increasing the output of that flag (for those
500that support higher levels). Use
501bf(--info=help)
502to see all the available flag names, what they output, and what flag names
503are added for each increase in the verbose level. Some examples:
504
505verb( rsync -a --info=progress2 src/ dest/
506 rsync -avv --info=stats2,misc1,flist0 src/ dest/ )
507
508Note that bf(--info=name)'s output is affected by the bf(--out-format) and
509bf(--itemize-changes) (bf(-i)) options. See those options for more
510information on what is output and when.
511
512This option was added to 3.1.0, so an older rsync on the server side might
513reject your attempts at fine-grained control (if one or more flags needed
514to be send to the server and the server was too old to understand them).
515
516dit(bf(--debug=FLAGS))
517This option lets you have fine-grained control over the
518debug
519output you want to see. An individual flag name may be followed by a level
520number, with 0 meaning to silence that output, 1 being the default output
521level, and higher numbers increasing the output of that flag (for those
522that support higher levels). Use
523bf(--debug=help)
524to see all the available flag names, what they output, and what flag names
525are added for each increase in the verbose level. Some examples:
526
527verb( rsync -avvv --debug=none src/ dest/
528 rsync -avA --del --debug=del2,acl src/ dest/ )
529
530This option was added to 3.1.0, so an older rsync on the server side might
531reject your attempts at fine-grained control (if one or more flags needed
532to be send to the server and the server was too old to understand them).
4f90eb43 533
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534dit(bf(-q, --quiet)) This option decreases the amount of information you
535are given during the transfer, notably suppressing information messages
951e826b 536from the remote server. This option name is useful when invoking rsync from
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537cron.
538
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539dit(bf(--no-motd)) This option affects the information that is output
540by the client at the start of a daemon transfer. This suppresses the
541message-of-the-day (MOTD) text, but it also affects the list of modules
542that the daemon sends in response to the "rsync host::" request (due to
543a limitation in the rsync protocol), so omit this option if you want to
c5b6e57a 544request the list of modules from the daemon.
1de02c27 545
41059f75 546dit(bf(-I, --ignore-times)) Normally rsync will skip any files that are
1874f7e2 547already the same size and have the same modification timestamp.
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548This option turns off this "quick check" behavior, causing all files to
549be updated.
41059f75 550
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551dit(bf(--size-only)) This modifies rsync's "quick check" algorithm for
552finding files that need to be transferred, changing it from the default of
553transferring files with either a changed size or a changed last-modified
d15f2ff0 554time to just looking for files that have changed in size. This is useful
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555when starting to use rsync after using another mirroring system which may
556not preserve timestamps exactly.
f83f0548 557
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558dit(bf(--modify-window)) When comparing two timestamps, rsync treats the
559timestamps as being equal if they differ by no more than the modify-window
560value. This is normally 0 (for an exact match), but you may find it useful
561to set this to a larger value in some situations. In particular, when
562transferring to or from an MS Windows FAT filesystem (which represents
563times with a 2-second resolution), bf(--modify-window=1) is useful
564(allowing times to differ by up to 1 second).
5b56cc19 565
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566dit(bf(-c, --checksum)) This changes the way rsync checks if the files have
567been changed and are in need of a transfer. Without this option, rsync
568uses a "quick check" that (by default) checks if each file's size and time
569of last modification match between the sender and receiver. This option
e129500c 570changes this to compare a 128-bit checksum for each file that has a
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571matching size. Generating the checksums means that both sides will expend
572a lot of disk I/O reading all the data in the files in the transfer (and
573this is prior to any reading that will be done to transfer changed files),
574so this can slow things down significantly.
575
576The sending side generates its checksums while it is doing the file-system
577scan that builds the list of the available files. The receiver generates
578its checksums when it is scanning for changed files, and will checksum any
579file that has the same size as the corresponding sender's file: files with
580either a changed size or a changed checksum are selected for transfer.
581
582Note that rsync always verifies that each em(transferred) file was
583correctly reconstructed on the receiving side by checking a whole-file
f96bac84 584checksum that is generated as the file is transferred, but that
c64ff141 585automatic after-the-transfer verification has nothing to do with this
2a24b4bd 586option's before-the-transfer "Does this file need to be updated?" check.
41059f75 587
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588For protocol 30 and beyond (first supported in 3.0.0), the checksum used is
589MD5. For older protocols, the checksum used is MD4.
590
faa82484 591dit(bf(-a, --archive)) This is equivalent to bf(-rlptgoD). It is a quick
e7bf3e5e 592way of saying you want recursion and want to preserve almost
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593everything (with -H being a notable omission).
594The only exception to the above equivalence is when bf(--files-from) is
5dd97ab9 595specified, in which case bf(-r) is not implied.
e7bf3e5e 596
faa82484 597Note that bf(-a) bf(does not preserve hardlinks), because
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598finding multiply-linked files is expensive. You must separately
599specify bf(-H).
41059f75 600
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601dit(--no-OPTION) You may turn off one or more implied options by prefixing
602the option name with "no-". Not all options may be prefixed with a "no-":
603only options that are implied by other options (e.g. bf(--no-D),
604bf(--no-perms)) or have different defaults in various circumstances
605(e.g. bf(--no-whole-file), bf(--no-blocking-io), bf(--no-dirs)). You may
606specify either the short or the long option name after the "no-" prefix
607(e.g. bf(--no-R) is the same as bf(--no-relative)).
608
609For example: if you want to use bf(-a) (bf(--archive)) but don't want
610bf(-o) (bf(--owner)), instead of converting bf(-a) into bf(-rlptgD), you
611could specify bf(-a --no-o) (or bf(-a --no-owner)).
612
613The order of the options is important: if you specify bf(--no-r -a), the
614bf(-r) option would end up being turned on, the opposite of bf(-a --no-r).
615Note also that the side-effects of the bf(--files-from) option are NOT
a9af5d8e 616positional, as it affects the default state of several options and slightly
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617changes the meaning of bf(-a) (see the bf(--files-from) option for more
618details).
619
24986abd 620dit(bf(-r, --recursive)) This tells rsync to copy directories
faa82484 621recursively. See also bf(--dirs) (bf(-d)).
41059f75 622
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623Beginning with rsync 3.0.0, the recursive algorithm used is now an
624incremental scan that uses much less memory than before and begins the
625transfer after the scanning of the first few directories have been
626completed. This incremental scan only affects our recursion algorithm, and
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627does not change a non-recursive transfer. It is also only possible when
628both ends of the transfer are at least version 3.0.0.
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629
630Some options require rsync to know the full file list, so these options
1e05b590 631disable the incremental recursion mode. These include: bf(--delete-before),
ba2d43d7 632bf(--delete-after), bf(--prune-empty-dirs), and bf(--delay-updates).
d9f46544 633Because of this, the default delete mode when you specify bf(--delete) is now
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634bf(--delete-during) when both ends of the connection are at least 3.0.0
635(use bf(--del) or bf(--delete-during) to request this improved deletion mode
d9f46544
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636explicitly). See also the bf(--delete-delay) option that is a better choice
637than using bf(--delete-after).
638
ba2d43d7 639Incremental recursion can be disabled using the bf(--no-inc-recursive)
27999aba 640option or its shorter bf(--no-i-r) alias.
ba2d43d7 641
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642dit(bf(-R, --relative)) Use relative paths. This means that the full path
643names specified on the command line are sent to the server rather than
644just the last parts of the filenames. This is particularly useful when
14d43f1f 645you want to send several different directories at the same time. For
1dc42d12 646example, if you used this command:
41059f75 647
1dc42d12 648quote(tt( rsync -av /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/))
41059f75 649
58718881 650... this would create a file named baz.c in /tmp/ on the remote
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AT
651machine. If instead you used
652
1dc42d12 653quote(tt( rsync -avR /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/))
41059f75 654
58718881 655then a file named /tmp/foo/bar/baz.c would be created on the remote
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WD
656machine, preserving its full path. These extra path elements are called
657"implied directories" (i.e. the "foo" and the "foo/bar" directories in the
658above example).
659
660Beginning with rsync 3.0.0, rsync always sends these implied directories as
661real directories in the file list, even if a path element is really a
662symlink on the sending side. This prevents some really unexpected
663behaviors when copying the full path of a file that you didn't realize had
664a symlink in its path. If you want to duplicate a server-side symlink,
665include both the symlink via its path, and referent directory via its real
666path. If you're dealing with an older rsync on the sending side, you may
667need to use the bf(--no-implied-dirs) option.
668
669It is also possible to limit the amount of path information that is sent as
670implied directories for each path you specify. With a modern rsync on the
671sending side (beginning with 2.6.7), you can insert a dot and a slash into
672the source path, like this:
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WD
673
674quote(tt( rsync -avR /foo/./bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/))
675
676That would create /tmp/bar/baz.c on the remote machine. (Note that the
f2ebbebe 677dot must be followed by a slash, so "/foo/." would not be abbreviated.)
6f098b0f 678For older rsync versions, you would need to use a chdir to limit the
1dc42d12
WD
679source path. For example, when pushing files:
680
53cf0b8b 681quote(tt( (cd /foo; rsync -avR bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/) ))
1dc42d12 682
53cf0b8b
WD
683(Note that the parens put the two commands into a sub-shell, so that the
684"cd" command doesn't remain in effect for future commands.)
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WD
685If you're pulling files from an older rsync, use this idiom (but only
686for a non-daemon transfer):
9bef934c 687
faa82484 688quote(
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WD
689tt( rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /foo; rsync" \ )nl()
690tt( remote:bar/baz.c /tmp/)
faa82484 691)
9bef934c 692
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WD
693dit(bf(--no-implied-dirs)) This option affects the default behavior of the
694bf(--relative) option. When it is specified, the attributes of the implied
695directories from the source names are not included in the transfer. This
696means that the corresponding path elements on the destination system are
697left unchanged if they exist, and any missing implied directories are
698created with default attributes. This even allows these implied path
699elements to have big differences, such as being a symlink to a directory on
0758b2db 700the receiving side.
f2ebbebe
WD
701
702For instance, if a command-line arg or a files-from entry told rsync to
703transfer the file "path/foo/file", the directories "path" and "path/foo"
704are implied when bf(--relative) is used. If "path/foo" is a symlink to
705"bar" on the destination system, the receiving rsync would ordinarily
706delete "path/foo", recreate it as a directory, and receive the file into
707the new directory. With bf(--no-implied-dirs), the receiving rsync updates
708"path/foo/file" using the existing path elements, which means that the file
709ends up being created in "path/bar". Another way to accomplish this link
710preservation is to use the bf(--keep-dirlinks) option (which will also
711affect symlinks to directories in the rest of the transfer).
712
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713When pulling files from an rsync older than 3.0.0, you may need to use this
714option if the sending side has a symlink in the path you request and you
715wish the implied directories to be transferred as normal directories.
41059f75 716
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717dit(bf(-b, --backup)) With this option, preexisting destination files are
718renamed as each file is transferred or deleted. You can control where the
719backup file goes and what (if any) suffix gets appended using the
faa82484 720bf(--backup-dir) and bf(--suffix) options.
4c72f27d
WD
721
722Note that if you don't specify bf(--backup-dir), (1) the
723bf(--omit-dir-times) option will be implied, and (2) if bf(--delete) is
2d5279ac 724also in effect (without bf(--delete-excluded)), rsync will add a "protect"
4c72f27d 725filter-rule for the backup suffix to the end of all your existing excludes
89cb4721 726(e.g. bf(-f "P *~")). This will prevent previously backed-up files from being
4c72f27d
WD
727deleted. Note that if you are supplying your own filter rules, you may
728need to manually insert your own exclude/protect rule somewhere higher up
729in the list so that it has a high enough priority to be effective (e.g., if
730your rules specify a trailing inclusion/exclusion of '*', the auto-added
731rule would never be reached).
41059f75 732
faa82484 733dit(bf(--backup-dir=DIR)) In combination with the bf(--backup) option, this
ad75d18d
WD
734tells rsync to store all backups in the specified directory on the receiving
735side. This can be used for incremental backups. You can additionally
faa82484 736specify a backup suffix using the bf(--suffix) option
759ac870
DD
737(otherwise the files backed up in the specified directory
738will keep their original filenames).
66203a98 739
cf0f454b
WD
740Note that if you specify a relative path, the backup directory will be
741relative to the destination directory, so you probably want to specify
742either an absolute path or a path that starts with "../". If an rsync
743daemon is the receiver, the backup dir cannot go outside the module's path
744hierarchy, so take extra care not to delete it or copy into it.
745
b5679335 746dit(bf(--suffix=SUFFIX)) This option allows you to override the default
faa82484
WD
747backup suffix used with the bf(--backup) (bf(-b)) option. The default suffix is a ~
748if no -bf(-backup-dir) was specified, otherwise it is an empty string.
9ef53907 749
4539c0d7
WD
750dit(bf(-u, --update)) This forces rsync to skip any files which exist on
751the destination and have a modified time that is newer than the source
42b06481 752file. (If an existing destination file has a modification time equal to the
4539c0d7 753source file's, it will be updated if the sizes are different.)
41059f75 754
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WD
755Note that this does not affect the copying of symlinks or other special
756files. Also, a difference of file format between the sender and receiver
757is always considered to be important enough for an update, no matter what
758date is on the objects. In other words, if the source has a directory
759where the destination has a file, the transfer would occur regardless of
760the timestamps.
adddd075 761
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WD
762This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't affect the
763data that goes into the file-lists, and thus it doesn't affect deletions.
764It just limits the files that the receiver requests to be transferred.
765
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WD
766dit(bf(--inplace)) This option changes how rsync transfers a file when
767its data needs to be updated: instead of the default method of creating
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WD
768a new copy of the file and moving it into place when it is complete, rsync
769instead writes the updated data directly to the destination file.
770
58a79f4b
MM
771This has several effects:
772
773quote(itemization(
774 it() Hard links are not broken. This means the new data will be visible
775 through other hard links to the destination file. Moreover, attempts to
776 copy differing source files onto a multiply-linked destination file will
777 result in a "tug of war" with the destination data changing back and forth.
778 it() In-use binaries cannot be updated (either the OS will prevent this from
779 happening, or binaries that attempt to swap-in their data will misbehave or
780 crash).
781 it() The file's data will be in an inconsistent state during the transfer
782 and will be left that way if the transfer is interrupted or if an update
783 fails.
784 it() A file that does not have write permissions cannot be updated.
785 it() The efficiency of rsync's delta-transfer algorithm may be reduced if
786 some data in the destination file is overwritten before it can be copied to
787 a position later in the file. This does not apply if you use bf(--backup),
788 since rsync is smart enough to use the backup file as the basis file for the
789 transfer.
790))
adc4ebdd
WD
791
792WARNING: you should not use this option to update files that are being
793accessed by others, so be careful when choosing to use this for a copy.
a3221d2a 794
6f098b0f 795This option is useful for transferring large files with block-based changes
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WD
796or appended data, and also on systems that are disk bound, not network
797bound.
798
faa82484
WD
799The option implies bf(--partial) (since an interrupted transfer does not delete
800the file), but conflicts with bf(--partial-dir) and bf(--delay-updates).
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WD
801Prior to rsync 2.6.4 bf(--inplace) was also incompatible with bf(--compare-dest)
802and bf(--link-dest).
a3221d2a 803
94f20a9f
WD
804dit(bf(--append)) This causes rsync to update a file by appending data onto
805the end of the file, which presumes that the data that already exists on
806the receiving side is identical with the start of the file on the sending
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WD
807side. If a file needs to be transferred and its size on the receiver is
808the same or longer than the size on the sender, the file is skipped. This
809does not interfere with the updating of a file's non-content attributes
810(e.g. permissions, ownership, etc.) when the file does not need to be
811transferred, nor does it affect the updating of any non-regular files.
812Implies bf(--inplace),
07bbf870
WD
813but does not conflict with bf(--sparse) (since it is always extending a
814file's length).
815
816dit(bf(--append-verify)) This works just like the bf(--append) option, but
817the existing data on the receiving side is included in the full-file
818checksum verification step, which will cause a file to be resent if the
819final verification step fails (rsync uses a normal, non-appending
820bf(--inplace) transfer for the resend).
821
822Note: prior to rsync 3.0.0, the bf(--append) option worked like
823bf(--append-verify), so if you are interacting with an older rsync (or the
824transfer is using a protocol prior to 30), specifying either append option
825will initiate an bf(--append-verify) transfer.
94f20a9f 826
09ed3099 827dit(bf(-d, --dirs)) Tell the sending side to include any directories that
faa82484 828are encountered. Unlike bf(--recursive), a directory's contents are not copied
57b66a24
WD
829unless the directory name specified is "." or ends with a trailing slash
830(e.g. ".", "dir/.", "dir/", etc.). Without this option or the
faa82484 831bf(--recursive) option, rsync will skip all directories it encounters (and
f40aa6fb 832output a message to that effect for each one). If you specify both
6e6cc163 833bf(--dirs) and bf(--recursive), bf(--recursive) takes precedence.
09ed3099 834
73cb6738
WD
835The bf(--dirs) option is implied by the bf(--files-from) option
836or the bf(--list-only) option (including an implied
32b9011a
WD
837bf(--list-only) usage) if bf(--recursive) wasn't specified (so that
838directories are seen in the listing). Specify bf(--no-dirs) (or bf(--no-d))
73cb6738
WD
839if you want to turn this off.
840
841There is also a backward-compatibility helper option, bf(--old-dirs) (or
842bf(--old-d)) that tells rsync to use a hack of "-r --exclude='/*/*'" to get
843an older rsync to list a single directory without recursing.
32b9011a 844
eb06fa95
MP
845dit(bf(-l, --links)) When symlinks are encountered, recreate the
846symlink on the destination.
41059f75 847
f2ebbebe 848dit(bf(-L, --copy-links)) When symlinks are encountered, the item that
ef855d19
WD
849they point to (the referent) is copied, rather than the symlink. In older
850versions of rsync, this option also had the side-effect of telling the
851receiving side to follow symlinks, such as symlinks to directories. In a
faa82484 852modern rsync such as this one, you'll need to specify bf(--keep-dirlinks) (bf(-K))
ef855d19 853to get this extra behavior. The only exception is when sending files to
faa82484
WD
854an rsync that is too old to understand bf(-K) -- in that case, the bf(-L) option
855will still have the side-effect of bf(-K) on that older receiving rsync.
b5313607 856
eb06fa95 857dit(bf(--copy-unsafe-links)) This tells rsync to copy the referent of
7af4227a 858symbolic links that point outside the copied tree. Absolute symlinks
eb06fa95 859are also treated like ordinary files, and so are any symlinks in the
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WD
860source path itself when bf(--relative) is used. This option has no
861additional effect if bf(--copy-links) was also specified.
