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9e3c856a 1mailto(rsync-bugs@samba.org)
db8f3f73 2manpage(rsync)(1)(29 Jun 2008)()()
ddf8c2b0 3manpagename(rsync)(a fast, versatile, remote (and local) file-copying tool)
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4manpagesynopsis()
5
ddf8c2b0 6verb(Local: rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [DEST]
868676dc 7
8f61dfdb 8Access via remote shell:
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9 Pull: rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST:SRC... [DEST]
10 Push: rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST:DEST
41059f75 11
8f61dfdb 12Access via rsync daemon:
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13 Pull: rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST::SRC... [DEST]
14 rsync [OPTION...] rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC... [DEST]
15 Push: rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST::DEST
16 rsync [OPTION...] SRC... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/DEST)
41059f75 17
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18Usages with just one SRC arg and no DEST arg will list the source files
19instead of copying.
039faa86 20
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21manpagedescription()
22
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23Rsync is a fast and extraordinarily versatile file copying tool. It can
24copy locally, to/from another host over any remote shell, or to/from a
25remote rsync daemon. It offers a large number of options that control
26every aspect of its behavior and permit very flexible specification of the
27set of files to be copied. It is famous for its delta-transfer algorithm,
28which reduces the amount of data sent over the network by sending only the
29differences between the source files and the existing files in the
30destination. Rsync is widely used for backups and mirroring and as an
31improved copy command for everyday use.
32
33Rsync finds files that need to be transferred using a "quick check"
34algorithm (by default) that looks for files that have changed in size or
35in last-modified time. Any changes in the other preserved attributes (as
36requested by options) are made on the destination file directly when the
37quick check indicates that the file's data does not need to be updated.
1874f7e2 38
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39Some of the additional features of rsync are:
40
b8a6dae0 41itemization(
b9f592fb 42 it() support for copying links, devices, owners, groups, and permissions
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43 it() exclude and exclude-from options similar to GNU tar
44 it() a CVS exclude mode for ignoring the same files that CVS would ignore
43cd760f 45 it() can use any transparent remote shell, including ssh or rsh
d38772e0 46 it() does not require super-user privileges
41059f75 47 it() pipelining of file transfers to minimize latency costs
5a727522 48 it() support for anonymous or authenticated rsync daemons (ideal for
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49 mirroring)
50)
51
52manpagesection(GENERAL)
53
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54Rsync copies files either to or from a remote host, or locally on the
55current host (it does not support copying files between two remote hosts).
56
57There are two different ways for rsync to contact a remote system: using a
58remote-shell program as the transport (such as ssh or rsh) or contacting an
59rsync daemon directly via TCP. The remote-shell transport is used whenever
60the source or destination path contains a single colon (:) separator after
61a host specification. Contacting an rsync daemon directly happens when the
62source or destination path contains a double colon (::) separator after a
ba3542cf 63host specification, OR when an rsync:// URL is specified (see also the
754a080f 64"USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION" section for
ba3542cf 65an exception to this latter rule).
15997547 66
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67As a special case, if a single source arg is specified without a
68destination, the files are listed in an output format similar to "ls -l".
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69
70As expected, if neither the source or destination path specify a remote
71host, the copy occurs locally (see also the bf(--list-only) option).
72
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73Rsync refers to the local side as the "client" and the remote side as the
74"server". Don't confuse "server" with an rsync daemon -- a daemon is always a
75server, but a server can be either a daemon or a remote-shell spawned process.
76
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77manpagesection(SETUP)
78
79See the file README for installation instructions.
80
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81Once installed, you can use rsync to any machine that you can access via
82a remote shell (as well as some that you can access using the rsync
43cd760f 83daemon-mode protocol). For remote transfers, a modern rsync uses ssh
1bbf83c0 84for its communications, but it may have been configured to use a
43cd760f 85different remote shell by default, such as rsh or remsh.
41059f75 86
faa82484 87You can also specify any remote shell you like, either by using the bf(-e)
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88command line option, or by setting the RSYNC_RSH environment variable.
89
8e987130 90Note that rsync must be installed on both the source and destination
faa82484 91machines.
8e987130 92
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93manpagesection(USAGE)
94
95You use rsync in the same way you use rcp. You must specify a source
96and a destination, one of which may be remote.
97
4d888108 98Perhaps the best way to explain the syntax is with some examples:
41059f75 99
faa82484 100quote(tt(rsync -t *.c foo:src/))
41059f75 101
8a97fc2e 102This would transfer all files matching the pattern *.c from the
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103current directory to the directory src on the machine foo. If any of
104the files already exist on the remote system then the rsync
105remote-update protocol is used to update the file by sending only the
106differences. See the tech report for details.
107
faa82484 108quote(tt(rsync -avz foo:src/bar /data/tmp))
41059f75 109
8a97fc2e 110This would recursively transfer all files from the directory src/bar on the
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111machine foo into the /data/tmp/bar directory on the local machine. The
112files are transferred in "archive" mode, which ensures that symbolic
b5accaba 113links, devices, attributes, permissions, ownerships, etc. are preserved
14d43f1f 114in the transfer. Additionally, compression will be used to reduce the
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115size of data portions of the transfer.
116
faa82484 117quote(tt(rsync -avz foo:src/bar/ /data/tmp))
41059f75 118
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119A trailing slash on the source changes this behavior to avoid creating an
120additional directory level at the destination. You can think of a trailing
121/ on a source as meaning "copy the contents of this directory" as opposed
122to "copy the directory by name", but in both cases the attributes of the
123containing directory are transferred to the containing directory on the
124destination. In other words, each of the following commands copies the
125files in the same way, including their setting of the attributes of
126/dest/foo:
127
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128quote(
129tt(rsync -av /src/foo /dest)nl()
130tt(rsync -av /src/foo/ /dest/foo)nl()
131)
41059f75 132
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133Note also that host and module references don't require a trailing slash to
134copy the contents of the default directory. For example, both of these
135copy the remote directory's contents into "/dest":
136
137quote(
138tt(rsync -av host: /dest)nl()
139tt(rsync -av host::module /dest)nl()
140)
141
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142You can also use rsync in local-only mode, where both the source and
143destination don't have a ':' in the name. In this case it behaves like
144an improved copy command.
145
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146Finally, you can list all the (listable) modules available from a
147particular rsync daemon by leaving off the module name:
148
faa82484 149quote(tt(rsync somehost.mydomain.com::))
14d43f1f 150
bb9bdba4 151See the following section for more details.