41059f75 862
d310a212 863dit(bf(--safe-links)) This tells rsync to ignore any symbolic links
7af4227a 864which point outside the copied tree. All absolute symlinks are
faa82484
WD
865also ignored. Using this option in conjunction with bf(--relative) may
866give unexpected results.
d310a212 867
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WD
868dit(bf(--munge-links)) This option tells rsync to (1) modify all symlinks on
869the receiving side in a way that makes them unusable but recoverable (see
870below), or (2) to unmunge symlinks on the sending side that had been stored in
871a munged state. This is useful if you don't quite trust the source of the data
872to not try to slip in a symlink to a unexpected place.
873
874The way rsync disables the use of symlinks is to prefix each one with the
875string "/rsyncd-munged/". This prevents the links from being used as long as
876that directory does not exist. When this option is enabled, rsync will refuse
877to run if that path is a directory or a symlink to a directory.
878
879The option only affects the client side of the transfer, so if you need it to
880affect the server, specify it via bf(--remote-option). (Note that in a local
881transfer, the client side is the sender.)
882
883This option has no affect on a daemon, since the daemon configures whether it
884wants munged symlinks via its "munge symlinks" parameter. See also the
885"munge-symlinks" perl script in the support directory of the source code.
886
1a515b49 887dit(bf(-k, --copy-dirlinks)) This option causes the sending side to treat
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888a symlink to a directory as though it were a real directory. This is
889useful if you don't want symlinks to non-directories to be affected, as
890they would be using bf(--copy-links).
41059f75 891
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WD
892Without this option, if the sending side has replaced a directory with a
893symlink to a directory, the receiving side will delete anything that is in
894the way of the new symlink, including a directory hierarchy (as long as
895bf(--force) or bf(--delete) is in effect).
41059f75 896
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WD
897See also bf(--keep-dirlinks) for an analogous option for the receiving
898side.
41059f75 899
ae03e0e0
MM
900bf(--copy-dirlinks) applies to all symlinks to directories in the source. If
901you want to follow only a few specified symlinks, a trick you can use is to
902pass them as additional source args with a trailing slash, using bf(--relative)
903to make the paths match up right. For example:
904
905quote(tt(rsync -r --relative src/./ src/./follow-me/ dest/))
906
907This works because rsync calls bf(lstat)(2) on the source arg as given, and the
908trailing slash makes bf(lstat)(2) follow the symlink, giving rise to a directory
909in the file-list which overrides the symlink found during the scan of "src/./".
910
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911dit(bf(-K, --keep-dirlinks)) This option causes the receiving side to treat
912a symlink to a directory as though it were a real directory, but only if it
913matches a real directory from the sender. Without this option, the
914receiver's symlink would be deleted and replaced with a real directory.
09ed3099 915
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916For example, suppose you transfer a directory "foo" that contains a file
917"file", but "foo" is a symlink to directory "bar" on the receiver. Without
918bf(--keep-dirlinks), the receiver deletes symlink "foo", recreates it as a
919directory, and receives the file into the new directory. With
920bf(--keep-dirlinks), the receiver keeps the symlink and "file" ends up in
921"bar".
922
ce055e86
WD
923One note of caution: if you use bf(--keep-dirlinks), you must trust all
924the symlinks in the copy! If it is possible for an untrusted user to
925create their own symlink to any directory, the user could then (on a
926subsequent copy) replace the symlink with a real directory and affect the
927content of whatever directory the symlink references. For backup copies,
928you are better off using something like a bind mount instead of a symlink
929to modify your receiving hierarchy.
930
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WD
931See also bf(--copy-dirlinks) for an analogous option for the sending side.
932
933dit(bf(-H, --hard-links)) This tells rsync to look for hard-linked files in
58a79f4b
MM
934the source and link together the corresponding files on the destination.
935Without this option, hard-linked files in the source are treated
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WD
936as though they were separate files.
937
58a79f4b
MM
938This option does NOT necessarily ensure that the pattern of hard links on the
939destination exactly matches that on the source. Cases in which the
940destination may end up with extra hard links include the following:
941
942quote(itemization(
943 it() If the destination already contains hard links, rsync will not break
944 them explicitly. However, if one or more of the paths have content
945 differences, the normal file-update process will break those links, unless
946 you are using the bf(--inplace) option.
947 it() If you specify a bf(--link-dest) directory that contains hard links,
948 rsync may use the same bf(--link-dest) file multiple times via several of
949 its paths.
950))
5f0f2e08
WD
951
952Note that rsync can only detect hard links between files that are inside
953the transfer set. If rsync updates a file that has extra hard-link
954connections to files outside the transfer, that linkage will be broken. If
955you are tempted to use the bf(--inplace) option to avoid this breakage, be
956very careful that you know how your files are being updated so that you are
957certain that no unintended changes happen due to lingering hard links (and
958see the bf(--inplace) option for more caveats).
41059f75 959
ba2d43d7 960If incremental recursion is active (see bf(--recursive)), rsync may transfer
5f0f2e08 961a missing hard-linked file before it finds that another link for that contents
968061bb
WD
962exists elsewhere in the hierarchy. This does not affect the accuracy of
963the transfer, just its efficiency. One way to avoid this is to disable
27999aba 964incremental recursion using the bf(--no-inc-recursive) option.
ba2d43d7 965
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966dit(bf(-p, --perms)) This option causes the receiving rsync to set the
967destination permissions to be the same as the source permissions. (See
968also the bf(--chmod) option for a way to modify what rsync considers to
969be the source permissions.)
8dc74608 970
2d5279ac
WD
971When this option is em(off), permissions are set as follows:
972
b8a6dae0 973quote(itemization(
2d5279ac
WD
974 it() Existing files (including updated files) retain their existing
975 permissions, though the bf(--executability) option might change just
976 the execute permission for the file.
77ed253c 977 it() New files get their "normal" permission bits set to the source
1c3344a1
WD
978 file's permissions masked with the receiving directory's default
979 permissions (either the receiving process's umask, or the permissions
980 specified via the destination directory's default ACL), and
77ed253c
WD
981 their special permission bits disabled except in the case where a new
982 directory inherits a setgid bit from its parent directory.
2d5279ac 983))
77ed253c 984
2d5279ac
WD
985Thus, when bf(--perms) and bf(--executability) are both disabled,
986rsync's behavior is the same as that of other file-copy utilities,
987such as bf(cp)(1) and bf(tar)(1).
988
77ed253c
WD
989In summary: to give destination files (both old and new) the source
990permissions, use bf(--perms). To give new files the destination-default
1f77038e 991permissions (while leaving existing files unchanged), make sure that the
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WD
992bf(--perms) option is off and use bf(--chmod=ugo=rwX) (which ensures that
993all non-masked bits get enabled). If you'd care to make this latter
994behavior easier to type, you could define a popt alias for it, such as
58b7b3d6 995putting this line in the file ~/.popt (the following defines the bf(-Z) option,
662127e6 996and includes --no-g to use the default group of the destination dir):
77ed253c 997
58b7b3d6 998quote(tt( rsync alias -Z --no-p --no-g --chmod=ugo=rwX))
77ed253c
WD
999
1000You could then use this new option in a command such as this one:
1001
58b7b3d6 1002quote(tt( rsync -avZ src/ dest/))
77ed253c 1003
58b7b3d6
WD
1004(Caveat: make sure that bf(-a) does not follow bf(-Z), or it will re-enable
1005the two "--no-*" options mentioned above.)
662127e6 1006
77ed253c
WD
1007The preservation of the destination's setgid bit on newly-created
1008directories when bf(--perms) is off was added in rsync 2.6.7. Older rsync
1009versions erroneously preserved the three special permission bits for
1010newly-created files when bf(--perms) was off, while overriding the
1c3344a1
WD
1011destination's setgid bit setting on a newly-created directory. Default ACL
1012observance was added to the ACL patch for rsync 2.6.7, so older (or
1013non-ACL-enabled) rsyncs use the umask even if default ACLs are present.
1014(Keep in mind that it is the version of the receiving rsync that affects
1015these behaviors.)
77ed253c 1016
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WD
1017dit(bf(-E, --executability)) This option causes rsync to preserve the
1018executability (or non-executability) of regular files when bf(--perms) is
1019not enabled. A regular file is considered to be executable if at least one
77ed253c
WD
1020'x' is turned on in its permissions. When an existing destination file's
1021executability differs from that of the corresponding source file, rsync
1022modifies the destination file's permissions as follows:
2d5279ac 1023
b8a6dae0 1024quote(itemization(
2d5279ac
WD
1025 it() To make a file non-executable, rsync turns off all its 'x'
1026 permissions.
1027 it() To make a file executable, rsync turns on each 'x' permission that
1028 has a corresponding 'r' permission enabled.
1029))
1030
1031If bf(--perms) is enabled, this option is ignored.
41059f75 1032
1c3344a1 1033dit(bf(-A, --acls)) This option causes rsync to update the destination
0f6b4909
WD
1034ACLs to be the same as the source ACLs.
1035The option also implies bf(--perms).
1036
1037The source and destination systems must have compatible ACL entries for this
1038option to work properly. See the bf(--fake-super) option for a way to backup
1039and restore ACLs that are not compatible.
1c3344a1 1040
5deb19e4
MM
1041dit(bf(-X, --xattrs)) This option causes rsync to update the destination
1042extended attributes to be the same as the source ones.
0f6b4909
WD
1043
1044For systems that support extended-attribute namespaces, a copy being done by a
1045super-user copies all namespaces except system.*. A normal user only copies
1046the user.* namespace. To be able to backup and restore non-user namespaces as
1047a normal user, see the bf(--fake-super) option.
16edf865 1048
0d78a278
WD
1049Note that this option does not copy rsyncs special xattr values (e.g. those
1050used by bf(--fake-super)) unless you repeat the option (e.g. -XX). This
1051"copy all xattrs" mode cannot be used with bf(--fake-super).
1052
9f822556
WD
1053dit(bf(--chmod)) This option tells rsync to apply one or more
1054comma-separated "chmod" strings to the permission of the files in the
6f098b0f 1055transfer. The resulting value is treated as though it were the permissions
9f822556
WD
1056that the sending side supplied for the file, which means that this option
1057can seem to have no effect on existing files if bf(--perms) is not enabled.
1058
1059In addition to the normal parsing rules specified in the bf(chmod)(1)
1060manpage, you can specify an item that should only apply to a directory by
1061prefixing it with a 'D', or specify an item that should only apply to a
1062file by prefixing it with a 'F'. For example:
1063
1064quote(--chmod=Dg+s,ug+w,Fo-w,+X)
1065
1066It is also legal to specify multiple bf(--chmod) options, as each
1067additional option is just appended to the list of changes to make.
1068
1069See the bf(--perms) and bf(--executability) options for how the resulting
1070permission value can be applied to the files in the transfer.
1071
eb06fa95 1072dit(bf(-o, --owner)) This option causes rsync to set the owner of the
8641d287
WD
1073destination file to be the same as the source file, but only if the
1074receiving rsync is being run as the super-user (see also the bf(--super)
9439c0cb 1075and bf(--fake-super) options).
0f6b4909
WD
1076Without this option, the owner of new and/or transferred files are set to
1077the invoking user on the receiving side.
8641d287
WD
1078
1079The preservation of ownership will associate matching names by default, but
1080may fall back to using the ID number in some circumstances (see also the
1081bf(--numeric-ids) option for a full discussion).
41059f75 1082
eb06fa95
MP
1083dit(bf(-g, --group)) This option causes rsync to set the group of the
1084destination file to be the same as the source file. If the receiving
8641d287
WD
1085program is not running as the super-user (or if bf(--no-super) was
1086specified), only groups that the invoking user on the receiving side
1087is a member of will be preserved.
1088Without this option, the group is set to the default group of the invoking
1089user on the receiving side.
1090
1091The preservation of group information will associate matching names by
1092default, but may fall back to using the ID number in some circumstances
1093(see also the bf(--numeric-ids) option for a full discussion).
41059f75 1094
4e7d07c8 1095dit(bf(--devices)) This option causes rsync to transfer character and
d38772e0
WD
1096block device files to the remote system to recreate these devices.
1097This option has no effect if the receiving rsync is not run as the
9439c0cb 1098super-user (see also the bf(--super) and bf(--fake-super) options).
41059f75 1099
4e7d07c8
WD
1100dit(bf(--specials)) This option causes rsync to transfer special files
1101such as named sockets and fifos.
1102
1103dit(bf(-D)) The bf(-D) option is equivalent to bf(--devices) bf(--specials).
1104
41059f75 1105dit(bf(-t, --times)) This tells rsync to transfer modification times along
baf3e504
DD
1106with the files and update them on the remote system. Note that if this
1107option is not used, the optimization that excludes files that have not been
faa82484
WD
1108modified cannot be effective; in other words, a missing bf(-t) or bf(-a) will
1109cause the next transfer to behave as if it used bf(-I), causing all files to be
adc4ebdd 1110updated (though rsync's delta-transfer algorithm will make the update fairly efficient
faa82484 1111if the files haven't actually changed, you're much better off using bf(-t)).
41059f75 1112
54e66f1d 1113dit(bf(-O, --omit-dir-times)) This tells rsync to omit directories when
faa82484
WD
1114it is preserving modification times (see bf(--times)). If NFS is sharing
1115the directories on the receiving side, it is a good idea to use bf(-O).
fbe5eeb8 1116This option is inferred if you use bf(--backup) without bf(--backup-dir).
54e66f1d 1117
2624e005
WD
1118dit(bf(-J, --omit-link-times)) This tells rsync to omit symlinks when
1119it is preserving modification times (see bf(--times)).
1120
d38772e0
WD
1121dit(bf(--super)) This tells the receiving side to attempt super-user
1122activities even if the receiving rsync wasn't run by the super-user. These
1123activities include: preserving users via the bf(--owner) option, preserving
1124all groups (not just the current user's groups) via the bf(--groups)
1125option, and copying devices via the bf(--devices) option. This is useful
1126for systems that allow such activities without being the super-user, and
1127also for ensuring that you will get errors if the receiving side isn't
0cdb547f 1128being run as the super-user. To turn off super-user activities, the
d38772e0
WD
1129super-user can use bf(--no-super).
1130
9439c0cb 1131dit(bf(--fake-super)) When this option is enabled, rsync simulates
0f6b4909
WD
1132super-user activities by saving/restoring the privileged attributes via
1133special extended attributes that are attached to each file (as needed). This
9439c0cb
WD
1134includes the file's owner and group (if it is not the default), the file's
1135device info (device & special files are created as empty text files), and
1136any permission bits that we won't allow to be set on the real file (e.g.
1137the real file gets u-s,g-s,o-t for safety) or that would limit the owner's
809724d7
WD
1138access (since the real super-user can always access/change a file, the
1139files we create can always be accessed/changed by the creating user).
0f6b4909
WD
1140This option also handles ACLs (if bf(--acls) was specified) and non-user
1141extended attributes (if bf(--xattrs) was specified).
1142
84e1a34e 1143This is a good way to backup data without using a super-user, and to store
0f6b4909 1144ACLs from incompatible systems.
9439c0cb
WD
1145
1146The bf(--fake-super) option only affects the side where the option is used.
7a2eca41
WD
1147To affect the remote side of a remote-shell connection, use the
1148bf(--remote-option) (bf(-M)) option:
9439c0cb 1149
7a2eca41 1150quote(tt( rsync -av -M--fake-super /src/ host:/dest/))
9439c0cb 1151
7a2eca41
WD
1152For a local copy, this option affects both the source and the destination.
1153If you wish a local copy to enable this option just for the destination
1154files, specify bf(-M--fake-super). If you wish a local copy to enable
1155this option just for the source files, combine bf(--fake-super) with
1156bf(-M--super).
9439c0cb
WD
1157
1158This option is overridden by both bf(--super) and bf(--no-super).
1159
1160See also the "fake super" setting in the daemon's rsyncd.conf file.
1161
41059f75 1162dit(bf(-S, --sparse)) Try to handle sparse files efficiently so they take
a8cbb57c
WD
1163up less space on the destination. Conflicts with bf(--inplace) because it's
1164not possible to overwrite data in a sparse fashion.
41059f75 1165
d310a212 1166NOTE: Don't use this option when the destination is a Solaris "tmpfs"
6f098b0f
WD
1167filesystem. It seems to have problems seeking over null regions,
1168and ends up corrupting the files.
d310a212 1169
d100e733
WD
1170dit(bf(-n, --dry-run)) This makes rsync perform a trial run that doesn't
1171make any changes (and produces mostly the same output as a real run). It
1172is most commonly used in combination with the bf(-v, --verbose) and/or
1173bf(-i, --itemize-changes) options to see what an rsync command is going
1174to do before one actually runs it.
1175
1176The output of bf(--itemize-changes) is supposed to be exactly the same on a
1177dry run and a subsequent real run (barring intentional trickery and system
6f098b0f
WD
1178call failures); if it isn't, that's a bug. Other output should be mostly
1179unchanged, but may differ in some areas. Notably, a dry run does not
d100e733
WD
1180send the actual data for file transfers, so bf(--progress) has no effect,
1181the "bytes sent", "bytes received", "literal data", and "matched data"
1182statistics are too small, and the "speedup" value is equivalent to a run
6f098b0f 1183where no file transfers were needed.
f2ebbebe 1184
adc4ebdd 1185dit(bf(-W, --whole-file)) With this option rsync's delta-transfer algorithm
f2ebbebe
WD
1186is not used and the whole file is sent as-is instead. The transfer may be
1187faster if this option is used when the bandwidth between the source and
1188destination machines is higher than the bandwidth to disk (especially when the
1189"disk" is actually a networked filesystem). This is the default when both
63070274
WD
1190the source and destination are specified as local paths, but only if no
1191batch-writing option is in effect.
f2ebbebe 1192
4e5baafe
WD
1193dit(bf(-x, --one-file-system)) This tells rsync to avoid crossing a
1194filesystem boundary when recursing. This does not limit the user's ability
1195to specify items to copy from multiple filesystems, just rsync's recursion
1196through the hierarchy of each directory that the user specified, and also
1197the analogous recursion on the receiving side during deletion. Also keep
1198in mind that rsync treats a "bind" mount to the same device as being on the
77ed253c 1199same filesystem.
4e5baafe
WD
1200
1201If this option is repeated, rsync omits all mount-point directories from
1202the copy. Otherwise, it includes an empty directory at each mount-point it
1203encounters (using the attributes of the mounted directory because those of
1204the underlying mount-point directory are inaccessible).
1205
1206If rsync has been told to collapse symlinks (via bf(--copy-links) or
1207bf(--copy-unsafe-links)), a symlink to a directory on another device is
49140b27
WD
1208treated like a mount-point. Symlinks to non-directories are unaffected
1209by this option.
6d8c6bdb 1210
9639c718 1211dit(bf(--existing, --ignore-non-existing)) This tells rsync to skip
58a06312
WD
1212creating files (including directories) that do not exist
1213yet on the destination. If this option is
9639c718 1214combined with the bf(--ignore-existing) option, no files will be updated
8e3b627d 1215(which can be useful if all you want to do is delete extraneous files).
9639c718 1216
fd2b6046
WD
1217This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't affect the
1218data that goes into the file-lists, and thus it doesn't affect deletions.
1219It just limits the files that the receiver requests to be transferred.
1220
58a06312
WD
1221dit(bf(--ignore-existing)) This tells rsync to skip updating files that
1222already exist on the destination (this does em(not) ignore existing
c5b6e57a 1223directories, or nothing would get done). See also bf(--existing).
1347d512 1224
fd2b6046
WD
1225This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't affect the
1226data that goes into the file-lists, and thus it doesn't affect deletions.
1227It just limits the files that the receiver requests to be transferred.
1228
8e3b627d
WD
1229This option can be useful for those doing backups using the bf(--link-dest)
1230option when they need to continue a backup run that got interrupted. Since
1231a bf(--link-dest) run is copied into a new directory hierarchy (when it is
1232used properly), using bf(--ignore existing) will ensure that the
1233already-handled files don't get tweaked (which avoids a change in
1234permissions on the hard-linked files). This does mean that this option
1235is only looking at the existing files in the destination hierarchy itself.
1236
47c11975 1237dit(bf(--remove-source-files)) This tells rsync to remove from the sending
fb41a3c6
WD
1238side the files (meaning non-directories) that are a part of the transfer
1239and have been successfully duplicated on the receiving side.
96110304 1240
2c0fa6c5 1241dit(bf(--delete)) This tells rsync to delete extraneous files from the
e8b155a3
WD
1242receiving side (ones that aren't on the sending side), but only for the
1243directories that are being synchronized. You must have asked rsync to
1244send the whole directory (e.g. "dir" or "dir/") without using a wildcard
1245for the directory's contents (e.g. "dir/*") since the wildcard is expanded
ae76a740 1246by the shell and rsync thus gets a request to transfer individual files, not
d252e47d 1247the files' parent directory. Files that are excluded from the transfer are
0dfffb88
WD
1248also excluded from being deleted unless you use the bf(--delete-excluded)
1249option or mark the rules as only matching on the sending side (see the
1250include/exclude modifiers in the FILTER RULES section).
41059f75 1251
505ada14 1252Prior to rsync 2.6.7, this option would have no effect unless bf(--recursive)
d9f46544
WD
1253was enabled. Beginning with 2.6.7, deletions will also occur when bf(--dirs)
1254(bf(-d)) is enabled, but only for directories whose contents are being copied.
24986abd 1255
32b9011a
WD
1256This option can be dangerous if used incorrectly! It is a very good idea to
1257first try a run using the bf(--dry-run) option (bf(-n)) to see what files are
1258going to be deleted.
41059f75 1259
e8b155a3 1260If the sending side detects any I/O errors, then the deletion of any
3e578a19
AT
1261files at the destination will be automatically disabled. This is to
1262prevent temporary filesystem failures (such as NFS errors) on the
6f098b0f 1263sending side from causing a massive deletion of files on the
faa82484 1264destination. You can override this with the bf(--ignore-errors) option.
41059f75 1265
faa82484
WD
1266The bf(--delete) option may be combined with one of the --delete-WHEN options
1267without conflict, as well as bf(--delete-excluded). However, if none of the
d9f46544 1268--delete-WHEN options are specified, rsync will choose the
d252e47d 1269bf(--delete-during) algorithm when talking to rsync 3.0.0 or newer, and
d9f46544
WD
1270the bf(--delete-before) algorithm when talking to an older rsync. See also
1271bf(--delete-delay) and bf(--delete-after).
2c0fa6c5
WD
1272
1273dit(bf(--delete-before)) Request that the file-deletions on the receiving
d9f46544 1274side be done before the transfer starts.
faa82484 1275See bf(--delete) (which is implied) for more details on file-deletion.
2c0fa6c5
WD
1276
1277Deleting before the transfer is helpful if the filesystem is tight for space
aaca3daa 1278and removing extraneous files would help to make the transfer possible.
ae76a740 1279However, it does introduce a delay before the start of the transfer,
faa82484 1280and this delay might cause the transfer to timeout (if bf(--timeout) was
d9f46544
WD
1281specified). It also forces rsync to use the old, non-incremental recursion
1282algorithm that requires rsync to scan all the files in the transfer into
1283memory at once (see bf(--recursive)).
ae76a740 1284
2c0fa6c5 1285dit(bf(--delete-during, --del)) Request that the file-deletions on the
d252e47d
WD
1286receiving side be done incrementally as the transfer happens. The
1287per-directory delete scan is done right before each directory is checked
1288for updates, so it behaves like a more efficient bf(--delete-before),
1289including doing the deletions prior to any per-directory filter files
1290being updated. This option was first added in rsync version 2.6.4.
faa82484 1291See bf(--delete) (which is implied) for more details on file-deletion.
aaca3daa 1292
fd0a130c 1293dit(bf(--delete-delay)) Request that the file-deletions on the receiving
d252e47d
WD
1294side be computed during the transfer (like bf(--delete-during)), and then
1295removed after the transfer completes. This is useful when combined with
1296bf(--delay-updates) and/or bf(--fuzzy), and is more efficient than using
1297bf(--delete-after) (but can behave differently, since bf(--delete-after)
1298computes the deletions in a separate pass after all updates are done).
1299If the number of removed files overflows an internal buffer, a
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1300temporary file will be created on the receiving side to hold the names (it
1301is removed while open, so you shouldn't see it during the transfer). If
1302the creation of the temporary file fails, rsync will try to fall back to
1303using bf(--delete-after) (which it cannot do if bf(--recursive) is doing an
1304incremental scan).
d252e47d 1305See bf(--delete) (which is implied) for more details on file-deletion.
fd0a130c 1306
2c0fa6c5 1307dit(bf(--delete-after)) Request that the file-deletions on the receiving
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1308side be done after the transfer has completed. This is useful if you
1309are sending new per-directory merge files as a part of the transfer and
1310you want their exclusions to take effect for the delete phase of the
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1311current transfer. It also forces rsync to use the old, non-incremental
1312recursion algorithm that requires rsync to scan all the files in the
1313transfer into memory at once (see bf(--recursive)).
faa82484 1314See bf(--delete) (which is implied) for more details on file-deletion.
e8b155a3 1315
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WD
1316dit(bf(--delete-excluded)) In addition to deleting the files on the
1317receiving side that are not on the sending side, this tells rsync to also
faa82484 1318delete any files on the receiving side that are excluded (see bf(--exclude)).
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WD
1319See the FILTER RULES section for a way to make individual exclusions behave
1320this way on the receiver, and for a way to protect files from
1321bf(--delete-excluded).
faa82484 1322See bf(--delete) (which is implied) for more details on file-deletion.
866925bf 1323
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WD
1324dit(bf(--ignore-missing-args)) When rsync is first processing the explicitly
1325requested source files (e.g. command-line arguments or bf(--files-from)
1326entries), it is normally an error if the file cannot be found. This option
1327suppresses that error, and does not try to transfer the file. This does not
1328affect subsequent vanished-file errors if a file was initially found to be
1329present and later is no longer there.
1330
1331dit(bf(--delete-missing-args)) This option takes the behavior of (the implied)
1332bf(--ignore-missing-args) option a step farther: each missing arg will become
1333a deletion request of the corresponding destination file on the receiving side
1334(should it exist). If the destination file is a non-empty directory, it will
1335only be successfully deleted if --force or --delete are in effect. Other than
1336that, this option is independent of any other type of delete processing.
1337
1338The missing source files are represented by special file-list entries which
1339display as a "*missing" entry in the bf(--list-only) output.
ce66f417 1340
faa82484 1341dit(bf(--ignore-errors)) Tells bf(--delete) to go ahead and delete files
b5accaba 1342even when there are I/O errors.
2c5548d2 1343
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1344dit(bf(--force)) This option tells rsync to delete a non-empty directory
1345when it is to be replaced by a non-directory. This is only relevant if
1346deletions are not active (see bf(--delete) for details).
1347
1348Note for older rsync versions: bf(--force) used to still be required when
1349using bf(--delete-after), and it used to be non-functional unless the
1350bf(--recursive) option was also enabled.
41059f75 1351
e2124620 1352dit(bf(--max-delete=NUM)) This tells rsync not to delete more than NUM
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1353files or directories. If that limit is exceeded, a warning is output
1354and rsync exits with an error code of 25 (new for 3.0.0).
1355
1356Also new for version 3.0.0, you may specify bf(--max-delete=0) to be warned
1357about any extraneous files in the destination without removing any of them.
1358Older clients interpreted this as "unlimited", so if you don't know what
1359version the client is, you can use the less obvious bf(--max-delete=-1) as
1360a backward-compatible way to specify that no deletions be allowed (though
1361older versions didn't warn when the limit was exceeded).
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1362
1363dit(bf(--max-size=SIZE)) This tells rsync to avoid transferring any
1364file that is larger than the specified SIZE. The SIZE value can be
926d86d1 1365suffixed with a string to indicate a size multiplier, and
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1366may be a fractional value (e.g. "bf(--max-size=1.5m)").
1367
fd2b6046
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1368This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't affect the
1369data that goes into the file-lists, and thus it doesn't affect deletions.
1370It just limits the files that the receiver requests to be transferred.
1371
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1372The suffixes are as follows: "K" (or "KiB") is a kibibyte (1024),
1373"M" (or "MiB") is a mebibyte (1024*1024), and "G" (or "GiB") is a
1374gibibyte (1024*1024*1024).
1375If you want the multiplier to be 1000 instead of 1024, use "KB",
1376"MB", or "GB". (Note: lower-case is also accepted for all values.)
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1377Finally, if the suffix ends in either "+1" or "-1", the value will
1378be offset by one byte in the indicated direction.
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1379
1380Examples: --max-size=1.5mb-1 is 1499999 bytes, and --max-size=2g+1 is
926d86d1
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13812147483649 bytes.
1382
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1383dit(bf(--min-size=SIZE)) This tells rsync to avoid transferring any
1384file that is smaller than the specified SIZE, which can help in not
1385transferring small, junk files.
fd2b6046 1386See the bf(--max-size) option for a description of SIZE and other information.
59dd6786 1387
3ed8eb3f 1388dit(bf(-B, --block-size=BLOCKSIZE)) This forces the block size used in
adc4ebdd 1389rsync's delta-transfer algorithm to a fixed value. It is normally selected based on
3ed8eb3f 1390the size of each file being updated. See the technical report for details.
41059f75 1391
b5679335 1392dit(bf(-e, --rsh=COMMAND)) This option allows you to choose an alternative
41059f75 1393remote shell program to use for communication between the local and
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1394remote copies of rsync. Typically, rsync is configured to use ssh by
1395default, but you may prefer to use rsh on a local network.
41059f75 1396
bef49340 1397If this option is used with bf([user@]host::module/path), then the
5a727522 1398remote shell em(COMMAND) will be used to run an rsync daemon on the
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1399remote host, and all data will be transmitted through that remote
1400shell connection, rather than through a direct socket connection to a
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1401running rsync daemon on the remote host. See the section "USING
1402RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION" above.
bef49340 1403
ea7f8108 1404Command-line arguments are permitted in COMMAND provided that COMMAND is
5d9530fe
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1405presented to rsync as a single argument. You must use spaces (not tabs
1406or other whitespace) to separate the command and args from each other,
1407and you can use single- and/or double-quotes to preserve spaces in an
1408argument (but not backslashes). Note that doubling a single-quote
1409inside a single-quoted string gives you a single-quote; likewise for
1410double-quotes (though you need to pay attention to which quotes your
1411shell is parsing and which quotes rsync is parsing). Some examples:
98393ae2 1412
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1413quote(
1414tt( -e 'ssh -p 2234')nl()
1415tt( -e 'ssh -o "ProxyCommand nohup ssh firewall nc -w1 %h %p"')nl()
1416)
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WD
1417
1418(Note that ssh users can alternately customize site-specific connect
1419options in their .ssh/config file.)
1420
41059f75 1421You can also choose the remote shell program using the RSYNC_RSH
faa82484 1422environment variable, which accepts the same range of values as bf(-e).
41059f75 1423
faa82484 1424See also the bf(--blocking-io) option which is affected by this option.
735a816e 1425
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1426dit(bf(--rsync-path=PROGRAM)) Use this to specify what program is to be run
1427on the remote machine to start-up rsync. Often used when rsync is not in
1428the default remote-shell's path (e.g. --rsync-path=/usr/local/bin/rsync).
1429Note that PROGRAM is run with the help of a shell, so it can be any
1430program, script, or command sequence you'd care to run, so long as it does
1431not corrupt the standard-in & standard-out that rsync is using to
1432communicate.
1433
1434One tricky example is to set a different default directory on the remote
1435machine for use with the bf(--relative) option. For instance:
1436
c5b6e57a 1437quote(tt( rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /a/b && rsync" host:c/d /e/))
41059f75 1438
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1439dit(bf(-M, --remote-option=OPTION)) This option is used for more advanced
1440situations where you want certain effects to be limited to one side of the
1441transfer only. For instance, if you want to pass bf(--log-file=FILE) and
1442bf(--fake-super) to the remote system, specify it like this:
1443
1444quote(tt( rsync -av -M --log-file=foo -M--fake-super src/ dest/))
1445
1446If you want to have an option affect only the local side of a transfer when
1447it normally affects both sides, send its negation to the remote side. Like
1448this:
1449
1450quote(tt( rsync -av -x -M--no-x src/ dest/))
1451
1452Be cautious using this, as it is possible to toggle an option that will cause
1453rsync to have a different idea about what data to expect next over the socket,
1454and that will make it fail in a cryptic fashion.
1455
1456Note that it is best to use a separate bf(--remote-option) for each option you
1457want to pass. This makes your useage compatible with the bf(--protect-args)
1458option. If that option is off, any spaces in your remote options will be split
1459by the remote shell unless you take steps to protect them.
1460
1461When performing a local transfer, the "local" side is the sender and the
1462"remote" side is the receiver.
1463
1464Note some versions of the popt option-parsing library have a bug in them that
1465prevents you from using an adjacent arg with an equal in it next to a short
1466option letter (e.g. tt(-M--log-file=/tmp/foo). If this bug affects your
1467version of popt, you can use the version of popt that is included with rsync.
1468
f177b7cc
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1469dit(bf(-C, --cvs-exclude)) This is a useful shorthand for excluding a
1470broad range of files that you often don't want to transfer between
c575f8ce 1471systems. It uses a similar algorithm to CVS to determine if
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1472a file should be ignored.
1473
c575f8ce
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1474The exclude list is initialized to exclude the following items (these
1475initial items are marked as perishable -- see the FILTER RULES section):
f177b7cc 1476
faa82484 1477quote(quote(tt(RCS SCCS CVS CVS.adm RCSLOG cvslog.* tags TAGS .make.state
9520ce4b
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1478.nse_depinfo *~ #* .#* ,* _$* *$ *.old *.bak *.BAK *.orig *.rej .del-*
1479*.a *.olb *.o *.obj *.so *.exe *.Z *.elc *.ln core .svn/ .git/ .bzr/)))
f177b7cc 1480
c575f8ce 1481then, files listed in a $HOME/.cvsignore are added to the list and any
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1482files listed in the CVSIGNORE environment variable (all cvsignore names
1483are delimited by whitespace).
1484
f177b7cc 1485Finally, any file is ignored if it is in the same directory as a
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1486.cvsignore file and matches one of the patterns listed therein. Unlike
1487rsync's filter/exclude files, these patterns are split on whitespace.
49f4cfdf 1488See the bf(cvs)(1) manual for more information.
f177b7cc 1489
bafa4875
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1490If you're combining bf(-C) with your own bf(--filter) rules, you should
1491note that these CVS excludes are appended at the end of your own rules,
3753975f 1492regardless of where the bf(-C) was placed on the command-line. This makes them
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1493a lower priority than any rules you specified explicitly. If you want to
1494control where these CVS excludes get inserted into your filter rules, you
1495should omit the bf(-C) as a command-line option and use a combination of
1496bf(--filter=:C) and bf(--filter=-C) (either on your command-line or by
1497putting the ":C" and "-C" rules into a filter file with your other rules).
1498The first option turns on the per-directory scanning for the .cvsignore
1499file. The second option does a one-time import of the CVS excludes
1500mentioned above.
1501
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1502dit(bf(-f, --filter=RULE)) This option allows you to add rules to selectively
1503exclude certain files from the list of files to be transferred. This is
1504most useful in combination with a recursive transfer.
41059f75 1505
faa82484 1506You may use as many bf(--filter) options on the command line as you like
5f0f2e08
WD
1507to build up the list of files to exclude. If the filter contains whitespace,
1508be sure to quote it so that the shell gives the rule to rsync as a single
1509argument. The text below also mentions that you can use an underscore to
1510replace the space that separates a rule from its arg.
41059f75 1511
16e5de84
WD
1512See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this option.
1513
faa82484 1514dit(bf(-F)) The bf(-F) option is a shorthand for adding two bf(--filter) rules to
16e5de84
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1515your command. The first time it is used is a shorthand for this rule:
1516
78be8e0f 1517quote(tt( --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'))
16e5de84
WD
1518
1519This tells rsync to look for per-directory .rsync-filter files that have
1520been sprinkled through the hierarchy and use their rules to filter the
faa82484 1521files in the transfer. If bf(-F) is repeated, it is a shorthand for this
16e5de84
WD
1522rule:
1523
78be8e0f 1524quote(tt( --filter='exclude .rsync-filter'))
16e5de84
WD
1525
1526This filters out the .rsync-filter files themselves from the transfer.
1527
1528See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on how these options
1529work.
1530
1531dit(bf(--exclude=PATTERN)) This option is a simplified form of the
faa82484 1532bf(--filter) option that defaults to an exclude rule and does not allow
16e5de84
WD
1533the full rule-parsing syntax of normal filter rules.
1534
1535See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this option.
41059f75 1536
78be8e0f
WD
1537dit(bf(--exclude-from=FILE)) This option is related to the bf(--exclude)
1538option, but it specifies a FILE that contains exclude patterns (one per line).
1539Blank lines in the file and lines starting with ';' or '#' are ignored.