14d43f1f 152
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153manpagesection(ADVANCED USAGE)
154
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155The syntax for requesting multiple files from a remote host is done by
156specifying additional remote-host args in the same style as the first,
157or with the hostname omitted. For instance, all these work:
675ef1aa 158
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159quote(tt(rsync -av host:file1 :file2 host:file{3,4} /dest/)nl()
160tt(rsync -av host::modname/file{1,2} host::modname/file3 /dest/)nl()
161tt(rsync -av host::modname/file1 ::modname/file{3,4}))
675ef1aa 162
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163Older versions of rsync required using quoted spaces in the SRC, like these
164examples:
675ef1aa 165
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166quote(tt(rsync -av host:'dir1/file1 dir2/file2' /dest)nl()
167tt(rsync host::'modname/dir1/file1 modname/dir2/file2' /dest))
675ef1aa 168
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169This word-splitting still works (by default) in the latest rsync, but is
170not as easy to use as the first method.
675ef1aa 171
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172If you need to transfer a filename that contains whitespace, you can either
173specify the bf(--protect-args) (bf(-s)) option, or you'll need to escape
174the whitespace in a way that the remote shell will understand. For
175instance:
675ef1aa 176
f92e15ef 177quote(tt(rsync -av host:'file\ name\ with\ spaces' /dest))
675ef1aa 178
5a727522 179manpagesection(CONNECTING TO AN RSYNC DAEMON)
41059f75 180
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181It is also possible to use rsync without a remote shell as the transport.
182In this case you will directly connect to a remote rsync daemon, typically
183using TCP port 873. (This obviously requires the daemon to be running on
184the remote system, so refer to the STARTING AN RSYNC DAEMON TO ACCEPT
185CONNECTIONS section below for information on that.)
4c3b4b25 186
1bbf83c0 187Using rsync in this way is the same as using it with a remote shell except
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188that:
189
b8a6dae0 190itemization(
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191 it() you either use a double colon :: instead of a single colon to
192 separate the hostname from the path, or you use an rsync:// URL.
2c64b258 193 it() the first word of the "path" is actually a module name.
5a727522 194 it() the remote daemon may print a message of the day when you
14d43f1f 195 connect.
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196 it() if you specify no path name on the remote daemon then the
197 list of accessible paths on the daemon will be shown.
f7632fc6 198 it() if you specify no local destination then a listing of the
5a727522 199 specified files on the remote daemon is provided.
2c64b258 200 it() you must not specify the bf(--rsh) (bf(-e)) option.
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201)
202
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203An example that copies all the files in a remote module named "src":
204
205verb( rsync -av host::src /dest)
206
207Some modules on the remote daemon may require authentication. If so,
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208you will receive a password prompt when you connect. You can avoid the
209password prompt by setting the environment variable RSYNC_PASSWORD to
faa82484 210the password you want to use or using the bf(--password-file) option. This
65575e96 211may be useful when scripting rsync.
4c3d16be 212
3bc67f0c 213WARNING: On some systems environment variables are visible to all
faa82484 214users. On those systems using bf(--password-file) is recommended.
3bc67f0c 215
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216You may establish the connection via a web proxy by setting the
217environment variable RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair pointing to
218your web proxy. Note that your web proxy's configuration must support
219proxy connections to port 873.
bef49340 220
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221You may also establish a daemon connection using a program as a proxy by
222setting the environment variable RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG to the commands you
223wish to run in place of making a direct socket connection. The string may
224contain the escape "%H" to represent the hostname specified in the rsync
225command (so use "%%" if you need a single "%" in your string). For
226example:
227
228verb( export RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG='ssh proxyhost nc %H 873'
229 rsync -av targethost1::module/src/ /dest/
230 rsync -av rsync:://targethost2/module/src/ /dest/ )
231
84e1a34e 232The command specified above uses ssh to run nc (netcat) on a proxyhost,
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233which forwards all data to port 873 (the rsync daemon) on the targethost
234(%H).
235
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236manpagesection(USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION)
237
238It is sometimes useful to use various features of an rsync daemon (such as
239named modules) without actually allowing any new socket connections into a
240system (other than what is already required to allow remote-shell access).
241Rsync supports connecting to a host using a remote shell and then spawning
242a single-use "daemon" server that expects to read its config file in the
243home dir of the remote user. This can be useful if you want to encrypt a
244daemon-style transfer's data, but since the daemon is started up fresh by
245the remote user, you may not be able to use features such as chroot or
246change the uid used by the daemon. (For another way to encrypt a daemon
247transfer, consider using ssh to tunnel a local port to a remote machine and
248configure a normal rsync daemon on that remote host to only allow
249connections from "localhost".)
250
251From the user's perspective, a daemon transfer via a remote-shell
252connection uses nearly the same command-line syntax as a normal
253rsync-daemon transfer, with the only exception being that you must
254explicitly set the remote shell program on the command-line with the
255bf(--rsh=COMMAND) option. (Setting the RSYNC_RSH in the environment
256will not turn on this functionality.) For example:
257
258verb( rsync -av --rsh=ssh host::module /dest)
259
260If you need to specify a different remote-shell user, keep in mind that the
261user@ prefix in front of the host is specifying the rsync-user value (for a
262module that requires user-based authentication). This means that you must
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263give the '-l user' option to ssh when specifying the remote-shell, as in
264this example that uses the short version of the bf(--rsh) option:
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265
266verb( rsync -av -e "ssh -l ssh-user" rsync-user@host::module /dest)
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267
268The "ssh-user" will be used at the ssh level; the "rsync-user" will be
754a080f 269used to log-in to the "module".
bef49340 270
754a080f 271manpagesection(STARTING AN RSYNC DAEMON TO ACCEPT CONNECTIONS)
bef49340 272
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273In order to connect to an rsync daemon, the remote system needs to have a
274daemon already running (or it needs to have configured something like inetd
275to spawn an rsync daemon for incoming connections on a particular port).
276For full information on how to start a daemon that will handling incoming
49f4cfdf 277socket connections, see the bf(rsyncd.conf)(5) man page -- that is the config
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278file for the daemon, and it contains the full details for how to run the
279daemon (including stand-alone and inetd configurations).
bef49340 280
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281If you're using one of the remote-shell transports for the transfer, there is
282no need to manually start an rsync daemon.
bef49340 283
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284manpagesection(EXAMPLES)
285
286Here are some examples of how I use rsync.
287
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288To backup my wife's home directory, which consists of large MS Word
289files and mail folders, I use a cron job that runs
41059f75 290
faa82484 291quote(tt(rsync -Cavz . arvidsjaur:backup))
41059f75 292
f39281ae 293each night over a PPP connection to a duplicate directory on my machine
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294"arvidsjaur".
295
296To synchronize my samba source trees I use the following Makefile
297targets:
298
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299verb( get:
300 rsync -avuzb --exclude '*~' samba:samba/ .
301 put:
302 rsync -Cavuzb . samba:samba/
303 sync: get put)
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304
305this allows me to sync with a CVS directory at the other end of the
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306connection. I then do CVS operations on the remote machine, which saves a
307lot of time as the remote CVS protocol isn't very efficient.
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308
309I mirror a directory between my "old" and "new" ftp sites with the
faa82484 310command:
41059f75 311
faa82484 312tt(rsync -az -e ssh --delete ~ftp/pub/samba nimbus:"~ftp/pub/tridge")
41059f75 313
faa82484 314This is launched from cron every few hours.
41059f75 315
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316manpagesection(OPTIONS SUMMARY)
317
14d43f1f 318Here is a short summary of the options available in rsync. Please refer
faa82484 319to the detailed description below for a complete description. verb(
c95da96a 320 -v, --verbose increase verbosity
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321 --info=FLAGS fine-grained informational verbosity
322 --debug=FLAGS fine-grained debug verbosity
44d98d61 323 -q, --quiet suppress non-error messages
1de02c27 324 --no-motd suppress daemon-mode MOTD (see caveat)
44d98d61 325 -c, --checksum skip based on checksum, not mod-time & size
16edf865 326 -a, --archive archive mode; equals -rlptgoD (no -H,-A,-X)
f40aa6fb 327 --no-OPTION turn off an implied OPTION (e.g. --no-D)
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328 -r, --recursive recurse into directories
329 -R, --relative use relative path names
f40aa6fb 330 --no-implied-dirs don't send implied dirs with --relative
915dd207 331 -b, --backup make backups (see --suffix & --backup-dir)
44d98d61 332 --backup-dir=DIR make backups into hierarchy based in DIR
915dd207 333 --suffix=SUFFIX backup suffix (default ~ w/o --backup-dir)
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334 -u, --update skip files that are newer on the receiver
335 --inplace update destination files in-place
94f20a9f 336 --append append data onto shorter files
84e1a34e 337 --append-verify --append w/old data in file checksum
09ed3099 338 -d, --dirs transfer directories without recursing
eb06fa95 339 -l, --links copy symlinks as symlinks
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340 -L, --copy-links transform symlink into referent file/dir
341 --copy-unsafe-links only "unsafe" symlinks are transformed
342 --safe-links ignore symlinks that point outside the tree
41adbcec 343 --munge-links munge symlinks to make them safer
f2ebbebe 344 -k, --copy-dirlinks transform symlink to dir into referent dir
09ed3099 345 -K, --keep-dirlinks treat symlinked dir on receiver as dir
f2ebbebe 346 -H, --hard-links preserve hard links
c95da96a 347 -p, --perms preserve permissions
2d5279ac 348 -E, --executability preserve executability
dfe1ed5e 349 --chmod=CHMOD affect file and/or directory permissions
1c3344a1 350 -A, --acls preserve ACLs (implies -p)
eb7e7b24 351 -X, --xattrs preserve extended attributes
d38772e0 352 -o, --owner preserve owner (super-user only)
c95da96a 353 -g, --group preserve group
d38772e0 354 --devices preserve device files (super-user only)
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355 --specials preserve special files
356 -D same as --devices --specials
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357 -t, --times preserve modification times
358 -O, --omit-dir-times omit directories from --times
d38772e0 359 --super receiver attempts super-user activities
9439c0cb 360 --fake-super store/recover privileged attrs using xattrs
c95da96a 361 -S, --sparse handle sparse files efficiently
d100e733 362 -n, --dry-run perform a trial run with no changes made
f7a2ac07 363 -W, --whole-file copy files whole (w/o delta-xfer algorithm)
c95da96a 364 -x, --one-file-system don't cross filesystem boundaries
3ed8eb3f 365 -B, --block-size=SIZE force a fixed checksum block-size
44d98d61 366 -e, --rsh=COMMAND specify the remote shell to use
68e169ab 367 --rsync-path=PROGRAM specify the rsync to run on remote machine
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368 --existing skip creating new files on receiver
369 --ignore-existing skip updating files that exist on receiver
47c11975 370 --remove-source-files sender removes synchronized files (non-dir)
ae76a740 371 --del an alias for --delete-during
8517e9c1 372 --delete delete extraneous files from dest dirs
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373 --delete-before receiver deletes before xfer, not during
374 --delete-during receiver deletes during transfer (default)
fd0a130c 375 --delete-delay find deletions during, delete after
ae76a740 376 --delete-after receiver deletes after transfer, not before
8517e9c1 377 --delete-excluded also delete excluded files from dest dirs
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378 --ignore-missing-args ignore missing source args without error
379 --delete-missing-args delete missing source args from destination
b5accaba 380 --ignore-errors delete even if there are I/O errors
866925bf 381 --force force deletion of dirs even if not empty
0b73ca12 382 --max-delete=NUM don't delete more than NUM files
3610c458 383 --max-size=SIZE don't transfer any file larger than SIZE
59dd6786 384 --min-size=SIZE don't transfer any file smaller than SIZE
c95da96a 385 --partial keep partially transferred files
44cad59f 386 --partial-dir=DIR put a partially transferred file into DIR
44d98d61 387 --delay-updates put all updated files into place at end
a272ff8c 388 -m, --prune-empty-dirs prune empty directory chains from file-list
c95da96a 389 --numeric-ids don't map uid/gid values by user/group name
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390 --usermap=STRING custom username mapping
391 --groupmap=STRING custom groupname mapping
392 --chown=USER:GROUP simple username/groupname mapping
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393 --timeout=SECONDS set I/O timeout in seconds
394 --contimeout=SECONDS set daemon connection timeout in seconds
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395 -I, --ignore-times don't skip files that match size and time
396 --size-only skip files that match in size
397 --modify-window=NUM compare mod-times with reduced accuracy
abce74bb 398 -T, --temp-dir=DIR create temporary files in directory DIR
5b483755 399 -y, --fuzzy find similar file for basis if no dest file
915dd207 400 --compare-dest=DIR also compare received files relative to DIR
2f03ce67 401 --copy-dest=DIR ... and include copies of unchanged files
b127c1dc 402 --link-dest=DIR hardlink to files in DIR when unchanged
32a5edf4 403 -z, --compress compress file data during the transfer
bad01106 404 --compress-level=NUM explicitly set compression level
2b967218 405 --skip-compress=LIST skip compressing files with suffix in LIST
44d98d61 406 -C, --cvs-exclude auto-ignore files in the same way CVS does
16e5de84 407 -f, --filter=RULE add a file-filtering RULE
8a6f3fea 408 -F same as --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'
16e5de84 409 repeated: --filter='- .rsync-filter'
2acf81eb 410 --exclude=PATTERN exclude files matching PATTERN
44d98d61 411 --exclude-from=FILE read exclude patterns from FILE
2acf81eb 412 --include=PATTERN don't exclude files matching PATTERN
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413 --include-from=FILE read include patterns from FILE
414 --files-from=FILE read list of source-file names from FILE
fa92818a 415 -0, --from0 all *from/filter files are delimited by 0s
82f37486 416 -s, --protect-args no space-splitting; wildcard chars only
3ae5367f 417 --address=ADDRESS bind address for outgoing socket to daemon
c259892c 418 --port=PORT specify double-colon alternate port number
04f48837 419 --sockopts=OPTIONS specify custom TCP options
b5accaba 420 --blocking-io use blocking I/O for the remote shell
44d98d61 421 --stats give some file-transfer stats