1540If em(FILE) is bf(-), the list will be read from standard input.
f8a94f0d 1541
16e5de84 1542dit(bf(--include=PATTERN)) This option is a simplified form of the
faa82484 1543bf(--filter) option that defaults to an include rule and does not allow
16e5de84 1544the full rule-parsing syntax of normal filter rules.
43bd68e5 1545
16e5de84 1546See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this option.
43bd68e5 1547
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WD
1548dit(bf(--include-from=FILE)) This option is related to the bf(--include)
1549option, but it specifies a FILE that contains include patterns (one per line).
1550Blank lines in the file and lines starting with ';' or '#' are ignored.
1551If em(FILE) is bf(-), the list will be read from standard input.
f8a94f0d 1552
f177b7cc 1553dit(bf(--files-from=FILE)) Using this option allows you to specify the
78be8e0f 1554exact list of files to transfer (as read from the specified FILE or bf(-)
c769702f 1555for standard input). It also tweaks the default behavior of rsync to make
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1556transferring just the specified files and directories easier:
1557
b8a6dae0 1558quote(itemization(
faa82484
WD
1559 it() The bf(--relative) (bf(-R)) option is implied, which preserves the path
1560 information that is specified for each item in the file (use
f40aa6fb 1561 bf(--no-relative) or bf(--no-R) if you want to turn that off).
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WD
1562 it() The bf(--dirs) (bf(-d)) option is implied, which will create directories
1563 specified in the list on the destination rather than noisily skipping
f40aa6fb 1564 them (use bf(--no-dirs) or bf(--no-d) if you want to turn that off).
faa82484
WD
1565 it() The bf(--archive) (bf(-a)) option's behavior does not imply bf(--recursive)
1566 (bf(-r)), so specify it explicitly, if you want it.
f40aa6fb
WD
1567 it() These side-effects change the default state of rsync, so the position
1568 of the bf(--files-from) option on the command-line has no bearing on how
1569 other options are parsed (e.g. bf(-a) works the same before or after
1570 bf(--files-from), as does bf(--no-R) and all other options).
faa82484 1571))
f177b7cc 1572
809724d7 1573The filenames that are read from the FILE are all relative to the
f177b7cc
WD
1574source dir -- any leading slashes are removed and no ".." references are
1575allowed to go higher than the source dir. For example, take this
1576command:
1577
faa82484 1578quote(tt( rsync -a --files-from=/tmp/foo /usr remote:/backup))
f177b7cc
WD
1579
1580If /tmp/foo contains the string "bin" (or even "/bin"), the /usr/bin
51cc96e4
WD
1581directory will be created as /backup/bin on the remote host. If it
1582contains "bin/" (note the trailing slash), the immediate contents of
1583the directory would also be sent (without needing to be explicitly
1584mentioned in the file -- this began in version 2.6.4). In both cases,
1585if the bf(-r) option was enabled, that dir's entire hierarchy would
1586also be transferred (keep in mind that bf(-r) needs to be specified
1587explicitly with bf(--files-from), since it is not implied by bf(-a)).
1588Also note
faa82484 1589that the effect of the (enabled by default) bf(--relative) option is to
f177b7cc
WD
1590duplicate only the path info that is read from the file -- it does not
1591force the duplication of the source-spec path (/usr in this case).
1592
faa82484 1593In addition, the bf(--files-from) file can be read from the remote host
f177b7cc
WD
1594instead of the local host if you specify a "host:" in front of the file
1595(the host must match one end of the transfer). As a short-cut, you can
1596specify just a prefix of ":" to mean "use the remote end of the
1597transfer". For example:
1598
faa82484 1599quote(tt( rsync -a --files-from=:/path/file-list src:/ /tmp/copy))
f177b7cc
WD
1600
1601This would copy all the files specified in the /path/file-list file that
1602was located on the remote "src" host.
1603
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WD
1604If the bf(--iconv) and bf(--protect-args) options are specified and the
1605bf(--files-from) filenames are being sent from one host to another, the
1606filenames will be translated from the sending host's charset to the
1607receiving host's charset.
1608
fa92818a 1609dit(bf(-0, --from0)) This tells rsync that the rules/filenames it reads from a
f177b7cc 1610file are terminated by a null ('\0') character, not a NL, CR, or CR+LF.
faa82484
WD
1611This affects bf(--exclude-from), bf(--include-from), bf(--files-from), and any
1612merged files specified in a bf(--filter) rule.
1613It does not affect bf(--cvs-exclude) (since all names read from a .cvsignore
f01b6368 1614file are split on whitespace).
41059f75 1615
0dd2310c 1616dit(bf(-s, --protect-args)) This option sends all filenames and most options to
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WD
1617the remote rsync without allowing the remote shell to interpret them. This
1618means that spaces are not split in names, and any non-wildcard special
1619characters are not translated (such as ~, $, ;, &, etc.). Wildcards are
1620expanded on the remote host by rsync (instead of the shell doing it).
1621
0dd2310c
WD
1622If you use this option with bf(--iconv), the args related to the remote
1623side will also be translated
0b52f94d 1624from the local to the remote character-set. The translation happens before
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WD
1625wild-cards are expanded. See also the bf(--files-from) option.
1626
2b2a4738
WD
1627You may also control this option via the RSYNC_PROTECT_ARGS environment
1628variable. If this variable has a non-zero value, this option will be enabled
1629by default, otherwise it will be disabled by default. Either state is
1630overridden by a manually specified positive or negative version of this option
1631(note that bf(--no-s) and bf(--no-protect-args) are the negative versions).
1632Since this option was first introduced in 3.0.0, you'll need to make sure it's
1633disabled if you ever need to interact with a remote rsync that is older than
1634that.
1635
1636Rsync can also be configured (at build time) to have this option enabled by
1637default (with is overridden by both the environment and the command-line).
1638This option will eventually become a new default setting at some
1639as-yet-undetermined point in the future.
1640
b5679335 1641dit(bf(-T, --temp-dir=DIR)) This option instructs rsync to use DIR as a
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1642scratch directory when creating temporary copies of the files transferred
1643on the receiving side. The default behavior is to create each temporary
1644file in the same directory as the associated destination file.
41059f75 1645
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WD
1646This option is most often used when the receiving disk partition does not
1647have enough free space to hold a copy of the largest file in the transfer.
d770837e 1648In this case (i.e. when the scratch directory is on a different disk
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WD
1649partition), rsync will not be able to rename each received temporary file
1650over the top of the associated destination file, but instead must copy it
1651into place. Rsync does this by copying the file over the top of the
1652destination file, which means that the destination file will contain
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WD
1653truncated data during this copy. If this were not done this way (even if
1654the destination file were first removed, the data locally copied to a
1655temporary file in the destination directory, and then renamed into place)
1656it would be possible for the old file to continue taking up disk space (if
1657someone had it open), and thus there might not be enough room to fit the
1658new version on the disk at the same time.
9ec1ef25
WD
1659
1660If you are using this option for reasons other than a shortage of disk
1661space, you may wish to combine it with the bf(--delay-updates) option,
a0d9819f
WD
1662which will ensure that all copied files get put into subdirectories in the
1663destination hierarchy, awaiting the end of the transfer. If you don't
1664have enough room to duplicate all the arriving files on the destination
1665partition, another way to tell rsync that you aren't overly concerned
1666about disk space is to use the bf(--partial-dir) option with a relative
1667path; because this tells rsync that it is OK to stash off a copy of a
1668single file in a subdir in the destination hierarchy, rsync will use the
1669partial-dir as a staging area to bring over the copied file, and then
1670rename it into place from there. (Specifying a bf(--partial-dir) with
1671an absolute path does not have this side-effect.)
9ec1ef25 1672
5b483755
WD
1673dit(bf(-y, --fuzzy)) This option tells rsync that it should look for a
1674basis file for any destination file that is missing. The current algorithm
1675looks in the same directory as the destination file for either a file that
1676has an identical size and modified-time, or a similarly-named file. If
1677found, rsync uses the fuzzy basis file to try to speed up the transfer.
1678
1679Note that the use of the bf(--delete) option might get rid of any potential
1680fuzzy-match files, so either use bf(--delete-after) or specify some
1681filename exclusions if you need to prevent this.
1682
b127c1dc 1683dit(bf(--compare-dest=DIR)) This option instructs rsync to use em(DIR) on
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WD
1684the destination machine as an additional hierarchy to compare destination
1685files against doing transfers (if the files are missing in the destination
1686directory). If a file is found in em(DIR) that is identical to the
1687sender's file, the file will NOT be transferred to the destination
1688directory. This is useful for creating a sparse backup of just files that
1689have changed from an earlier backup.
1690
faa82484 1691Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple bf(--compare-dest) directories may be
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WD
1692provided, which will cause rsync to search the list in the order specified
1693for an exact match.
2f03ce67
WD
1694If a match is found that differs only in attributes, a local copy is made
1695and the attributes updated.
99eb41b2
WD
1696If a match is not found, a basis file from one of the em(DIR)s will be
1697selected to try to speed up the transfer.
e49f61f5
WD
1698
1699If em(DIR) is a relative path, it is relative to the destination directory.
2f03ce67 1700See also bf(--copy-dest) and bf(--link-dest).
b127c1dc 1701
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1702dit(bf(--copy-dest=DIR)) This option behaves like bf(--compare-dest), but
1703rsync will also copy unchanged files found in em(DIR) to the destination
1704directory using a local copy.
1705This is useful for doing transfers to a new destination while leaving
1706existing files intact, and then doing a flash-cutover when all files have
1707been successfully transferred.
1708
1709Multiple bf(--copy-dest) directories may be provided, which will cause
1710rsync to search the list in the order specified for an unchanged file.
1711If a match is not found, a basis file from one of the em(DIR)s will be
1712selected to try to speed up the transfer.
1713
1714If em(DIR) is a relative path, it is relative to the destination directory.
1715See also bf(--compare-dest) and bf(--link-dest).
1716
1717dit(bf(--link-dest=DIR)) This option behaves like bf(--copy-dest), but
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1718unchanged files are hard linked from em(DIR) to the destination directory.
1719The files must be identical in all preserved attributes (e.g. permissions,
1720possibly ownership) in order for the files to be linked together.
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1721An example:
1722
faa82484 1723quote(tt( rsync -av --link-dest=$PWD/prior_dir host:src_dir/ new_dir/))
59c95e42 1724
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WD
1725If file's aren't linking, double-check their attributes. Also check if some
1726attributes are getting forced outside of rsync's control, such a mount option
1727that squishes root to a single user, or mounts a removable drive with generic
1728ownership (such as OS X's "Ignore ownership on this volume" option).
1729
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1730Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple bf(--link-dest) directories may be
1731provided, which will cause rsync to search the list in the order specified
1732for an exact match.
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WD
1733If a match is found that differs only in attributes, a local copy is made
1734and the attributes updated.
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WD
1735If a match is not found, a basis file from one of the em(DIR)s will be
1736selected to try to speed up the transfer.
e49f61f5 1737
33689f48
WD
1738This option works best when copying into an empty destination hierarchy, as
1739rsync treats existing files as definitive (so it never looks in the link-dest
1740dirs when a destination file already exists), and as malleable (so it might
1741change the attributes of a destination file, which affects all the hard-linked
1742versions).
1743
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1744Note that if you combine this option with bf(--ignore-times), rsync will not
1745link any files together because it only links identical files together as a
1746substitute for transferring the file, never as an additional check after the
1747file is updated.
1748
e49f61f5 1749If em(DIR) is a relative path, it is relative to the destination directory.
2f03ce67 1750See also bf(--compare-dest) and bf(--copy-dest).
b127c1dc 1751
e0204f56 1752Note that rsync versions prior to 2.6.1 had a bug that could prevent
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1753bf(--link-dest) from working properly for a non-super-user when bf(-o) was
1754specified (or implied by bf(-a)). You can work-around this bug by avoiding
1755the bf(-o) option when sending to an old rsync.
e0204f56 1756
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1757dit(bf(-z, --compress)) With this option, rsync compresses the file data
1758as it is sent to the destination machine, which reduces the amount of data
1759being transmitted -- something that is useful over a slow connection.
41059f75 1760
02184920 1761Note that this option typically achieves better compression ratios than can
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1762be achieved by using a compressing remote shell or a compressing transport
1763because it takes advantage of the implicit information in the matching data
1764blocks that are not explicitly sent over the connection.
41059f75 1765
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1766See the bf(--skip-compress) option for the default list of file suffixes
1767that will not be compressed.
1768
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1769dit(bf(--compress-level=NUM)) Explicitly set the compression level to use
1770(see bf(--compress)) instead of letting it default. If NUM is non-zero,
1771the bf(--compress) option is implied.
1772
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1773dit(bf(--skip-compress=LIST)) Override the list of file suffixes that will
1774not be compressed. The bf(LIST) should be one or more file suffixes
1775(without the dot) separated by slashes (/).
1776
1777You may specify an empty string to indicate that no file should be skipped.
1778
1779Simple character-class matching is supported: each must consist of a list
1780of letters inside the square brackets (e.g. no special classes, such as
4b660bae 1781"[:alpha:]", are supported, and '-' has no special meaning).
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1782
1783The characters asterisk (*) and question-mark (?) have no special meaning.
1784
1785Here's an example that specifies 6 suffixes to skip (since 1 of the 5 rules
1786matches 2 suffixes):
1787
1788verb( --skip-compress=gz/jpg/mp[34]/7z/bz2)
1789
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1790The default list of suffixes that will not be compressed is this (in this
1791version of rsync):
1792
1793bf(7z)
1794bf(ace)
1795bf(avi)
1796bf(bz2)
1797bf(deb)
1798bf(gpg)
1799bf(gz)
1800bf(iso)
1801bf(jpeg)
1802bf(jpg)
aff48500 1803bf(lz)
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1804bf(lzma)
1805bf(lzo)
1806bf(mov)
1807bf(mp3)
1808bf(mp4)
1809bf(ogg)
aff48500 1810bf(png)
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1811bf(rar)
1812bf(rpm)
1813bf(rzip)
1814bf(tbz)
1815bf(tgz)
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WD
1816bf(tlz)
1817bf(txz)
1818bf(xz)
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WD
1819bf(z)
1820bf(zip)
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1821
1822This list will be replaced by your bf(--skip-compress) list in all but one
1823situation: a copy from a daemon rsync will add your skipped suffixes to
1824its list of non-compressing files (and its list may be configured to a
1825different default).
1826
41059f75 1827dit(bf(--numeric-ids)) With this option rsync will transfer numeric group
4d888108 1828and user IDs rather than using user and group names and mapping them
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AT
1829at both ends.
1830
4d888108 1831By default rsync will use the username and groupname to determine
41059f75 1832what ownership to give files. The special uid 0 and the special group
faa82484 18330 are never mapped via user/group names even if the bf(--numeric-ids)
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AT
1834option is not specified.
1835
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WD
1836If a user or group has no name on the source system or it has no match
1837on the destination system, then the numeric ID
1838from the source system is used instead. See also the comments on the
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1839"use chroot" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage for information on how
1840the chroot setting affects rsync's ability to look up the names of the
1841users and groups and what you can do about it.
41059f75 1842
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1843dit(bf(--usermap=STRING, --groupmap=STRING)) These options allow you to
1844specify users and groups that should be mapped to other values by the
1845receiving side. The bf(STRING) is one or more bf(FROM):bf(TO) pairs of
1846values separated by commas. Any matching bf(FROM) value from the sender is
1847replaced with a bf(TO) value from the receiver. You may specify usernames
1848or user IDs for the bf(FROM) and bf(TO) values, and the bf(FROM) value may
1849also be a wild-card string, which will be matched against the sender's
1850names (wild-cards do NOT match against ID numbers, though see below for
1851why a '*' matches everything). You may instead specify a range of ID
1852numbers via an inclusive range: LOW-HIGH. For example:
1853
1854verb( --usermap=0-99:nobody,wayne:admin,*:normal --groupmap=usr:1,1:usr)
1855
1856The first match in the list is the one that is used. You should specify
1857all your user mappings using a single bf(--usermap) option, and/or all
1858your group mappings using a single bf(--groupmap) option.
1859
1860Note that the sender's name for the 0 user and group are not transmitted
1861to the receiver, so you should either match these values using a 0, or use
1862the names in effect on the receiving side (typically "root"). All other
1863bf(FROM) names match those in use on the sending side. All bf(TO) names
1864match those in use on the receiving side.
1865
1866Any IDs that do not have a name on the sending side are treated as having an
1867empty name for the purpose of matching. This allows them to be matched via
1868a "*" or using an empty name. For instance:
1869
1870verb( --usermap=:nobody --groupmap=*:nobody)
1871
1872When the bf(--numeric-ids) option is used, the sender does not send any
1873names, so all the IDs are treated as having an empty name. This means that
1874you will need to specify numeric bf(FROM) values if you want to map these
1875nameless IDs to different values.
1876
1877For the bf(--usermap) option to have any effect, the bf(-o) (bf(--owner))
1878option must be used (or implied), and the receiver will need to be running
1879as a super-user (see also the bf(--fake-super) option). For the bf(--groupmap)
1880option to have any effect, the bf(-g) (bf(--groups)) option must be used
1881(or implied), and the receiver will need to have permissions to set that
1882group.
1883
1884dit(bf(--chown=USER:GROUP)) This option forces all files to be owned by USER
1885with group GROUP. This is a simpler interface than using bf(--usermap) and
1886bf(--groupmap) directly, but it is implemented using those options internally,
1887so you cannot mix them. If either the USER or GROUP is empty, no mapping for
1888the omitted user/group will occur. If GROUP is empty, the trailing colon may
1889be omitted, but if USER is empty, a leading colon must be supplied.
1890
1891If you specify "--chown=foo:bar, this is exactly the same as specifying
1892"--usermap=*:foo --groupmap=*:bar", only easier.
1893
b5accaba 1894dit(bf(--timeout=TIMEOUT)) This option allows you to set a maximum I/O
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AT
1895timeout in seconds. If no data is transferred for the specified time
1896then rsync will exit. The default is 0, which means no timeout.
41059f75 1897
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1898dit(bf(--contimeout)) This option allows you to set the amount of time
1899that rsync will wait for its connection to an rsync daemon to succeed.
1900If the timeout is reached, rsync exits with an error.
1901
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1902dit(bf(--address)) By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when
1903connecting to an rsync daemon. The bf(--address) option allows you to
1904specify a specific IP address (or hostname) to bind to. See also this
1905option in the bf(--daemon) mode section.