a6a27602 422 -8, --8-bit-output leave high-bit chars unescaped in output
955c3145 423 -h, --human-readable output numbers in a human-readable format
eb86d661 424 --progress show progress during transfer
44d98d61 425 -P same as --partial --progress
b78296cb 426 -i, --itemize-changes output a change-summary for all updates
7a2eca41 427 -M, --remote-option=OPTION send OPTION to the remote side only
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428 --out-format=FORMAT output updates using the specified FORMAT
429 --log-file=FILE log what we're doing to the specified FILE
430 --log-file-format=FMT log updates using the specified FMT
09a54c39 431 --password-file=FILE read daemon-access password from FILE
09ed3099 432 --list-only list the files instead of copying them
ce795fcd 433 --bwlimit=RATE limit socket I/O bandwidth
faa82484 434 --write-batch=FILE write a batched update to FILE
326bb56e 435 --only-write-batch=FILE like --write-batch but w/o updating dest
44d98d61 436 --read-batch=FILE read a batched update from FILE
0b941479 437 --protocol=NUM force an older protocol version to be used
84e1a34e 438 --iconv=CONVERT_SPEC request charset conversion of filenames
44d98d61 439 --checksum-seed=NUM set block/file checksum seed (advanced)
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440 -4, --ipv4 prefer IPv4
441 -6, --ipv6 prefer IPv6
81c453b1 442 --version print version number
b8a6dae0 443(-h) --help show this help (see below for -h comment))
6902ed17 444
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445Rsync can also be run as a daemon, in which case the following options are
446accepted: verb(
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447 --daemon run as an rsync daemon
448 --address=ADDRESS bind to the specified address
ce795fcd 449 --bwlimit=RATE limit socket I/O bandwidth
bdf278f7 450 --config=FILE specify alternate rsyncd.conf file
2206abf8 451 -M, --dparam=OVERRIDE override global daemon config parameter
bdf278f7 452 --no-detach do not detach from the parent
c259892c 453 --port=PORT listen on alternate port number
a2ed5801 454 --log-file=FILE override the "log file" setting
4b90820d 455 --log-file-format=FMT override the "log format" setting
04f48837 456 --sockopts=OPTIONS specify custom TCP options
24b0922b 457 -v, --verbose increase verbosity
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458 -4, --ipv4 prefer IPv4
459 -6, --ipv6 prefer IPv6
b8a6dae0 460 -h, --help show this help (if used after --daemon))
c95da96a 461
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462manpageoptions()
463
464rsync uses the GNU long options package. Many of the command line
465options have two variants, one short and one long. These are shown
14d43f1f 466below, separated by commas. Some options only have a long variant.
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467The '=' for options that take a parameter is optional; whitespace
468can be used instead.
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469
470startdit()
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471dit(bf(--help)) Print a short help page describing the options
472available in rsync and exit. For backward-compatibility with older
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473versions of rsync, the help will also be output if you use the bf(-h)
474option without any other args.
41059f75 475
bdf278f7 476dit(bf(--version)) print the rsync version number and exit.
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477
478dit(bf(-v, --verbose)) This option increases the amount of information you
14d43f1f 479are given during the transfer. By default, rsync works silently. A
faa82484 480single bf(-v) will give you information about what files are being
951e826b 481transferred and a brief summary at the end. Two bf(-v) options will give you
41059f75 482information on what files are being skipped and slightly more
951e826b 483information at the end. More than two bf(-v) options should only be used if
14d43f1f 484you are debugging rsync.
41059f75 485
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486In a modern rsync, the bf(-v) option is equivalent to the setting of groups
487of bf(--info) and bf(--debug) options. You can choose to use these newer
488options in addition to, or in place of using bf(--verbose), as any
489fine-grained settings override the implied settings of bf(-v). Both
490bf(--info) and bf(--debug) have a way to ask for help that tells you
491exactly what flags are set for each increase in verbosity.
492
493dit(bf(--info=FLAGS))
494This option lets you have fine-grained control over the
495information
496output you want to see. An individual flag name may be followed by a level
497number, with 0 meaning to silence that output, 1 being the default output
498level, and higher numbers increasing the output of that flag (for those
499that support higher levels). Use
500bf(--info=help)
501to see all the available flag names, what they output, and what flag names
502are added for each increase in the verbose level. Some examples:
503
504verb( rsync -a --info=progress2 src/ dest/
505 rsync -avv --info=stats2,misc1,flist0 src/ dest/ )
506
507Note that bf(--info=name)'s output is affected by the bf(--out-format) and
508bf(--itemize-changes) (bf(-i)) options. See those options for more
509information on what is output and when.
510
511This option was added to 3.1.0, so an older rsync on the server side might
512reject your attempts at fine-grained control (if one or more flags needed
513to be send to the server and the server was too old to understand them).
514
515dit(bf(--debug=FLAGS))
516This option lets you have fine-grained control over the
517debug
518output you want to see. An individual flag name may be followed by a level
519number, with 0 meaning to silence that output, 1 being the default output
520level, and higher numbers increasing the output of that flag (for those
521that support higher levels). Use
522bf(--debug=help)
523to see all the available flag names, what they output, and what flag names
524are added for each increase in the verbose level. Some examples:
525
526verb( rsync -avvv --debug=none src/ dest/
527 rsync -avA --del --debug=del2,acl src/ dest/ )
528
529This option was added to 3.1.0, so an older rsync on the server side might
530reject your attempts at fine-grained control (if one or more flags needed
531to be send to the server and the server was too old to understand them).
4f90eb43 532
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533dit(bf(-q, --quiet)) This option decreases the amount of information you
534are given during the transfer, notably suppressing information messages
951e826b 535from the remote server. This option name is useful when invoking rsync from
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536cron.
537
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538dit(bf(--no-motd)) This option affects the information that is output
539by the client at the start of a daemon transfer. This suppresses the
540message-of-the-day (MOTD) text, but it also affects the list of modules
541that the daemon sends in response to the "rsync host::" request (due to
542a limitation in the rsync protocol), so omit this option if you want to
c5b6e57a 543request the list of modules from the daemon.
1de02c27 544
41059f75 545dit(bf(-I, --ignore-times)) Normally rsync will skip any files that are
1874f7e2 546already the same size and have the same modification timestamp.
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547This option turns off this "quick check" behavior, causing all files to
548be updated.
41059f75 549
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550dit(bf(--size-only)) This modifies rsync's "quick check" algorithm for
551finding files that need to be transferred, changing it from the default of
552transferring files with either a changed size or a changed last-modified
d15f2ff0 553time to just looking for files that have changed in size. This is useful
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554when starting to use rsync after using another mirroring system which may
555not preserve timestamps exactly.
f83f0548 556
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557dit(bf(--modify-window)) When comparing two timestamps, rsync treats the
558timestamps as being equal if they differ by no more than the modify-window
559value. This is normally 0 (for an exact match), but you may find it useful
560to set this to a larger value in some situations. In particular, when
561transferring to or from an MS Windows FAT filesystem (which represents
562times with a 2-second resolution), bf(--modify-window=1) is useful
563(allowing times to differ by up to 1 second).
5b56cc19 564
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565dit(bf(-c, --checksum)) This changes the way rsync checks if the files have
566been changed and are in need of a transfer. Without this option, rsync
567uses a "quick check" that (by default) checks if each file's size and time
568of last modification match between the sender and receiver. This option
e129500c 569changes this to compare a 128-bit checksum for each file that has a
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570matching size. Generating the checksums means that both sides will expend
571a lot of disk I/O reading all the data in the files in the transfer (and
572this is prior to any reading that will be done to transfer changed files),
573so this can slow things down significantly.
574
575The sending side generates its checksums while it is doing the file-system
576scan that builds the list of the available files. The receiver generates
577its checksums when it is scanning for changed files, and will checksum any
578file that has the same size as the corresponding sender's file: files with
579either a changed size or a changed checksum are selected for transfer.
580
581Note that rsync always verifies that each em(transferred) file was
582correctly reconstructed on the receiving side by checking a whole-file
f96bac84 583checksum that is generated as the file is transferred, but that
c64ff141 584automatic after-the-transfer verification has nothing to do with this
2a24b4bd 585option's before-the-transfer "Does this file need to be updated?" check.
41059f75 586
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587For protocol 30 and beyond (first supported in 3.0.0), the checksum used is
588MD5. For older protocols, the checksum used is MD4.
589
faa82484 590dit(bf(-a, --archive)) This is equivalent to bf(-rlptgoD). It is a quick
e7bf3e5e 591way of saying you want recursion and want to preserve almost
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592everything (with -H being a notable omission).
593The only exception to the above equivalence is when bf(--files-from) is
5dd97ab9 594specified, in which case bf(-r) is not implied.
e7bf3e5e 595
faa82484 596Note that bf(-a) bf(does not preserve hardlinks), because
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597finding multiply-linked files is expensive. You must separately
598specify bf(-H).
41059f75 599
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600dit(--no-OPTION) You may turn off one or more implied options by prefixing
601the option name with "no-". Not all options may be prefixed with a "no-":
602only options that are implied by other options (e.g. bf(--no-D),
603bf(--no-perms)) or have different defaults in various circumstances
604(e.g. bf(--no-whole-file), bf(--no-blocking-io), bf(--no-dirs)). You may
605specify either the short or the long option name after the "no-" prefix
606(e.g. bf(--no-R) is the same as bf(--no-relative)).
607
608For example: if you want to use bf(-a) (bf(--archive)) but don't want
609bf(-o) (bf(--owner)), instead of converting bf(-a) into bf(-rlptgD), you
610could specify bf(-a --no-o) (or bf(-a --no-owner)).
611
612The order of the options is important: if you specify bf(--no-r -a), the
613bf(-r) option would end up being turned on, the opposite of bf(-a --no-r).
614Note also that the side-effects of the bf(--files-from) option are NOT
a9af5d8e 615positional, as it affects the default state of several options and slightly
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616changes the meaning of bf(-a) (see the bf(--files-from) option for more
617details).
618
24986abd 619dit(bf(-r, --recursive)) This tells rsync to copy directories
faa82484 620recursively. See also bf(--dirs) (bf(-d)).
41059f75 621
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622Beginning with rsync 3.0.0, the recursive algorithm used is now an
623incremental scan that uses much less memory than before and begins the
624transfer after the scanning of the first few directories have been
625completed. This incremental scan only affects our recursion algorithm, and
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626does not change a non-recursive transfer. It is also only possible when
627both ends of the transfer are at least version 3.0.0.
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628
629Some options require rsync to know the full file list, so these options
1e05b590 630disable the incremental recursion mode. These include: bf(--delete-before),
ba2d43d7 631bf(--delete-after), bf(--prune-empty-dirs), and bf(--delay-updates).
d9f46544 632Because of this, the default delete mode when you specify bf(--delete) is now
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WD
633bf(--delete-during) when both ends of the connection are at least 3.0.0
634(use bf(--del) or bf(--delete-during) to request this improved deletion mode
d9f46544
WD
635explicitly). See also the bf(--delete-delay) option that is a better choice
636than using bf(--delete-after).
637
ba2d43d7 638Incremental recursion can be disabled using the bf(--no-inc-recursive)
27999aba 639option or its shorter bf(--no-i-r) alias.
ba2d43d7 640
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641dit(bf(-R, --relative)) Use relative paths. This means that the full path
642names specified on the command line are sent to the server rather than
643just the last parts of the filenames. This is particularly useful when
14d43f1f 644you want to send several different directories at the same time. For
1dc42d12 645example, if you used this command:
41059f75 646
1dc42d12 647quote(tt( rsync -av /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/))
41059f75 648
58718881 649... this would create a file named baz.c in /tmp/ on the remote
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650machine. If instead you used
651
1dc42d12 652quote(tt( rsync -avR /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/))
41059f75 653
58718881 654then a file named /tmp/foo/bar/baz.c would be created on the remote
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WD
655machine, preserving its full path. These extra path elements are called
656"implied directories" (i.e. the "foo" and the "foo/bar" directories in the
657above example).
658
659Beginning with rsync 3.0.0, rsync always sends these implied directories as
660real directories in the file list, even if a path element is really a
661symlink on the sending side. This prevents some really unexpected
662behaviors when copying the full path of a file that you didn't realize had
663a symlink in its path. If you want to duplicate a server-side symlink,
664include both the symlink via its path, and referent directory via its real
665path. If you're dealing with an older rsync on the sending side, you may
666need to use the bf(--no-implied-dirs) option.
667
668It is also possible to limit the amount of path information that is sent as
669implied directories for each path you specify. With a modern rsync on the
670sending side (beginning with 2.6.7), you can insert a dot and a slash into
671the source path, like this:
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672
673quote(tt( rsync -avR /foo/./bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/))
674
675That would create /tmp/bar/baz.c on the remote machine. (Note that the
f2ebbebe 676dot must be followed by a slash, so "/foo/." would not be abbreviated.)