1906
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1907dit(bf(--port=PORT)) This specifies an alternate TCP port number to use
1908rather than the default of 873. This is only needed if you are using the
1909double-colon (::) syntax to connect with an rsync daemon (since the URL
1910syntax has a way to specify the port as a part of the URL). See also this
faa82484 1911option in the bf(--daemon) mode section.
c259892c 1912
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1913dit(bf(--sockopts)) This option can provide endless fun for people
1914who like to tune their systems to the utmost degree. You can set all
1915sorts of socket options which may make transfers faster (or
49f4cfdf 1916slower!). Read the man page for the code(setsockopt()) system call for
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1917details on some of the options you may be able to set. By default no
1918special socket options are set. This only affects direct socket
1919connections to a remote rsync daemon. This option also exists in the
1920bf(--daemon) mode section.
1921
b5accaba 1922dit(bf(--blocking-io)) This tells rsync to use blocking I/O when launching
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WD
1923a remote shell transport. If the remote shell is either rsh or remsh,
1924rsync defaults to using
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WD
1925blocking I/O, otherwise it defaults to using non-blocking I/O. (Note that
1926ssh prefers non-blocking I/O.)
64c704f0 1927
0cfdf226 1928dit(bf(-i, --itemize-changes)) Requests a simple itemized list of the
4f90eb43 1929changes that are being made to each file, including attribute changes.
4b90820d 1930This is exactly the same as specifying bf(--out-format='%i %n%L').
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1931If you repeat the option, unchanged files will also be output, but only
1932if the receiving rsync is at least version 2.6.7 (you can use bf(-vv)
1933with older versions of rsync, but that also turns on the output of other
1934verbose messages).
ea67c715 1935
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WD
1936The "%i" escape has a cryptic output that is 11 letters long. The general
1937format is like the string bf(YXcstpoguax), where bf(Y) is replaced by the
4f417448 1938type of update being done, bf(X) is replaced by the file-type, and the
a314f7c1 1939other letters represent attributes that may be output if they are being
ee171c6d 1940modified.
ea67c715 1941
2d5279ac 1942The update types that replace the bf(Y) are as follows:
ea67c715 1943
b8a6dae0 1944quote(itemization(
cc3e0770 1945 it() A bf(<) means that a file is being transferred to the remote host
a314f7c1 1946 (sent).
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WD
1947 it() A bf(>) means that a file is being transferred to the local host
1948 (received).
c48cff9f 1949 it() A bf(c) means that a local change/creation is occurring for the item
ee171c6d 1950 (such as the creation of a directory or the changing of a symlink, etc.).
02184920 1951 it() A bf(h) means that the item is a hard link to another item (requires
b4875de4 1952 bf(--hard-links)).
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WD
1953 it() A bf(.) means that the item is not being updated (though it might
1954 have attributes that are being modified).
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WD
1955 it() A bf(*) means that the rest of the itemized-output area contains
1956 a message (e.g. "deleting").
a314f7c1 1957))
ea67c715 1958
a314f7c1 1959The file-types that replace the bf(X) are: bf(f) for a file, a bf(d) for a
4e7d07c8
WD
1960directory, an bf(L) for a symlink, a bf(D) for a device, and a bf(S) for a
1961special file (e.g. named sockets and fifos).
ea67c715 1962
a314f7c1 1963The other letters in the string above are the actual letters that
ea67c715
WD
1964will be output if the associated attribute for the item is being updated or
1965a "." for no change. Three exceptions to this are: (1) a newly created
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WD
1966item replaces each letter with a "+", (2) an identical item replaces the
1967dots with spaces, and (3) an unknown attribute replaces each letter with
81c453b1 1968a "?" (this can happen when talking to an older rsync).
ea67c715
WD
1969
1970The attribute that is associated with each letter is as follows:
1971
b8a6dae0 1972quote(itemization(
1ed9018e
WD
1973 it() A bf(c) means either that a regular file has a different checksum
1974 (requires bf(--checksum)) or that a symlink, device, or special file has
1975 a changed value.
600b56b3 1976 Note that if you are sending files to an rsync prior to 3.0.1, this
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WD
1977 change flag will be present only for checksum-differing regular files.
1978 it() A bf(s) means the size of a regular file is different and will be updated
ea67c715
WD
1979 by the file transfer.
1980 it() A bf(t) means the modification time is different and is being updated
5a727522 1981 to the sender's value (requires bf(--times)). An alternate value of bf(T)
42b06481 1982 means that the modification time will be set to the transfer time, which happens
1ed56a05
WD
1983 when a file/symlink/device is updated without bf(--times) and when a
1984 symlink is changed and the receiver can't set its time.
1ed9018e
WD
1985 (Note: when using an rsync 3.0.0 client, you might see the bf(s) flag combined
1986 with bf(t) instead of the proper bf(T) flag for this time-setting failure.)
ea67c715 1987 it() A bf(p) means the permissions are different and are being updated to
5a727522 1988 the sender's value (requires bf(--perms)).
4dc67d5e 1989 it() An bf(o) means the owner is different and is being updated to the
d38772e0 1990 sender's value (requires bf(--owner) and super-user privileges).
4dc67d5e 1991 it() A bf(g) means the group is different and is being updated to the
5a727522 1992 sender's value (requires bf(--group) and the authority to set the group).
7869953b 1993 it() The bf(u) slot is reserved for future use.
1c3344a1 1994 it() The bf(a) means that the ACL information changed.
7869953b 1995 it() The bf(x) means that the extended attribute information changed.
ea67c715
WD
1996))
1997
1998One other output is possible: when deleting files, the "%i" will output
ee171c6d 1999the string "*deleting" for each item that is being removed (assuming that
ea67c715
WD
2000you are talking to a recent enough rsync that it logs deletions instead of
2001outputting them as a verbose message).
dc0f2497 2002
4b90820d 2003dit(bf(--out-format=FORMAT)) This allows you to specify exactly what the
951e826b
WD
2004rsync client outputs to the user on a per-update basis. The format is a
2005text string containing embedded single-character escape sequences prefixed
2006with a percent (%) character. A default format of "%n%L" is assumed if
2007either bf(--info=name) or bf(-v) is specified (this tells you just the name
2008of the file and, if the item is a link, where it points). For a full list
2009of the possible escape characters, see the "log format" setting in the
2010rsyncd.conf manpage.
2011
2012Specifying the bf(--out-format) option implies the bf(--info=name) option,
2013which will mention each file, dir, etc. that gets updated in a significant
2014way (a transferred file, a recreated symlink/device, or a touched
2015directory). In addition, if the itemize-changes escape (%i) is included in
2016the string (e.g. if the bf(--itemize-changes) option was used), the logging
2017of names increases to mention any item that is changed in any way (as long
2018as the receiving side is at least 2.6.4). See the bf(--itemize-changes)
2019option for a description of the output of "%i".
ea67c715 2020
4b90820d 2021Rsync will output the out-format string prior to a file's transfer unless
ea67c715
WD
2022one of the transfer-statistic escapes is requested, in which case the
2023logging is done at the end of the file's transfer. When this late logging
2024is in effect and bf(--progress) is also specified, rsync will also output
2025the name of the file being transferred prior to its progress information
4b90820d
WD
2026(followed, of course, by the out-format output).
2027
2028dit(bf(--log-file=FILE)) This option causes rsync to log what it is doing
2029to a file. This is similar to the logging that a daemon does, but can be
2030requested for the client side and/or the server side of a non-daemon
2031transfer. If specified as a client option, transfer logging will be
2032enabled with a default format of "%i %n%L". See the bf(--log-file-format)
2033option if you wish to override this.
2034
2035Here's a example command that requests the remote side to log what is
2036happening:
2037
7a2eca41 2038verb( rsync -av --remote-option=--log-file=/tmp/rlog src/ dest/)
4b90820d
WD
2039
2040This is very useful if you need to debug why a connection is closing
2041unexpectedly.
2042
2043dit(bf(--log-file-format=FORMAT)) This allows you to specify exactly what
2044per-update logging is put into the file specified by the bf(--log-file) option
2045(which must also be specified for this option to have any effect). If you
2046specify an empty string, updated files will not be mentioned in the log file.
2047For a list of the possible escape characters, see the "log format" setting
2048in the rsyncd.conf manpage.
b6062654 2049
e129500c
WD
2050The default FORMAT used if bf(--log-file) is specified and this option is not
2051is '%i %n%L'.
2052
b72f24c7 2053dit(bf(--stats)) This tells rsync to print a verbose set of statistics
adc4ebdd 2054on the file transfer, allowing you to tell how effective rsync's delta-transfer
951e826b
WD
2055algorithm is for your data. This option is equivalent to bf(--info=stats2)
2056if combined with 0 or 1 bf(-v) options, or bf(--info=stats3) if combined
2057with 2 or more bf(-v) options.
b72f24c7 2058
b8a6dae0 2059The current statistics are as follows: quote(itemization(
7b13ff97 2060 it() bf(Number of files) is the count of all "files" (in the generic
b320b7d6
WD
2061 sense), which includes directories, symlinks, etc. The total count will
2062 be followed by a list of counts by filetype (if the total is non-zero).
2063 For example: "(reg: 5, dir: 3, link: 2, dev: 1, special: 1)" lists the
2064 totals for regular files, directories, symlinks, devices, and special
2065 files. If any of value is 0, it is completely omitted from the list.
2066 it() bf(Number of created files) is the count of how many "files" (generic
2067 sense) were created (as opposed to updated). The total count will be
2068 followed by a list of counts by filetype (if the total is non-zero).
2069 it() bf(Number of deleted files) is the count of how many "files" (generic
2070 sense) were created (as opposed to updated). The total count will be
2071 followed by a list of counts by filetype (if the total is non-zero).
2072 Note that this line is only output if deletions are in effect, and only
2073 if protocol 31 is being used (the default for rsync 3.1.x).
2074 it() bf(Number of regular files transferred) is the count of normal files
2075 that were updated via rsync's delta-transfer algorithm, which does not
2076 include dirs, symlinks, etc. Note that rsync 3.1.0 added the word
2077 "regular" into this heading.
7b13ff97
WD
2078 it() bf(Total file size) is the total sum of all file sizes in the transfer.
2079 This does not count any size for directories or special files, but does
2080 include the size of symlinks.
2081 it() bf(Total transferred file size) is the total sum of all files sizes
2082 for just the transferred files.
2083 it() bf(Literal data) is how much unmatched file-update data we had to
2084 send to the receiver for it to recreate the updated files.
2085 it() bf(Matched data) is how much data the receiver got locally when
2086 recreating the updated files.
2087 it() bf(File list size) is how big the file-list data was when the sender
2088 sent it to the receiver. This is smaller than the in-memory size for the
2089 file list due to some compressing of duplicated data when rsync sends the
2090 list.
2091 it() bf(File list generation time) is the number of seconds that the
2092 sender spent creating the file list. This requires a modern rsync on the
2093 sending side for this to be present.
2094 it() bf(File list transfer time) is the number of seconds that the sender
2095 spent sending the file list to the receiver.
2096 it() bf(Total bytes sent) is the count of all the bytes that rsync sent
2097 from the client side to the server side.
2098 it() bf(Total bytes received) is the count of all non-message bytes that
2099 rsync received by the client side from the server side. "Non-message"
2100 bytes means that we don't count the bytes for a verbose message that the
2101 server sent to us, which makes the stats more consistent.
38a4b9c2 2102))
7b13ff97 2103
a6a27602 2104dit(bf(-8, --8-bit-output)) This tells rsync to leave all high-bit characters
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WD
2105unescaped in the output instead of trying to test them to see if they're
2106valid in the current locale and escaping the invalid ones. All control
2107characters (but never tabs) are always escaped, regardless of this option's
2108setting.
2109
2110The escape idiom that started in 2.6.7 is to output a literal backslash (\)
2111and a hash (#), followed by exactly 3 octal digits. For example, a newline
2112would output as "\#012". A literal backslash that is in a filename is not
2113escaped unless it is followed by a hash and 3 digits (0-9).
2114
955c3145 2115dit(bf(-h, --human-readable)) Output numbers in a more human-readable format.
adc2476f
WD
2116There are 3 possible levels: (1) output numbers with a separator between each
2117set of 3 digits (either a comma or a period, depending on if the decimal point
2118is represented by a period or a comma); (2) output numbers in units of 1000
2119(with a character suffix for larger units -- see below); (3) output numbers in
2120units of 1024.
2121
2122The default is human-readable level 1. Each bf(-h) option increases the level
2123by one. You can take the level down to 0 (to output numbers as pure digits) by
2124specifing the bf(--no-human-readable) (bf(--no-h)) option.
2125
2126The unit letters that are appended in levels 2 and 3 are: K (kilo), M (mega),
2127G (giga), or T (tera). For example, a 1234567-byte file would output as 1.23M
2128in level-2 (assuming that a period is your local decimal point).
2129
2130Backward compatibility note: versions of rsync prior to 3.1.0 do not support
2131human-readable level 1, and they default to level 0. Thus, specifying one or
b320b7d6
WD
2132two bf(-h) options will behave in a comparable manner in old and new versions
2133as long as you didn't specify a bf(--no-h) option prior to one or more bf(-h)
2134options. See the bf(--list-only) option for one difference.
3b4ecc6b 2135
d9fcc198
AT
2136dit(bf(--partial)) By default, rsync will delete any partially
2137transferred file if the transfer is interrupted. In some circumstances
2138it is more desirable to keep partially transferred files. Using the
faa82484 2139bf(--partial) option tells rsync to keep the partial file which should
d9fcc198
AT
2140make a subsequent transfer of the rest of the file much faster.
2141
c2582307
WD
2142dit(bf(--partial-dir=DIR)) A better way to keep partial files than the
2143bf(--partial) option is to specify a em(DIR) that will be used to hold the
2144partial data (instead of writing it out to the destination file).
2145On the next transfer, rsync will use a file found in this
9ec1ef25 2146dir as data to speed up the resumption of the transfer and then delete it
c2582307 2147after it has served its purpose.
9ec1ef25 2148
c2582307
WD
2149Note that if bf(--whole-file) is specified (or implied), any partial-dir
2150file that is found for a file that is being updated will simply be removed
2151(since
adc4ebdd 2152rsync is sending files without using rsync's delta-transfer algorithm).
44cad59f 2153
c2582307
WD
2154Rsync will create the em(DIR) if it is missing (just the last dir -- not
2155the whole path). This makes it easy to use a relative path (such as
2156"bf(--partial-dir=.rsync-partial)") to have rsync create the
2157partial-directory in the destination file's directory when needed, and then
2158remove it again when the partial file is deleted.
44cad59f 2159
ee554411
WD
2160If the partial-dir value is not an absolute path, rsync will add an exclude
2161rule at the end of all your existing excludes. This will prevent the
2162sending of any partial-dir files that may exist on the sending side, and
2163will also prevent the untimely deletion of partial-dir items on the
2164receiving side. An example: the above bf(--partial-dir) option would add
f49c8376 2165the equivalent of "bf(-f '-p .rsync-partial/')" at the end of any other
ee554411
WD
2166filter rules.
2167
2168If you are supplying your own exclude rules, you may need to add your own
2169exclude/hide/protect rule for the partial-dir because (1) the auto-added
2170rule may be ineffective at the end of your other rules, or (2) you may wish
2171to override rsync's exclude choice. For instance, if you want to make
2172rsync clean-up any left-over partial-dirs that may be lying around, you
2173should specify bf(--delete-after) and add a "risk" filter rule, e.g.
2174bf(-f 'R .rsync-partial/'). (Avoid using bf(--delete-before) or
2175bf(--delete-during) unless you don't need rsync to use any of the
2176left-over partial-dir data during the current run.)
44cad59f 2177
faa82484 2178IMPORTANT: the bf(--partial-dir) should not be writable by other users or it
b4d1e854
WD
2179is a security risk. E.g. AVOID "/tmp".
2180
2181You can also set the partial-dir value the RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR environment
faa82484 2182variable. Setting this in the environment does not force bf(--partial) to be
02184920 2183enabled, but rather it affects where partial files go when bf(--partial) is
faa82484
WD
2184specified. For instance, instead of using bf(--partial-dir=.rsync-tmp)
2185along with bf(--progress), you could set RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR=.rsync-tmp in your
2186environment and then just use the bf(-P) option to turn on the use of the
9ec1ef25
WD
2187.rsync-tmp dir for partial transfers. The only times that the bf(--partial)
2188option does not look for this environment value are (1) when bf(--inplace) was
2189specified (since bf(--inplace) conflicts with bf(--partial-dir)), and (2) when
faa82484 2190bf(--delay-updates) was specified (see below).
01b835c2 2191
5a727522 2192For the purposes of the daemon-config's "refuse options" setting,
c2582307
WD
2193bf(--partial-dir) does em(not) imply bf(--partial). This is so that a
2194refusal of the bf(--partial) option can be used to disallow the overwriting
2195of destination files with a partial transfer, while still allowing the
2196safer idiom provided by bf(--partial-dir).
2197
01b835c2 2198dit(bf(--delay-updates)) This option puts the temporary file from each
c2582307 2199updated file into a holding directory until the end of the
01b835c2
WD
2200transfer, at which time all the files are renamed into place in rapid
2201succession. This attempts to make the updating of the files a little more
c2582307 2202atomic. By default the files are placed into a directory named ".~tmp~" in
64318670 2203each file's destination directory, but if you've specified the
ee554411
WD
2204bf(--partial-dir) option, that directory will be used instead. See the
2205comments in the bf(--partial-dir) section for a discussion of how this
2206".~tmp~" dir will be excluded from the transfer, and what you can do if
c5b6e57a 2207you want rsync to cleanup old ".~tmp~" dirs that might be lying around.
64318670 2208Conflicts with bf(--inplace) and bf(--append).
01b835c2
WD
2209
2210This option uses more memory on the receiving side (one bit per file
2211transferred) and also requires enough free disk space on the receiving
2212side to hold an additional copy of all the updated files. Note also that
5efbddba
WD
2213you should not use an absolute path to bf(--partial-dir) unless (1)
2214there is no
01b835c2
WD
2215chance of any of the files in the transfer having the same name (since all
2216the updated files will be put into a single directory if the path is
5efbddba
WD
2217absolute)
2218and (2) there are no mount points in the hierarchy (since the
2219delayed updates will fail if they can't be renamed into place).
01b835c2
WD
2220
2221See also the "atomic-rsync" perl script in the "support" subdir for an
faa82484 2222update algorithm that is even more atomic (it uses bf(--link-dest) and a
01b835c2 2223parallel hierarchy of files).
44cad59f 2224
a272ff8c 2225dit(bf(-m, --prune-empty-dirs)) This option tells the receiving rsync to get
fb72aaba
WD
2226rid of empty directories from the file-list, including nested directories
2227that have no non-directory children. This is useful for avoiding the
2228creation of a bunch of useless directories when the sending rsync is
2229recursively scanning a hierarchy of files using include/exclude/filter
a272ff8c
WD
2230rules.