6f098b0f 677For older rsync versions, you would need to use a chdir to limit the
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WD
678source path. For example, when pushing files:
679
53cf0b8b 680quote(tt( (cd /foo; rsync -avR bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/) ))
1dc42d12 681
53cf0b8b
WD
682(Note that the parens put the two commands into a sub-shell, so that the
683"cd" command doesn't remain in effect for future commands.)
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684If you're pulling files from an older rsync, use this idiom (but only
685for a non-daemon transfer):
9bef934c 686
faa82484 687quote(
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WD
688tt( rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /foo; rsync" \ )nl()
689tt( remote:bar/baz.c /tmp/)
faa82484 690)
9bef934c 691
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WD
692dit(bf(--no-implied-dirs)) This option affects the default behavior of the
693bf(--relative) option. When it is specified, the attributes of the implied
694directories from the source names are not included in the transfer. This
695means that the corresponding path elements on the destination system are
696left unchanged if they exist, and any missing implied directories are
697created with default attributes. This even allows these implied path
698elements to have big differences, such as being a symlink to a directory on
0758b2db 699the receiving side.
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700
701For instance, if a command-line arg or a files-from entry told rsync to
702transfer the file "path/foo/file", the directories "path" and "path/foo"
703are implied when bf(--relative) is used. If "path/foo" is a symlink to
704"bar" on the destination system, the receiving rsync would ordinarily
705delete "path/foo", recreate it as a directory, and receive the file into
706the new directory. With bf(--no-implied-dirs), the receiving rsync updates
707"path/foo/file" using the existing path elements, which means that the file
708ends up being created in "path/bar". Another way to accomplish this link
709preservation is to use the bf(--keep-dirlinks) option (which will also
710affect symlinks to directories in the rest of the transfer).
711
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WD
712When pulling files from an rsync older than 3.0.0, you may need to use this
713option if the sending side has a symlink in the path you request and you
714wish the implied directories to be transferred as normal directories.
41059f75 715
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716dit(bf(-b, --backup)) With this option, preexisting destination files are
717renamed as each file is transferred or deleted. You can control where the
718backup file goes and what (if any) suffix gets appended using the
faa82484 719bf(--backup-dir) and bf(--suffix) options.
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WD
720
721Note that if you don't specify bf(--backup-dir), (1) the
722bf(--omit-dir-times) option will be implied, and (2) if bf(--delete) is
2d5279ac 723also in effect (without bf(--delete-excluded)), rsync will add a "protect"
4c72f27d 724filter-rule for the backup suffix to the end of all your existing excludes
89cb4721 725(e.g. bf(-f "P *~")). This will prevent previously backed-up files from being
4c72f27d
WD
726deleted. Note that if you are supplying your own filter rules, you may
727need to manually insert your own exclude/protect rule somewhere higher up
728in the list so that it has a high enough priority to be effective (e.g., if
729your rules specify a trailing inclusion/exclusion of '*', the auto-added
730rule would never be reached).
41059f75 731
faa82484 732dit(bf(--backup-dir=DIR)) In combination with the bf(--backup) option, this
ad75d18d
WD
733tells rsync to store all backups in the specified directory on the receiving
734side. This can be used for incremental backups. You can additionally
faa82484 735specify a backup suffix using the bf(--suffix) option
759ac870
DD
736(otherwise the files backed up in the specified directory
737will keep their original filenames).
66203a98 738
b5679335 739dit(bf(--suffix=SUFFIX)) This option allows you to override the default
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WD
740backup suffix used with the bf(--backup) (bf(-b)) option. The default suffix is a ~
741if no -bf(-backup-dir) was specified, otherwise it is an empty string.
9ef53907 742
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WD
743dit(bf(-u, --update)) This forces rsync to skip any files which exist on
744the destination and have a modified time that is newer than the source
42b06481 745file. (If an existing destination file has a modification time equal to the
4539c0d7 746source file's, it will be updated if the sizes are different.)
41059f75 747
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WD
748Note that this does not affect the copying of symlinks or other special
749files. Also, a difference of file format between the sender and receiver
750is always considered to be important enough for an update, no matter what
751date is on the objects. In other words, if the source has a directory
752where the destination has a file, the transfer would occur regardless of
753the timestamps.
adddd075 754
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755This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't affect the
756data that goes into the file-lists, and thus it doesn't affect deletions.
757It just limits the files that the receiver requests to be transferred.
758
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WD
759dit(bf(--inplace)) This option changes how rsync transfers a file when
760its data needs to be updated: instead of the default method of creating
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WD
761a new copy of the file and moving it into place when it is complete, rsync
762instead writes the updated data directly to the destination file.
763
58a79f4b
MM
764This has several effects:
765
766quote(itemization(
767 it() Hard links are not broken. This means the new data will be visible
768 through other hard links to the destination file. Moreover, attempts to
769 copy differing source files onto a multiply-linked destination file will
770 result in a "tug of war" with the destination data changing back and forth.
771 it() In-use binaries cannot be updated (either the OS will prevent this from
772 happening, or binaries that attempt to swap-in their data will misbehave or
773 crash).
774 it() The file's data will be in an inconsistent state during the transfer
775 and will be left that way if the transfer is interrupted or if an update
776 fails.
777 it() A file that does not have write permissions cannot be updated.
778 it() The efficiency of rsync's delta-transfer algorithm may be reduced if
779 some data in the destination file is overwritten before it can be copied to
780 a position later in the file. This does not apply if you use bf(--backup),
781 since rsync is smart enough to use the backup file as the basis file for the
782 transfer.
783))
adc4ebdd
WD
784
785WARNING: you should not use this option to update files that are being
786accessed by others, so be careful when choosing to use this for a copy.
a3221d2a 787
6f098b0f 788This option is useful for transferring large files with block-based changes
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WD
789or appended data, and also on systems that are disk bound, not network
790bound.
791
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WD
792The option implies bf(--partial) (since an interrupted transfer does not delete
793the file), but conflicts with bf(--partial-dir) and bf(--delay-updates).
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WD
794Prior to rsync 2.6.4 bf(--inplace) was also incompatible with bf(--compare-dest)
795and bf(--link-dest).
a3221d2a 796
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WD
797dit(bf(--append)) This causes rsync to update a file by appending data onto
798the end of the file, which presumes that the data that already exists on
799the receiving side is identical with the start of the file on the sending
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WD
800side. If a file needs to be transferred and its size on the receiver is
801the same or longer than the size on the sender, the file is skipped. This
802does not interfere with the updating of a file's non-content attributes
803(e.g. permissions, ownership, etc.) when the file does not need to be
804transferred, nor does it affect the updating of any non-regular files.
805Implies bf(--inplace),
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WD
806but does not conflict with bf(--sparse) (since it is always extending a
807file's length).
808
809dit(bf(--append-verify)) This works just like the bf(--append) option, but
810the existing data on the receiving side is included in the full-file
811checksum verification step, which will cause a file to be resent if the
812final verification step fails (rsync uses a normal, non-appending
813bf(--inplace) transfer for the resend).
814
815Note: prior to rsync 3.0.0, the bf(--append) option worked like
816bf(--append-verify), so if you are interacting with an older rsync (or the
817transfer is using a protocol prior to 30), specifying either append option
818will initiate an bf(--append-verify) transfer.
94f20a9f 819
09ed3099 820dit(bf(-d, --dirs)) Tell the sending side to include any directories that
faa82484 821are encountered. Unlike bf(--recursive), a directory's contents are not copied
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WD
822unless the directory name specified is "." or ends with a trailing slash
823(e.g. ".", "dir/.", "dir/", etc.). Without this option or the
faa82484 824bf(--recursive) option, rsync will skip all directories it encounters (and
f40aa6fb 825output a message to that effect for each one). If you specify both
6e6cc163 826bf(--dirs) and bf(--recursive), bf(--recursive) takes precedence.
09ed3099 827
73cb6738
WD
828The bf(--dirs) option is implied by the bf(--files-from) option
829or the bf(--list-only) option (including an implied
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WD
830bf(--list-only) usage) if bf(--recursive) wasn't specified (so that
831directories are seen in the listing). Specify bf(--no-dirs) (or bf(--no-d))
73cb6738
WD
832if you want to turn this off.
833
834There is also a backward-compatibility helper option, bf(--old-dirs) (or
835bf(--old-d)) that tells rsync to use a hack of "-r --exclude='/*/*'" to get
836an older rsync to list a single directory without recursing.
32b9011a 837
eb06fa95
MP
838dit(bf(-l, --links)) When symlinks are encountered, recreate the
839symlink on the destination.
41059f75 840
f2ebbebe 841dit(bf(-L, --copy-links)) When symlinks are encountered, the item that
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WD
842they point to (the referent) is copied, rather than the symlink. In older
843versions of rsync, this option also had the side-effect of telling the
844receiving side to follow symlinks, such as symlinks to directories. In a
faa82484 845modern rsync such as this one, you'll need to specify bf(--keep-dirlinks) (bf(-K))
ef855d19 846to get this extra behavior. The only exception is when sending files to
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WD
847an rsync that is too old to understand bf(-K) -- in that case, the bf(-L) option
848will still have the side-effect of bf(-K) on that older receiving rsync.
b5313607 849
eb06fa95 850dit(bf(--copy-unsafe-links)) This tells rsync to copy the referent of
7af4227a 851symbolic links that point outside the copied tree. Absolute symlinks
eb06fa95 852are also treated like ordinary files, and so are any symlinks in the
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WD
853source path itself when bf(--relative) is used. This option has no
854additional effect if bf(--copy-links) was also specified.
41059f75 855
d310a212 856dit(bf(--safe-links)) This tells rsync to ignore any symbolic links
7af4227a 857which point outside the copied tree. All absolute symlinks are
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WD
858also ignored. Using this option in conjunction with bf(--relative) may
859give unexpected results.
d310a212 860
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WD
861dit(bf(--munge-links)) This option tells rsync to (1) modify all symlinks on
862the receiving side in a way that makes them unusable but recoverable (see
863below), or (2) to unmunge symlinks on the sending side that had been stored in
864a munged state. This is useful if you don't quite trust the source of the data
865to not try to slip in a symlink to a unexpected place.
866
867The way rsync disables the use of symlinks is to prefix each one with the
868string "/rsyncd-munged/". This prevents the links from being used as long as
869that directory does not exist. When this option is enabled, rsync will refuse
870to run if that path is a directory or a symlink to a directory.
871
872The option only affects the client side of the transfer, so if you need it to
873affect the server, specify it via bf(--remote-option). (Note that in a local
874transfer, the client side is the sender.)
875
876This option has no affect on a daemon, since the daemon configures whether it
877wants munged symlinks via its "munge symlinks" parameter. See also the
878"munge-symlinks" perl script in the support directory of the source code.
879
1a515b49 880dit(bf(-k, --copy-dirlinks)) This option causes the sending side to treat
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WD
881a symlink to a directory as though it were a real directory. This is
882useful if you don't want symlinks to non-directories to be affected, as
883they would be using bf(--copy-links).
41059f75 884
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WD
885Without this option, if the sending side has replaced a directory with a
886symlink to a directory, the receiving side will delete anything that is in
887the way of the new symlink, including a directory hierarchy (as long as
888bf(--force) or bf(--delete) is in effect).
41059f75 889
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WD
890See also bf(--keep-dirlinks) for an analogous option for the receiving
891side.
41059f75 892
ae03e0e0
MM
893bf(--copy-dirlinks) applies to all symlinks to directories in the source. If
894you want to follow only a few specified symlinks, a trick you can use is to
895pass them as additional source args with a trailing slash, using bf(--relative)
896to make the paths match up right. For example:
897
898quote(tt(rsync -r --relative src/./ src/./follow-me/ dest/))
899
900This works because rsync calls bf(lstat)(2) on the source arg as given, and the
901trailing slash makes bf(lstat)(2) follow the symlink, giving rise to a directory
902in the file-list which overrides the symlink found during the scan of "src/./".
903
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WD
904dit(bf(-K, --keep-dirlinks)) This option causes the receiving side to treat
905a symlink to a directory as though it were a real directory, but only if it
906matches a real directory from the sender. Without this option, the
907receiver's symlink would be deleted and replaced with a real directory.
09ed3099 908
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WD
909For example, suppose you transfer a directory "foo" that contains a file
910"file", but "foo" is a symlink to directory "bar" on the receiver. Without
911bf(--keep-dirlinks), the receiver deletes symlink "foo", recreates it as a
912directory, and receives the file into the new directory. With
913bf(--keep-dirlinks), the receiver keeps the symlink and "file" ends up in
914"bar".
915
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WD
916One note of caution: if you use bf(--keep-dirlinks), you must trust all
917the symlinks in the copy! If it is possible for an untrusted user to
918create their own symlink to any directory, the user could then (on a
919subsequent copy) replace the symlink with a real directory and affect the
920content of whatever directory the symlink references. For backup copies,
921you are better off using something like a bind mount instead of a symlink
922to modify your receiving hierarchy.
923
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WD
924See also bf(--copy-dirlinks) for an analogous option for the sending side.
925
926dit(bf(-H, --hard-links)) This tells rsync to look for hard-linked files in
58a79f4b
MM
927the source and link together the corresponding files on the destination.
928Without this option, hard-linked files in the source are treated
f2ebbebe
WD
929as though they were separate files.