2231
fd2b6046
WD
2232Note that the use of transfer rules, such as the bf(--min-size) option, does
2233not affect what goes into the file list, and thus does not leave directories
2234empty, even if none of the files in a directory match the transfer rule.
2235
a272ff8c
WD
2236Because the file-list is actually being pruned, this option also affects
2237what directories get deleted when a delete is active. However, keep in
2238mind that excluded files and directories can prevent existing items from
fd2b6046
WD
2239being deleted due to an exclude both hiding source files and protecting
2240destination files. See the perishable filter-rule option for how to avoid
2241this.
a272ff8c
WD
2242
2243You can prevent the pruning of certain empty directories from the file-list
2244by using a global "protect" filter. For instance, this option would ensure
2245that the directory "emptydir" was kept in the file-list:
2246
2247quote( --filter 'protect emptydir/')
fb72aaba
WD
2248
2249Here's an example that copies all .pdf files in a hierarchy, only creating
2250the necessary destination directories to hold the .pdf files, and ensures
2251that any superfluous files and directories in the destination are removed
a272ff8c
WD
2252(note the hide filter of non-directories being used instead of an exclude):
2253
58718881 2254quote( rsync -avm --del --include='*.pdf' -f 'hide,! */' src/ dest)
fb72aaba 2255
a272ff8c 2256If you didn't want to remove superfluous destination files, the more
4743f0f4 2257time-honored options of "bf(--include='*/' --exclude='*')" would work fine
a272ff8c 2258in place of the hide-filter (if that is more natural to you).
fb72aaba 2259
eb86d661
AT
2260dit(bf(--progress)) This option tells rsync to print information
2261showing the progress of the transfer. This gives a bored user
2262something to watch.
951e826b
WD
2263With a modern rsync this is the same as specifying
2264bf(--info=flist2,name,progress), but any user-supplied settings for those
2265info flags takes precedence (e.g. "--info=flist0 --progress").
7b10f91d 2266
5e1f082d
WD
2267While rsync is transferring a regular file, it updates a progress line that
2268looks like this:
68f9910d 2269
faa82484 2270verb( 782448 63% 110.64kB/s 0:00:04)
68f9910d 2271
5e1f082d
WD
2272In this example, the receiver has reconstructed 782448 bytes or 63% of the
2273sender's file, which is being reconstructed at a rate of 110.64 kilobytes
2274per second, and the transfer will finish in 4 seconds if the current rate
2275is maintained until the end.
2276
adc4ebdd 2277These statistics can be misleading if rsync's delta-transfer algorithm is
5e1f082d
WD
2278in use. For example, if the sender's file consists of the basis file
2279followed by additional data, the reported rate will probably drop
2280dramatically when the receiver gets to the literal data, and the transfer
2281will probably take much longer to finish than the receiver estimated as it
2282was finishing the matched part of the file.
2283
2284When the file transfer finishes, rsync replaces the progress line with a
2285summary line that looks like this:
2286
8d10cbfc 2287verb( 1,238,099 100% 146.38kB/s 0:00:08 (xfr#5, to-chk=169/396))
5e1f082d 2288
8d10cbfc 2289In this example, the file was 1,238,099 bytes long in total, the average rate
5e1f082d
WD
2290of transfer for the whole file was 146.38 kilobytes per second over the 8
2291seconds that it took to complete, it was the 5th transfer of a regular file
2292during the current rsync session, and there are 169 more files for the
2293receiver to check (to see if they are up-to-date or not) remaining out of
2294the 396 total files in the file-list.
68f9910d 2295
8d10cbfc
WD
2296In an incremental recursion scan, rsync won't know the total number of files
2297in the file-list until it reaches the ends of the scan, but since it starts to
2298transfer files during the scan, it will display a line with the text "ir-chk"
2299(for incremental recursion check) instead of "to-chk" until the point that it
2300knows the full size of the list, at which point it will switch to using
2301"to-chk". Thus, seeing "ir-chk" lets you know that the total count of files
2302in the file list is still going to increase (and each time it does, the count
2303of files left to check will increase by the number of the files added to the
2304list).
2305
faa82484 2306dit(bf(-P)) The bf(-P) option is equivalent to bf(--partial) bf(--progress). Its
183150b7
WD
2307purpose is to make it much easier to specify these two options for a long
2308transfer that may be interrupted.
d9fcc198 2309
951e826b
WD
2310There is also a bf(--info=progress2) option that outputs statistics based
2311on the whole transfer, rather than individual files. Use this flag without
2312outputting a filename (e.g. avoid bf(-v) or specify bf(--info=name0) if you
2313want to see how the transfer is doing without scrolling the screen with a
2314lot of names. (You don't need to specify the bf(--progress) option in
2315order to use bf(--info=progress2).)
2316
9586e593
WD
2317dit(bf(--password-file)) This option allows you to provide a password in a
2318file for accessing an rsync daemon. The file must not be world readable.
6437b817
WD
2319It should contain just the password as the first line of the file (all
2320other lines are ignored).
9586e593 2321
b2057d38
WD
2322This option does not supply a password to a remote shell transport such as
2323ssh; to learn how to do that, consult the remote shell's documentation.
9586e593
WD
2324When accessing an rsync daemon using a remote shell as the transport, this
2325option only comes into effect after the remote shell finishes its
2326authentication (i.e. if you have also specified a password in the daemon's
2327config file).
65575e96 2328
09ed3099 2329dit(bf(--list-only)) This option will cause the source files to be listed
b4c7c1ca
WD
2330instead of transferred. This option is inferred if there is a single source
2331arg and no destination specified, so its main uses are: (1) to turn a copy
2332command that includes a
32b9011a
WD
2333destination arg into a file-listing command, or (2) to be able to specify
2334more than one source arg (note: be sure to include the destination).
2335Caution: keep in mind that a source arg with a wild-card is expanded by the
2336shell into multiple args, so it is never safe to try to list such an arg
b4c7c1ca
WD
2337without using this option. For example:
2338
2339verb( rsync -av --list-only foo* dest/)
09ed3099 2340
b320b7d6
WD
2341Starting with rsync 3.1.0, the sizes output by bf(--list-only) are affected
2342by the bf(--human-readable) option. By default they will contain digit
2343separators, but higher levels of readability will output the sizes with
2344unit suffixes. Note also that the column width for the size output has
2345increased from 11 to 14 characters for all human-readable levels. Use
2346bf(--no-h) if you want just digits in the sizes, and the old column width
2347of 11 characters.
2348
32b9011a
WD
2349Compatibility note: when requesting a remote listing of files from an rsync
2350that is version 2.6.3 or older, you may encounter an error if you ask for a
2351non-recursive listing. This is because a file listing implies the bf(--dirs)
2352option w/o bf(--recursive), and older rsyncs don't have that option. To
2353avoid this problem, either specify the bf(--no-dirs) option (if you don't
2354need to expand a directory's content), or turn on recursion and exclude
2355the content of subdirectories: bf(-r --exclude='/*/*').
2356
ce795fcd
WD
2357dit(bf(--bwlimit=RATE)) This option allows you to specify the maximum transfer
2358rate for the data sent over the socket, specified in units per second. The
2359RATE value can be suffixed with a string to indicate a size multiplier, and may
2360be a fractional value (e.g. "bf(--bwlimit=1.5m)"). If no suffix is specified,
2361the value will be assumed to be in units of 1024 bytes (as if "K" or "KiB" had
2362been appended). See the bf(--max-size) option for a description of all the
2363available suffixes. A value of zero specifies no limit.
2364
2365For backward-compatibility reasons, the rate limit will be rounded to the
2366nearest KiB unit, so no rate smaller than 1024 bytes per second is possible.
2367
2368Rsync writes data over the socket in blocks, and this option both limits the
2369size of the blocks that rsync writes, and tries to keep the average transfer
2370rate at the requested limit. Some "burstiness" may be seen where rsync writes
2371out a block of data and then sleeps to bring the average rate into compliance.
2372
2373Due to the internal buffering of data, the bf(--progress) option may not be an
2374accurate reflection on how fast the data is being sent. This is because some
2375files can show up as being rapidly sent when the data is quickly buffered,
2376while other can show up as very slow when the flushing of the output buffer
2377occurs. This may be fixed in a future version.
ef5d23eb 2378
b9f592fb 2379dit(bf(--write-batch=FILE)) Record a file that can later be applied to
faa82484 2380another identical destination with bf(--read-batch). See the "BATCH MODE"
32c7f91a 2381section for details, and also the bf(--only-write-batch) option.
6902ed17 2382
326bb56e
WD
2383dit(bf(--only-write-batch=FILE)) Works like bf(--write-batch), except that
2384no updates are made on the destination system when creating the batch.
2385This lets you transport the changes to the destination system via some
32c7f91a
WD
2386other means and then apply the changes via bf(--read-batch).
2387
2388Note that you can feel free to write the batch directly to some portable
2389media: if this media fills to capacity before the end of the transfer, you
2390can just apply that partial transfer to the destination and repeat the
2391whole process to get the rest of the changes (as long as you don't mind a
2392partially updated destination system while the multi-update cycle is
2393happening).
2394
2395Also note that you only save bandwidth when pushing changes to a remote
2396system because this allows the batched data to be diverted from the sender
2397into the batch file without having to flow over the wire to the receiver
2398(when pulling, the sender is remote, and thus can't write the batch).
326bb56e 2399
b9f592fb 2400dit(bf(--read-batch=FILE)) Apply all of the changes stored in FILE, a
faa82484 2401file previously generated by bf(--write-batch).
78be8e0f 2402If em(FILE) is bf(-), the batch data will be read from standard input.
c769702f 2403See the "BATCH MODE" section for details.
6902ed17 2404
0b941479
WD
2405dit(bf(--protocol=NUM)) Force an older protocol version to be used. This
2406is useful for creating a batch file that is compatible with an older
2407version of rsync. For instance, if rsync 2.6.4 is being used with the
2408bf(--write-batch) option, but rsync 2.6.3 is what will be used to run the
81c453b1
WD
2409bf(--read-batch) option, you should use "--protocol=28" when creating the
2410batch file to force the older protocol version to be used in the batch
2411file (assuming you can't upgrade the rsync on the reading system).
0b941479 2412
332cf6df
WD
2413dit(bf(--iconv=CONVERT_SPEC)) Rsync can convert filenames between character
2414sets using this option. Using a CONVERT_SPEC of "." tells rsync to look up
2415the default character-set via the locale setting. Alternately, you can
2416fully specify what conversion to do by giving a local and a remote charset
0b52f94d
WD
2417separated by a comma in the order bf(--iconv=LOCAL,REMOTE), e.g.
2418bf(--iconv=utf8,iso88591). This order ensures that the option
2419will stay the same whether you're pushing or pulling files.
2420Finally, you can specify either bf(--no-iconv) or a CONVERT_SPEC of "-"
2421to turn off any conversion.
332cf6df
WD
2422The default setting of this option is site-specific, and can also be
2423affected via the RSYNC_ICONV environment variable.
2424
0b52f94d
WD
2425For a list of what charset names your local iconv library supports, you can
2426run "iconv --list".
2427
82f37486
WD
2428If you specify the bf(--protect-args) option (bf(-s)), rsync will translate
2429the filenames you specify on the command-line that are being sent to the
2430remote host. See also the bf(--files-from) option.
2431
332cf6df 2432Note that rsync does not do any conversion of names in filter files
82f37486
WD
2433(including include/exclude files). It is up to you to ensure that you're
2434specifying matching rules that can match on both sides of the transfer.
2435For instance, you can specify extra include/exclude rules if there are
2436filename differences on the two sides that need to be accounted for.
332cf6df 2437
0b52f94d
WD
2438When you pass an bf(--iconv) option to an rsync daemon that allows it, the
2439daemon uses the charset specified in its "charset" configuration parameter
2440regardless of the remote charset you actually pass. Thus, you may feel free to
2441specify just the local charset for a daemon transfer (e.g. bf(--iconv=utf8)).
2442
e40a46de
WD
2443dit(bf(-4, --ipv4) or bf(-6, --ipv6)) Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6
2444when creating sockets. This only affects sockets that rsync has direct
2445control over, such as the outgoing socket when directly contacting an
faa82484 2446rsync daemon. See also these options in the bf(--daemon) mode section.
e40a46de 2447
24d677fc
WD
2448If rsync was complied without support for IPv6, the bf(--ipv6) option
2449will have no effect. The bf(--version) output will tell you if this
2450is the case.
2451
e129500c 2452dit(bf(--checksum-seed=NUM)) Set the checksum seed to the integer
c8d895de 2453NUM. This 4 byte checksum seed is included in each block and file
e129500c 2454checksum calculation. By default the checksum seed is generated
49f4cfdf 2455by the server and defaults to the current code(time()). This option
c8d895de
WD
2456is used to set a specific checksum seed, which is useful for
2457applications that want repeatable block and file checksums, or
2458in the case where the user wants a more random checksum seed.
886df221 2459Setting NUM to 0 causes rsync to use the default of code(time())
b9f592fb 2460for checksum seed.
41059f75
AT
2461enddit()
2462
faa82484
WD
2463manpagesection(DAEMON OPTIONS)
2464
bdf278f7
WD
2465The options allowed when starting an rsync daemon are as follows:
2466
2467startdit()
bdf278f7 2468dit(bf(--daemon)) This tells rsync that it is to run as a daemon. The
62f27e3c
WD
2469daemon you start running may be accessed using an rsync client using
2470the bf(host::module) or bf(rsync://host/module/) syntax.
bdf278f7
WD
2471
2472If standard input is a socket then rsync will assume that it is being
2473run via inetd, otherwise it will detach from the current terminal and
2474become a background daemon. The daemon will read the config file
2475(rsyncd.conf) on each connect made by a client and respond to
49f4cfdf 2476requests accordingly. See the bf(rsyncd.conf)(5) man page for more
bdf278f7
WD
2477details.
2478
3ae5367f
WD
2479dit(bf(--address)) By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when
2480run as a daemon with the bf(--daemon) option. The bf(--address) option
2481allows you to specify a specific IP address (or hostname) to bind to. This
2482makes virtual hosting possible in conjunction with the bf(--config) option.
2483See also the "address" global option in the rsyncd.conf manpage.
bdf278f7 2484
ce795fcd
WD
2485dit(bf(--bwlimit=RATE)) This option allows you to specify the maximum transfer
2486rate for the data the daemon sends over the socket. The client can still
2487specify a smaller bf(--bwlimit) value, but no larger value will be allowed.
2488See the client version of this option (above) for some extra details.
1f69bec4 2489
bdf278f7 2490dit(bf(--config=FILE)) This specifies an alternate config file than
faa82484 2491the default. This is only relevant when bf(--daemon) is specified.
bdf278f7 2492The default is /etc/rsyncd.conf unless the daemon is running over
d38772e0 2493a remote shell program and the remote user is not the super-user; in that case
bdf278f7
WD
2494the default is rsyncd.conf in the current directory (typically $HOME).
2495
2206abf8
WD
2496dit(bf(-M, --dparam=OVERRIDE)) This option can be used to set a daemon-config
2497parameter when starting up rsync in daemon mode. It is equivalent to adding
2498the parameter at the end of the global settings prior to the first module's
2499definition. The parameter names can be specified without spaces, if you so
2500desire. For instance:
2501
2502verb( rsync --daemon -M pidfile=/path/rsync.pid )
2503
bdf278f7
WD
2504dit(bf(--no-detach)) When running as a daemon, this option instructs
2505rsync to not detach itself and become a background process. This
2506option is required when running as a service on Cygwin, and may also
2507be useful when rsync is supervised by a program such as
2508bf(daemontools) or AIX's bf(System Resource Controller).
2509bf(--no-detach) is also recommended when rsync is run under a
2510debugger. This option has no effect if rsync is run from inetd or
2511sshd.
2512
c259892c
WD
2513dit(bf(--port=PORT)) This specifies an alternate TCP port number for the
2514daemon to listen on rather than the default of 873. See also the "port"
2515global option in the rsyncd.conf manpage.
bdf278f7 2516
a2ed5801
WD
2517dit(bf(--log-file=FILE)) This option tells the rsync daemon to use the
2518given log-file name instead of using the "log file" setting in the config
2519file.
2520
4b90820d
WD
2521dit(bf(--log-file-format=FORMAT)) This option tells the rsync daemon to use the
2522given FORMAT string instead of using the "log format" setting in the config
2523file. It also enables "transfer logging" unless the string is empty, in which
2524case transfer logging is turned off.
2525
04f48837
WD
2526dit(bf(--sockopts)) This overrides the bf(socket options) setting in the
2527rsyncd.conf file and has the same syntax.
2528
24b0922b
WD
2529dit(bf(-v, --verbose)) This option increases the amount of information the
2530daemon logs during its startup phase. After the client connects, the
2531daemon's verbosity level will be controlled by the options that the client
2532used and the "max verbosity" setting in the module's config section.
2533
bdf278f7
WD
2534dit(bf(-4, --ipv4) or bf(-6, --ipv6)) Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6
2535when creating the incoming sockets that the rsync daemon will use to
2536listen for connections. One of these options may be required in older
2537versions of Linux to work around an IPv6 bug in the kernel (if you see
2538an "address already in use" error when nothing else is using the port,
faa82484 2539try specifying bf(--ipv6) or bf(--ipv4) when starting the daemon).
bdf278f7 2540
24d677fc
WD
2541If rsync was complied without support for IPv6, the bf(--ipv6) option
2542will have no effect. The bf(--version) output will tell you if this
2543is the case.
2544
faa82484 2545dit(bf(-h, --help)) When specified after bf(--daemon), print a short help
bdf278f7 2546page describing the options available for starting an rsync daemon.
bdf278f7
WD
2547enddit()
2548
16e5de84 2549manpagesection(FILTER RULES)
43bd68e5 2550
16e5de84
WD
2551The filter rules allow for flexible selection of which files to transfer
2552(include) and which files to skip (exclude). The rules either directly
2553specify include/exclude patterns or they specify a way to acquire more
2554include/exclude patterns (e.g. to read them from a file).
43bd68e5 2555
16e5de84
WD
2556As the list of files/directories to transfer is built, rsync checks each
2557name to be transferred against the list of include/exclude patterns in
2558turn, and the first matching pattern is acted on: if it is an exclude
2559pattern, then that file is skipped; if it is an include pattern then that
2560filename is not skipped; if no matching pattern is found, then the
43bd68e5
AT
2561filename is not skipped.
2562
16e5de84
WD
2563Rsync builds an ordered list of filter rules as specified on the
2564command-line. Filter rules have the following syntax:
2565
faa82484 2566quote(
d91de046
WD
2567tt(RULE [PATTERN_OR_FILENAME])nl()
2568tt(RULE,MODIFIERS [PATTERN_OR_FILENAME])nl()
16e5de84
WD
2569)
2570
d91de046
WD
2571You have your choice of using either short or long RULE names, as described
2572below. If you use a short-named rule, the ',' separating the RULE from the
2573MODIFIERS is optional. The PATTERN or FILENAME that follows (when present)
2574must come after either a single space or an underscore (_).
2575Here are the available rule prefixes:
16e5de84 2576
faa82484 2577quote(
d91de046
WD
2578bf(exclude, -) specifies an exclude pattern. nl()
2579bf(include, +) specifies an include pattern. nl()
2580bf(merge, .) specifies a merge-file to read for more rules. nl()
2581bf(dir-merge, :) specifies a per-directory merge-file. nl()
0dfffb88
WD
2582bf(hide, H) specifies a pattern for hiding files from the transfer. nl()
2583bf(show, S) files that match the pattern are not hidden. nl()
2584bf(protect, P) specifies a pattern for protecting files from deletion. nl()
2585bf(risk, R) files that match the pattern are not protected. nl()
d91de046 2586bf(clear, !) clears the current include/exclude list (takes no arg) nl()
16e5de84
WD
2587)
2588
d91de046
WD
2589When rules are being read from a file, empty lines are ignored, as are
2590comment lines that start with a "#".
2591
faa82484 2592Note that the bf(--include)/bf(--exclude) command-line options do not allow the
16e5de84 2593full range of rule parsing as described above -- they only allow the
d91de046
WD
2594specification of include/exclude patterns plus a "!" token to clear the
2595list (and the normal comment parsing when rules are read from a file).
2596If a pattern
16e5de84
WD
2597does not begin with "- " (dash, space) or "+ " (plus, space), then the
2598rule will be interpreted as if "+ " (for an include option) or "- " (for
faa82484 2599an exclude option) were prefixed to the string. A bf(--filter) option, on
d91de046
WD
2600the other hand, must always contain either a short or long rule name at the
2601start of the rule.
16e5de84 2602
faa82484 2603Note also that the bf(--filter), bf(--include), and bf(--exclude) options take one
16e5de84 2604rule/pattern each. To add multiple ones, you can repeat the options on
faa82484
WD
2605the command-line, use the merge-file syntax of the bf(--filter) option, or
2606the bf(--include-from)/bf(--exclude-from) options.
16e5de84 2607
16e5de84
WD
2608manpagesection(INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERN RULES)
2609
0dfffb88
WD
2610You can include and exclude files by specifying patterns using the "+",
2611"-", etc. filter rules (as introduced in the FILTER RULES section above).
bb5f4e72
WD
2612The include/exclude rules each specify a pattern that is matched against
2613the names of the files that are going to be transferred. These patterns
2614can take several forms:
16e5de84 2615
b8a6dae0 2616itemization(
16e5de84
WD
2617 it() if the pattern starts with a / then it is anchored to a
2618 particular spot in the hierarchy of files, otherwise it is matched
2619 against the end of the pathname. This is similar to a leading ^ in
2620 regular expressions.
809724d7 2621 Thus "/foo" would match a name of "foo" at either the "root of the
16e5de84
WD
2622 transfer" (for a global rule) or in the merge-file's directory (for a
2623 per-directory rule).
809724d7
WD
2624 An unqualified "foo" would match a name of "foo" anywhere in the
2625 tree because the algorithm is applied recursively from the
16e5de84 2626 top down; it behaves as if each path component gets a turn at being the
809724d7 2627 end of the filename. Even the unanchored "sub/foo" would match at
16e5de84
WD
2628 any point in the hierarchy where a "foo" was found within a directory
2629 named "sub". See the section on ANCHORING INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS for
2630 a full discussion of how to specify a pattern that matches at the root
2631 of the transfer.
16e5de84 2632 it() if the pattern ends with a / then it will only match a
809724d7 2633 directory, not a regular file, symlink, or device.
9639c718
WD
2634 it() rsync chooses between doing a simple string match and wildcard
2635 matching by checking if the pattern contains one of these three wildcard
2636 characters: '*', '?', and '[' .
7fdb3bda 2637 it() a '*' matches any path component, but it stops at slashes.
9639c718
WD
2638 it() use '**' to match anything, including slashes.
2639 it() a '?' matches any character except a slash (/).
2640 it() a '[' introduces a character class, such as [a-z] or [[:alpha:]].
2641 it() in a wildcard pattern, a backslash can be used to escape a wildcard
2642 character, but it is matched literally when no wildcards are present.
2643 it() if the pattern contains a / (not counting a trailing /) or a "**",
16e5de84
WD
2644 then it is matched against the full pathname, including any leading
2645 directories. If the pattern doesn't contain a / or a "**", then it is
2646 matched only against the final component of the filename.
2647 (Remember that the algorithm is applied recursively so "full filename"
ae283632 2648 can actually be any portion of a path from the starting directory on
16e5de84 2649 down.)
d3db3eef 2650 it() a trailing "dir_name/***" will match both the directory (as if
809724d7 2651 "dir_name/" had been specified) and everything in the directory
c575f8ce
WD
2652 (as if "dir_name/**" had been specified). This behavior was added in
2653 version 2.6.7.
16e5de84
WD
2654)
2655
faa82484
WD
2656Note that, when using the bf(--recursive) (bf(-r)) option (which is implied by
2657bf(-a)), every subcomponent of every path is visited from the top down, so
16e5de84
WD
2658include/exclude patterns get applied recursively to each subcomponent's
2659full name (e.g. to include "/foo/bar/baz" the subcomponents "/foo" and
2660"/foo/bar" must not be excluded).
2661The exclude patterns actually short-circuit the directory traversal stage
2662when rsync finds the files to send. If a pattern excludes a particular
2663parent directory, it can render a deeper include pattern ineffectual
2664because rsync did not descend through that excluded section of the
2665hierarchy. This is particularly important when using a trailing '*' rule.
2666For instance, this won't work:
2667
faa82484
WD
2668quote(
2669tt(+ /some/path/this-file-will-not-be-found)nl()
2670tt(+ /file-is-included)nl()
2671tt(- *)nl()
16e5de84
WD
2672)
2673
2674This fails because the parent directory "some" is excluded by the '*'
2675rule, so rsync never visits any of the files in the "some" or "some/path"
2676directories. One solution is to ask for all directories in the hierarchy
a5a26484 2677to be included by using a single rule: "+ */" (put it somewhere before the
58718881
WD
2678"- *" rule), and perhaps use the bf(--prune-empty-dirs) option. Another
2679solution is to add specific include rules for all
16e5de84
WD
2680the parent dirs that need to be visited. For instance, this set of rules
2681works fine:
2682
faa82484
WD
2683quote(
2684tt(+ /some/)nl()
2685tt(+ /some/path/)nl()
2686tt(+ /some/path/this-file-is-found)nl()
2687tt(+ /file-also-included)nl()
2688tt(- *)nl()
16e5de84
WD
2689)
2690
2691Here are some examples of exclude/include matching:
2692
b8a6dae0 2693itemization(
809724d7 2694 it() "- *.o" would exclude all names matching *.o
58718881
WD
2695 it() "- /foo" would exclude a file (or directory) named foo in the
2696 transfer-root directory
2697 it() "- foo/" would exclude any directory named foo
2698 it() "- /foo/*/bar" would exclude any file named bar which is at two
2699 levels below a directory named foo in the transfer-root directory
2700 it() "- /foo/**/bar" would exclude any file named bar two
2701 or more levels below a directory named foo in the transfer-root directory
faa82484 2702 it() The combination of "+ */", "+ *.c", and "- *" would include all
58718881
WD
2703 directories and C source files but nothing else (see also the
2704 bf(--prune-empty-dirs) option)
16e5de84
WD
2705 it() The combination of "+ foo/", "+ foo/bar.c", and "- *" would include
2706 only the foo directory and foo/bar.c (the foo directory must be
2707 explicitly included or it would be excluded by the "*")
2708)
2709
d960af72
MM
2710The following modifiers are accepted after a "+" or "-":
2711
2712itemization(
2713 it() A bf(/) specifies that the include/exclude rule should be matched
2714 against the absolute pathname of the current item. For example,
2715 "-/ /etc/passwd" would exclude the passwd file any time the transfer
2716 was sending files from the "/etc" directory, and "-/ subdir/foo"
2717 would always exclude "foo" when it is in a dir named "subdir", even
2718 if "foo" is at the root of the current transfer.
2719 it() A bf(!) specifies that the include/exclude should take effect if
2720 the pattern fails to match. For instance, "-! */" would exclude all
2721 non-directories.
2722 it() A bf(C) is used to indicate that all the global CVS-exclude rules
2723 should be inserted as excludes in place of the "-C". No arg should
2724 follow.
2725 it() An bf(s) is used to indicate that the rule applies to the sending
2726 side. When a rule affects the sending side, it prevents files from
2727 being transferred. The default is for a rule to affect both sides
2728 unless bf(--delete-excluded) was specified, in which case default rules
2729 become sender-side only. See also the hide (H) and show (S) rules,
2730 which are an alternate way to specify sending-side includes/excludes.
2731 it() An bf(r) is used to indicate that the rule applies to the receiving
2732 side. When a rule affects the receiving side, it prevents files from
2733 being deleted. See the bf(s) modifier for more info. See also the
2734 protect (P) and risk (R) rules, which are an alternate way to
2735 specify receiver-side includes/excludes.
2736 it() A bf(p) indicates that a rule is perishable, meaning that it is
2737 ignored in directories that are being deleted. For instance, the bf(-C)
2738 option's default rules that exclude things like "CVS" and "*.o" are
2739 marked as perishable, and will not prevent a directory that was removed
2740 on the source from being deleted on the destination.
2741)
2742
16e5de84
WD
2743manpagesection(MERGE-FILE FILTER RULES)
2744
2745You can merge whole files into your filter rules by specifying either a
d91de046
WD
2746merge (.) or a dir-merge (:) filter rule (as introduced in the FILTER RULES
2747section above).
16e5de84
WD
2748
2749There are two kinds of merged files -- single-instance ('.') and
2750per-directory (':'). A single-instance merge file is read one time, and
2751its rules are incorporated into the filter list in the place of the "."
2752rule. For per-directory merge files, rsync will scan every directory that
2753it traverses for the named file, merging its contents when the file exists
2754into the current list of inherited rules. These per-directory rule files
2755must be created on the sending side because it is the sending side that is
2756being scanned for the available files to transfer. These rule files may
2757also need to be transferred to the receiving side if you want them to
2758affect what files don't get deleted (see PER-DIRECTORY RULES AND DELETE
2759below).
2760
2761Some examples:
2762
faa82484 2763quote(
d91de046 2764tt(merge /etc/rsync/default.rules)nl()
faa82484 2765tt(. /etc/rsync/default.rules)nl()
d91de046
WD
2766tt(dir-merge .per-dir-filter)nl()
2767tt(dir-merge,n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes)nl()
faa82484 2768tt(:n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes)nl()
16e5de84
WD
2769)
2770
d91de046 2771The following modifiers are accepted after a merge or dir-merge rule:
16e5de84 2772
b8a6dae0 2773itemization(
62bf783f 2774 it() A bf(-) specifies that the file should consist of only exclude
d91de046 2775 patterns, with no other rule-parsing except for in-file comments.
62bf783f 2776 it() A bf(+) specifies that the file should consist of only include
d91de046
WD
2777 patterns, with no other rule-parsing except for in-file comments.
2778 it() A bf(C) is a way to specify that the file should be read in a
2779 CVS-compatible manner. This turns on 'n', 'w', and '-', but also
2780 allows the list-clearing token (!) to be specified. If no filename is
2781 provided, ".cvsignore" is assumed.
2782 it() A bf(e) will exclude the merge-file name from the transfer; e.g.
a5a26484 2783 "dir-merge,e .rules" is like "dir-merge .rules" and "- .rules".
62bf783f
WD
2784 it() An bf(n) specifies that the rules are not inherited by subdirectories.
2785 it() A bf(w) specifies that the rules are word-split on whitespace instead
16e5de84
WD
2786 of the normal line-splitting. This also turns off comments. Note: the
2787 space that separates the prefix from the rule is treated specially, so
d91de046
WD
2788 "- foo + bar" is parsed as two rules (assuming that prefix-parsing wasn't
2789 also disabled).
2790 it() You may also specify any of the modifiers for the "+" or "-" rules
d960af72 2791 (above) in order to have the rules that are read in from the file
c8fa85b2
MM
2792 default to having that modifier set (except for the bf(!) modifier, which
2793 would not be useful). For instance, "merge,-/ .excl" would
0dfffb88
WD
2794 treat the contents of .excl as absolute-path excludes,
2795 while "dir-merge,s .filt" and ":sC" would each make all their
c8fa85b2
MM
2796 per-directory rules apply only on the sending side. If the merge rule
2797 specifies sides to affect (via the bf(s) or bf(r) modifier or both),
2798 then the rules in the file must not specify sides (via a modifier or
2799 a rule prefix such as bf(hide)).
16e5de84
WD
2800)
2801
2802Per-directory rules are inherited in all subdirectories of the directory
2803where the merge-file was found unless the 'n' modifier was used. Each
2804subdirectory's rules are prefixed to the inherited per-directory rules
2805from its parents, which gives the newest rules a higher priority than the
d91de046 2806inherited rules. The entire set of dir-merge rules are grouped together in
16e5de84 2807the spot where the merge-file was specified, so it is possible to override
d91de046 2808dir-merge rules via a rule that got specified earlier in the list of global
16e5de84
WD
2809rules. When the list-clearing rule ("!") is read from a per-directory
2810file, it only clears the inherited rules for the current merge file.
2811
d91de046 2812Another way to prevent a single rule from a dir-merge file from being inherited is to
16e5de84
WD
2813anchor it with a leading slash. Anchored rules in a per-directory
2814merge-file are relative to the merge-file's directory, so a pattern "/foo"
d91de046 2815would only match the file "foo" in the directory where the dir-merge filter
16e5de84
WD
2816file was found.
2817
faa82484 2818Here's an example filter file which you'd specify via bf(--filter=". file":)
16e5de84 2819
faa82484 2820quote(
d91de046 2821tt(merge /home/user/.global-filter)nl()
faa82484 2822tt(- *.gz)nl()
d91de046 2823tt(dir-merge .rules)nl()
faa82484
WD
2824tt(+ *.[ch])nl()
2825tt(- *.o)nl()
16e5de84
WD
2826)
2827
2828This will merge the contents of the /home/user/.global-filter file at the
2829start of the list and also turns the ".rules" filename into a per-directory
467688dc 2830filter file. All rules read in prior to the start of the directory scan
16e5de84
WD
2831follow the global anchoring rules (i.e. a leading slash matches at the root
2832of the transfer).
2833
2834If a per-directory merge-file is specified with a path that is a parent
2835directory of the first transfer directory, rsync will scan all the parent
2836dirs from that starting point to the transfer directory for the indicated
faa82484 2837per-directory file. For instance, here is a common filter (see bf(-F)):
16e5de84 2838
faa82484 2839quote(tt(--filter=': /.rsync-filter'))
16e5de84
WD
2840
2841That rule tells rsync to scan for the file .rsync-filter in all
2842directories from the root down through the parent directory of the
2843transfer prior to the start of the normal directory scan of the file in
2844the directories that are sent as a part of the transfer. (Note: for an
2845rsync daemon, the root is always the same as the module's "path".)
2846
2847Some examples of this pre-scanning for per-directory files:
2848
faa82484
WD
2849quote(
2850tt(rsync -avF /src/path/ /dest/dir)nl()
2851tt(rsync -av --filter=': ../../.rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir)nl()
2852tt(rsync -av --filter=': .rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir)nl()
16e5de84
WD
2853)
2854
2855The first two commands above will look for ".rsync-filter" in "/" and
2856"/src" before the normal scan begins looking for the file in "/src/path"
2857and its subdirectories. The last command avoids the parent-dir scan
2858and only looks for the ".rsync-filter" files in each directory that is
2859a part of the transfer.
2860
2861If you want to include the contents of a ".cvsignore" in your patterns,
d91de046
WD
2862you should use the rule ":C", which creates a dir-merge of the .cvsignore
2863file, but parsed in a CVS-compatible manner. You can
faa82484 2864use this to affect where the bf(--cvs-exclude) (bf(-C)) option's inclusion of the
d91de046 2865per-directory .cvsignore file gets placed into your rules by putting the
16e5de84 2866":C" wherever you like in your filter rules. Without this, rsync would
d91de046 2867add the dir-merge rule for the .cvsignore file at the end of all your other
16e5de84
WD
2868rules (giving it a lower priority than your command-line rules). For
2869example:
2870
faa82484
WD
2871quote(
2872tt(cat <<EOT | rsync -avC --filter='. -' a/ b)nl()
2873tt(+ foo.o)nl()
2874tt(:C)nl()
2875tt(- *.old)nl()
2876tt(EOT)nl()
2877tt(rsync -avC --include=foo.o -f :C --exclude='*.old' a/ b)nl()
16e5de84
WD
2878)
2879
2880Both of the above rsync commands are identical. Each one will merge all
2881the per-directory .cvsignore rules in the middle of the list rather than
2882at the end. This allows their dir-specific rules to supersede the rules
bafa4875
WD
2883that follow the :C instead of being subservient to all your rules. To
2884affect the other CVS exclude rules (i.e. the default list of exclusions,
2885the contents of $HOME/.cvsignore, and the value of $CVSIGNORE) you should
2886omit the bf(-C) command-line option and instead insert a "-C" rule into
4743f0f4 2887your filter rules; e.g. "bf(--filter=-C)".
16e5de84
WD
2888
2889manpagesection(LIST-CLEARING FILTER RULE)
2890
2891You can clear the current include/exclude list by using the "!" filter
2892rule (as introduced in the FILTER RULES section above). The "current"
2893list is either the global list of rules (if the rule is encountered while
2894parsing the filter options) or a set of per-directory rules (which are
2895inherited in their own sub-list, so a subdirectory can use this to clear
2896out the parent's rules).
2897
2898manpagesection(ANCHORING INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS)
2899
2900As mentioned earlier, global include/exclude patterns are anchored at the
2901"root of the transfer" (as opposed to per-directory patterns, which are
2902anchored at the merge-file's directory). If you think of the transfer as
2903a subtree of names that are being sent from sender to receiver, the
2904transfer-root is where the tree starts to be duplicated in the destination
2905directory. This root governs where patterns that start with a / match.
a4b6f305
WD
2906
2907Because the matching is relative to the transfer-root, changing the
faa82484 2908trailing slash on a source path or changing your use of the bf(--relative)
a4b6f305
WD
2909option affects the path you need to use in your matching (in addition to
2910changing how much of the file tree is duplicated on the destination
16e5de84 2911host). The following examples demonstrate this.
a4b6f305 2912
b5ebe6d9
WD
2913Let's say that we want to match two source files, one with an absolute
2914path of "/home/me/foo/bar", and one with a path of "/home/you/bar/baz".
2915Here is how the various command choices differ for a 2-source transfer:
a4b6f305 2916
faa82484
WD
2917quote(
2918 Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me /home/you /dest nl()
2919 +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar nl()
2920 +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz nl()
2921 Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar nl()
2922 Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz nl()
2923)
2924
2925quote(
2926 Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me/ /home/you/ /dest nl()
2927 +/- pattern: /foo/bar (note missing "me") nl()
2928 +/- pattern: /bar/baz (note missing "you") nl()
2929 Target file: /dest/foo/bar nl()
2930 Target file: /dest/bar/baz nl()
2931)
2932
2933quote(
2934 Example cmd: rsync -a --relative /home/me/ /home/you /dest nl()
2935 +/- pattern: /home/me/foo/bar (note full path) nl()
2936 +/- pattern: /home/you/bar/baz (ditto) nl()
2937 Target file: /dest/home/me/foo/bar nl()
2938 Target file: /dest/home/you/bar/baz nl()
2939)
2940
2941quote(
2942 Example cmd: cd /home; rsync -a --relative me/foo you/ /dest nl()
2943 +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar (starts at specified path) nl()
2944 +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz (ditto) nl()
2945 Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar nl()
2946 Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz nl()
a4b6f305
WD
2947)
2948
16e5de84 2949The easiest way to see what name you should filter is to just
faa82484
WD
2950look at the output when using bf(--verbose) and put a / in front of the name
2951(use the bf(--dry-run) option if you're not yet ready to copy any files).
d1cce1dd 2952
16e5de84 2953manpagesection(PER-DIRECTORY RULES AND DELETE)
43bd68e5 2954
16e5de84
WD
2955Without a delete option, per-directory rules are only relevant on the
2956sending side, so you can feel free to exclude the merge files themselves
2957without affecting the transfer. To make this easy, the 'e' modifier adds
2958this exclude for you, as seen in these two equivalent commands:
27b9a19b 2959
faa82484
WD
2960quote(
2961tt(rsync -av --filter=': .excl' --exclude=.excl host:src/dir /dest)nl()
2962tt(rsync -av --filter=':e .excl' host:src/dir /dest)nl()
43bd68e5
AT
2963)
2964
16e5de84
WD
2965However, if you want to do a delete on the receiving side AND you want some
2966files to be excluded from being deleted, you'll need to be sure that the
2967receiving side knows what files to exclude. The easiest way is to include
faa82484 2968the per-directory merge files in the transfer and use bf(--delete-after),
16e5de84
WD
2969because this ensures that the receiving side gets all the same exclude
2970rules as the sending side before it tries to delete anything:
43bd68e5 2971
faa82484 2972quote(tt(rsync -avF --delete-after host:src/dir /dest))
20af605e 2973
16e5de84
WD
2974However, if the merge files are not a part of the transfer, you'll need to
2975either specify some global exclude rules (i.e. specified on the command
2976line), or you'll need to maintain your own per-directory merge files on
2977the receiving side. An example of the first is this (assume that the
2978remote .rules files exclude themselves):
20af605e 2979
faa82484
WD
2980verb(rsync -av --filter=': .rules' --filter='. /my/extra.rules'
2981 --delete host:src/dir /dest)
20af605e 2982
16e5de84
WD
2983In the above example the extra.rules file can affect both sides of the
2984transfer, but (on the sending side) the rules are subservient to the rules
2985merged from the .rules files because they were specified after the
2986per-directory merge rule.
43bd68e5 2987
16e5de84
WD
2988In one final example, the remote side is excluding the .rsync-filter
2989files from the transfer, but we want to use our own .rsync-filter files
2990to control what gets deleted on the receiving side. To do this we must
2991specifically exclude the per-directory merge files (so that they don't get
2992deleted) and then put rules into the local files to control what else
2993should not get deleted. Like one of these commands:
2994
faa82484
WD
2995verb( rsync -av --filter=':e /.rsync-filter' --delete \
2996 host:src/dir /dest
2997 rsync -avFF --delete host:src/dir /dest)
43bd68e5 2998
6902ed17
MP
2999manpagesection(BATCH MODE)
3000
088aac85
DD
3001Batch mode can be used to apply the same set of updates to many
3002identical systems. Suppose one has a tree which is replicated on a
3003number of hosts. Now suppose some changes have been made to this
3004source tree and those changes need to be propagated to the other
3005hosts. In order to do this using batch mode, rsync is run with the
3006write-batch option to apply the changes made to the source tree to one
3007of the destination trees. The write-batch option causes the rsync
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WD
3008client to store in a "batch file" all the information needed to repeat
3009this operation against other, identical destination trees.
3010
b9f592fb
WD
3011Generating the batch file once saves having to perform the file
3012status, checksum, and data block generation more than once when
088aac85 3013updating multiple destination trees. Multicast transport protocols can
b9f592fb
WD
3014be used to transfer the batch update files in parallel to many hosts
3015at once, instead of sending the same data to every host individually.
088aac85 3016
7f2591ea
WD
3017To apply the recorded changes to another destination tree, run rsync
3018with the read-batch option, specifying the name of the same batch
3019file, and the destination tree. Rsync updates the destination tree
3020using the information stored in the batch file.
3021
3022For your convenience, a script file is also created when the write-batch
3023option is used: it will be named the same as the batch file with ".sh"
3024appended. This script file contains a command-line suitable for updating a
3025destination tree using the associated batch file. It can be executed using
3026a Bourne (or Bourne-like) shell, optionally passing in an alternate
3027destination tree pathname which is then used instead of the original
3028destination path. This is useful when the destination tree path on the
3029current host differs from the one used to create the batch file.
3030
4602eafa 3031Examples:
088aac85 3032
faa82484
WD
3033quote(
3034tt($ rsync --write-batch=foo -a host:/source/dir/ /adest/dir/)nl()
3035tt($ scp foo* remote:)nl()
3036tt($ ssh remote ./foo.sh /bdest/dir/)nl()
4602eafa
WD
3037)
3038
faa82484
WD
3039quote(
3040tt($ rsync --write-batch=foo -a /source/dir/ /adest/dir/)nl()
3041tt($ ssh remote rsync --read-batch=- -a /bdest/dir/ <foo)nl()
4602eafa
WD
3042)
3043
98f51bfb
WD
3044In these examples, rsync is used to update /adest/dir/ from /source/dir/
3045and the information to repeat this operation is stored in "foo" and
3046"foo.sh". The host "remote" is then updated with the batched data going
3047into the directory /bdest/dir. The differences between the two examples
3048reveals some of the flexibility you have in how you deal with batches:
3049
b8a6dae0 3050itemization(
98f51bfb
WD
3051 it() The first example shows that the initial copy doesn't have to be
3052 local -- you can push or pull data to/from a remote host using either the
3053 remote-shell syntax or rsync daemon syntax, as desired.
98f51bfb
WD
3054 it() The first example uses the created "foo.sh" file to get the right
3055 rsync options when running the read-batch command on the remote host.
98f51bfb
WD
3056 it() The second example reads the batch data via standard input so that
3057 the batch file doesn't need to be copied to the remote machine first.
3058 This example avoids the foo.sh script because it needed to use a modified
faa82484 3059 bf(--read-batch) option, but you could edit the script file if you wished to
98f51bfb 3060 make use of it (just be sure that no other option is trying to use
faa82484 3061 standard input, such as the "bf(--exclude-from=-)" option).
98f51bfb 3062)
088aac85
DD
3063
3064Caveats:
3065
98f51bfb 3066The read-batch option expects the destination tree that it is updating
088aac85
DD
3067to be identical to the destination tree that was used to create the
3068batch update fileset. When a difference between the destination trees
0b941479 3069is encountered the update might be discarded with a warning (if the file
7432ccf4
WD
3070appears to be up-to-date already) or the file-update may be attempted
3071and then, if the file fails to verify, the update discarded with an
3072error. This means that it should be safe to re-run a read-batch operation
59d73bf3 3073if the command got interrupted. If you wish to force the batched-update to
faa82484 3074always be attempted regardless of the file's size and date, use the bf(-I)
59d73bf3
WD
3075option (when reading the batch).
3076If an error occurs, the destination tree will probably be in a
7432ccf4 3077partially updated state. In that case, rsync can
088aac85
DD
3078be used in its regular (non-batch) mode of operation to fix up the
3079destination tree.
3080
b9f592fb 3081The rsync version used on all destinations must be at least as new as the
59d73bf3
WD
3082one used to generate the batch file. Rsync will die with an error if the
3083protocol version in the batch file is too new for the batch-reading rsync
0b941479
WD
3084to handle. See also the bf(--protocol) option for a way to have the
3085creating rsync generate a batch file that an older rsync can understand.
3086(Note that batch files changed format in version 2.6.3, so mixing versions
3087older than that with newer versions will not work.)
088aac85 3088
7432ccf4
WD
3089When reading a batch file, rsync will force the value of certain options
3090to match the data in the batch file if you didn't set them to the same
3091as the batch-writing command. Other options can (and should) be changed.
bb5f4e72
WD
3092For instance bf(--write-batch) changes to bf(--read-batch),
3093bf(--files-from) is dropped, and the
3094bf(--filter)/bf(--include)/bf(--exclude) options are not needed unless
3095one of the bf(--delete) options is specified.
b9f592fb 3096
faa82484 3097The code that creates the BATCH.sh file transforms any filter/include/exclude
98f51bfb
WD
3098options into a single list that is appended as a "here" document to the
3099shell script file. An advanced user can use this to modify the exclude
faa82484 3100list if a change in what gets deleted by bf(--delete) is desired. A normal
98f51bfb 3101user can ignore this detail and just use the shell script as an easy way
faa82484 3102to run the appropriate bf(--read-batch) command for the batched data.
98f51bfb 3103
59d73bf3
WD
3104The original batch mode in rsync was based on "rsync+", but the latest
3105version uses a new implementation.
6902ed17 3106
eb06fa95
MP
3107manpagesection(SYMBOLIC LINKS)
3108
f28bd833 3109Three basic behaviors are possible when rsync encounters a symbolic
eb06fa95
MP
3110link in the source directory.
3111
3112By default, symbolic links are not transferred at all. A message
3113"skipping non-regular" file is emitted for any symlinks that exist.
3114
3115If bf(--links) is specified, then symlinks are recreated with the same
3116target on the destination. Note that bf(--archive) implies
3117bf(--links).
3118
3119If bf(--copy-links) is specified, then symlinks are "collapsed" by
3120copying their referent, rather than the symlink.
3121
6f098b0f
WD
3122Rsync can also distinguish "safe" and "unsafe" symbolic links. An
3123example where this might be used is a web site mirror that wishes to
3124ensure that the rsync module that is copied does not include symbolic links to
eb06fa95
MP
3125bf(/etc/passwd) in the public section of the site. Using
3126bf(--copy-unsafe-links) will cause any links to be copied as the file
3127they point to on the destination. Using bf(--safe-links) will cause
6efe9416
WD
3128unsafe links to be omitted altogether. (Note that you must specify
3129bf(--links) for bf(--safe-links) to have any effect.)
eb06fa95 3130
7bd0cf5b 3131Symbolic links are considered unsafe if they are absolute symlinks
4743f0f4 3132(start with bf(/)), empty, or if they contain enough ".."
7bd0cf5b
MP
3133components to ascend from the directory being copied.
3134
6efe9416
WD
3135Here's a summary of how the symlink options are interpreted. The list is
3136in order of precedence, so if your combination of options isn't mentioned,
3137use the first line that is a complete subset of your options:
3138
3139dit(bf(--copy-links)) Turn all symlinks into normal files (leaving no
3140symlinks for any other options to affect).
3141
3142dit(bf(--links --copy-unsafe-links)) Turn all unsafe symlinks into files
3143and duplicate all safe symlinks.
3144
3145dit(bf(--copy-unsafe-links)) Turn all unsafe symlinks into files, noisily
3146skip all safe symlinks.
3147
02184920 3148dit(bf(--links --safe-links)) Duplicate safe symlinks and skip unsafe
6efe9416
WD
3149ones.
3150
3151dit(bf(--links)) Duplicate all symlinks.
3152
faa82484 3153manpagediagnostics()
d310a212 3154
14d43f1f 3155rsync occasionally produces error messages that may seem a little
d310a212 3156cryptic. The one that seems to cause the most confusion is "protocol
faa82484 3157version mismatch -- is your shell clean?".
d310a212
AT
3158
3159This message is usually caused by your startup scripts or remote shell
3160facility producing unwanted garbage on the stream that rsync is using
14d43f1f 3161for its transport. The way to diagnose this problem is to run your
d310a212
AT
3162remote shell like this:
3163
faa82484
WD
3164quote(tt(ssh remotehost /bin/true > out.dat))
3165
d310a212 3166then look at out.dat. If everything is working correctly then out.dat
2cfeab21 3167should be a zero length file. If you are getting the above error from
d310a212
AT
3168rsync then you will probably find that out.dat contains some text or
3169data. Look at the contents and try to work out what is producing
14d43f1f 3170it. The most common cause is incorrectly configured shell startup
d310a212
AT
3171scripts (such as .cshrc or .profile) that contain output statements
3172for non-interactive logins.
3173
16e5de84 3174If you are having trouble debugging filter patterns, then
faa82484 3175try specifying the bf(-vv) option. At this level of verbosity rsync will
e6c64e79
MP
3176show why each individual file is included or excluded.
3177
55b64e4b
MP
3178manpagesection(EXIT VALUES)
3179
3180startdit()
a73de5f3 3181dit(bf(0)) Success
faa82484
WD
3182dit(bf(1)) Syntax or usage error
3183dit(bf(2)) Protocol incompatibility
a73de5f3
WD
3184dit(bf(3)) Errors selecting input/output files, dirs
3185dit(bf(4)) Requested action not supported: an attempt
8212336a 3186was made to manipulate 64-bit files on a platform that cannot support
f28bd833 3187them; or an option was specified that is supported by the client and
8212336a 3188not by the server.
a73de5f3 3189dit(bf(5)) Error starting client-server protocol
124f349e 3190dit(bf(6)) Daemon unable to append to log-file
faa82484
WD
3191dit(bf(10)) Error in socket I/O
3192dit(bf(11)) Error in file I/O
3193dit(bf(12)) Error in rsync protocol data stream
3194dit(bf(13)) Errors with program diagnostics
3195dit(bf(14)) Error in IPC code
3196dit(bf(20)) Received SIGUSR1 or SIGINT
49f4cfdf 3197dit(bf(21)) Some error returned by code(waitpid())
faa82484 3198dit(bf(22)) Error allocating core memory buffers
3c1e2ad9
WD
3199dit(bf(23)) Partial transfer due to error
3200dit(bf(24)) Partial transfer due to vanished source files
124f349e 3201dit(bf(25)) The --max-delete limit stopped deletions
faa82484 3202dit(bf(30)) Timeout in data send/receive
ba22c9e2 3203dit(bf(35)) Timeout waiting for daemon connection
55b64e4b
MP
3204enddit()
3205
de2fd20e
AT
3206manpagesection(ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES)
3207
3208startdit()
de2fd20e 3209dit(bf(CVSIGNORE)) The CVSIGNORE environment variable supplements any
faa82484 3210ignore patterns in .cvsignore files. See the bf(--cvs-exclude) option for
de2fd20e 3211more details.
332cf6df 3212dit(bf(RSYNC_ICONV)) Specify a default bf(--iconv) setting using this
2b2a4738
WD
3213environment variable. (First supported in 3.0.0.)
3214dit(bf(RSYNC_PROTECT_ARGS)) Specify a non-zero numeric value if you want the
3215bf(--protect-args) option to be enabled by default, or a zero value to make
3216sure that it is disabled by default. (First supported in 3.1.0.)
de2fd20e 3217dit(bf(RSYNC_RSH)) The RSYNC_RSH environment variable allows you to
ea7f8108 3218override the default shell used as the transport for rsync. Command line
faa82484 3219options are permitted after the command name, just as in the bf(-e) option.
4c3b4b25
AT
3220dit(bf(RSYNC_PROXY)) The RSYNC_PROXY environment variable allows you to
3221redirect your rsync client to use a web proxy when connecting to a
3222rsync daemon. You should set RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair.
de2fd20e 3223dit(bf(RSYNC_PASSWORD)) Setting RSYNC_PASSWORD to the required
bb18e755 3224password allows you to run authenticated rsync connections to an rsync
de2fd20e 3225daemon without user intervention. Note that this does not supply a
b2057d38
WD
3226password to a remote shell transport such as ssh; to learn how to do that,
3227consult the remote shell's documentation.
de2fd20e 3228dit(bf(USER) or bf(LOGNAME)) The USER or LOGNAME environment variables
5a727522 3229are used to determine the default username sent to an rsync daemon.
4b2f6a7c 3230If neither is set, the username defaults to "nobody".
14d43f1f 3231dit(bf(HOME)) The HOME environment variable is used to find the user's
de2fd20e 3232default .cvsignore file.
de2fd20e
AT
3233enddit()
3234
41059f75
AT
3235manpagefiles()
3236
30e8c8e1 3237/etc/rsyncd.conf or rsyncd.conf
41059f75
AT
3238
3239manpageseealso()
3240
49f4cfdf 3241bf(rsyncd.conf)(5)
41059f75 3242
41059f75
AT
3243manpagebugs()
3244
02184920 3245times are transferred as *nix time_t values
41059f75 3246
f28bd833 3247When transferring to FAT filesystems rsync may re-sync
38843171 3248unmodified files.
faa82484 3249See the comments on the bf(--modify-window) option.
38843171 3250
b5accaba 3251file permissions, devices, etc. are transferred as native numerical
41059f75
AT
3252values
3253
faa82484 3254see also the comments on the bf(--delete) option
41059f75 3255
b553a3dd 3256Please report bugs! See the web site at
38843171 3257url(http://rsync.samba.org/)(http://rsync.samba.org/)
41059f75 3258
15997547
WD
3259manpagesection(VERSION)
3260
db8f3f73 3261This man page is current for version 3.0.3 of rsync.
15997547 3262
4e0bf977
WD
3263manpagesection(INTERNAL OPTIONS)
3264
3265The options bf(--server) and bf(--sender) are used internally by rsync,
3266and should never be typed by a user under normal circumstances. Some
3267