930
58a79f4b
MM
931This option does NOT necessarily ensure that the pattern of hard links on the
932destination exactly matches that on the source. Cases in which the
933destination may end up with extra hard links include the following:
934
935quote(itemization(
936 it() If the destination already contains hard links, rsync will not break
937 them explicitly. However, if one or more of the paths have content
938 differences, the normal file-update process will break those links, unless
939 you are using the bf(--inplace) option.
940 it() If you specify a bf(--link-dest) directory that contains hard links,
941 rsync may use the same bf(--link-dest) file multiple times via several of
942 its paths.
943))
5f0f2e08
WD
944
945Note that rsync can only detect hard links between files that are inside
946the transfer set. If rsync updates a file that has extra hard-link
947connections to files outside the transfer, that linkage will be broken. If
948you are tempted to use the bf(--inplace) option to avoid this breakage, be
949very careful that you know how your files are being updated so that you are
950certain that no unintended changes happen due to lingering hard links (and
951see the bf(--inplace) option for more caveats).
41059f75 952
ba2d43d7 953If incremental recursion is active (see bf(--recursive)), rsync may transfer
5f0f2e08 954a missing hard-linked file before it finds that another link for that contents
968061bb
WD
955exists elsewhere in the hierarchy. This does not affect the accuracy of
956the transfer, just its efficiency. One way to avoid this is to disable
27999aba 957incremental recursion using the bf(--no-inc-recursive) option.
ba2d43d7 958
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WD
959dit(bf(-p, --perms)) This option causes the receiving rsync to set the
960destination permissions to be the same as the source permissions. (See
961also the bf(--chmod) option for a way to modify what rsync considers to
962be the source permissions.)
8dc74608 963
2d5279ac
WD
964When this option is em(off), permissions are set as follows:
965
b8a6dae0 966quote(itemization(
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WD
967 it() Existing files (including updated files) retain their existing
968 permissions, though the bf(--executability) option might change just
969 the execute permission for the file.
77ed253c 970 it() New files get their "normal" permission bits set to the source
1c3344a1
WD
971 file's permissions masked with the receiving directory's default
972 permissions (either the receiving process's umask, or the permissions
973 specified via the destination directory's default ACL), and
77ed253c
WD
974 their special permission bits disabled except in the case where a new
975 directory inherits a setgid bit from its parent directory.
2d5279ac 976))
77ed253c 977
2d5279ac
WD
978Thus, when bf(--perms) and bf(--executability) are both disabled,
979rsync's behavior is the same as that of other file-copy utilities,
980such as bf(cp)(1) and bf(tar)(1).
981
77ed253c
WD
982In summary: to give destination files (both old and new) the source
983permissions, use bf(--perms). To give new files the destination-default
1f77038e 984permissions (while leaving existing files unchanged), make sure that the
77ed253c
WD
985bf(--perms) option is off and use bf(--chmod=ugo=rwX) (which ensures that
986all non-masked bits get enabled). If you'd care to make this latter
987behavior easier to type, you could define a popt alias for it, such as
58b7b3d6 988putting this line in the file ~/.popt (the following defines the bf(-Z) option,
662127e6 989and includes --no-g to use the default group of the destination dir):
77ed253c 990
58b7b3d6 991quote(tt( rsync alias -Z --no-p --no-g --chmod=ugo=rwX))
77ed253c
WD
992
993You could then use this new option in a command such as this one:
994
58b7b3d6 995quote(tt( rsync -avZ src/ dest/))
77ed253c 996
58b7b3d6
WD
997(Caveat: make sure that bf(-a) does not follow bf(-Z), or it will re-enable
998the two "--no-*" options mentioned above.)
662127e6 999
77ed253c
WD
1000The preservation of the destination's setgid bit on newly-created
1001directories when bf(--perms) is off was added in rsync 2.6.7. Older rsync
1002versions erroneously preserved the three special permission bits for
1003newly-created files when bf(--perms) was off, while overriding the
1c3344a1
WD
1004destination's setgid bit setting on a newly-created directory. Default ACL
1005observance was added to the ACL patch for rsync 2.6.7, so older (or
1006non-ACL-enabled) rsyncs use the umask even if default ACLs are present.
1007(Keep in mind that it is the version of the receiving rsync that affects
1008these behaviors.)
77ed253c 1009
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WD
1010dit(bf(-E, --executability)) This option causes rsync to preserve the
1011executability (or non-executability) of regular files when bf(--perms) is
1012not enabled. A regular file is considered to be executable if at least one
77ed253c
WD
1013'x' is turned on in its permissions. When an existing destination file's
1014executability differs from that of the corresponding source file, rsync
1015modifies the destination file's permissions as follows:
2d5279ac 1016
b8a6dae0 1017quote(itemization(
2d5279ac
WD
1018 it() To make a file non-executable, rsync turns off all its 'x'
1019 permissions.
1020 it() To make a file executable, rsync turns on each 'x' permission that
1021 has a corresponding 'r' permission enabled.
1022))
1023
1024If bf(--perms) is enabled, this option is ignored.
41059f75 1025
1c3344a1 1026dit(bf(-A, --acls)) This option causes rsync to update the destination
0f6b4909
WD
1027ACLs to be the same as the source ACLs.
1028The option also implies bf(--perms).
1029
1030The source and destination systems must have compatible ACL entries for this
1031option to work properly. See the bf(--fake-super) option for a way to backup
1032and restore ACLs that are not compatible.
1c3344a1 1033
5deb19e4
MM
1034dit(bf(-X, --xattrs)) This option causes rsync to update the destination
1035extended attributes to be the same as the source ones.
0f6b4909
WD
1036
1037For systems that support extended-attribute namespaces, a copy being done by a
1038super-user copies all namespaces except system.*. A normal user only copies
1039the user.* namespace. To be able to backup and restore non-user namespaces as
1040a normal user, see the bf(--fake-super) option.
16edf865 1041
0d78a278
WD
1042Note that this option does not copy rsyncs special xattr values (e.g. those
1043used by bf(--fake-super)) unless you repeat the option (e.g. -XX). This
1044"copy all xattrs" mode cannot be used with bf(--fake-super).
1045
9f822556
WD
1046dit(bf(--chmod)) This option tells rsync to apply one or more
1047comma-separated "chmod" strings to the permission of the files in the
6f098b0f 1048transfer. The resulting value is treated as though it were the permissions
9f822556
WD
1049that the sending side supplied for the file, which means that this option
1050can seem to have no effect on existing files if bf(--perms) is not enabled.
1051
1052In addition to the normal parsing rules specified in the bf(chmod)(1)
1053manpage, you can specify an item that should only apply to a directory by
1054prefixing it with a 'D', or specify an item that should only apply to a
1055file by prefixing it with a 'F'. For example:
1056
1057quote(--chmod=Dg+s,ug+w,Fo-w,+X)
1058
1059It is also legal to specify multiple bf(--chmod) options, as each
1060additional option is just appended to the list of changes to make.
1061
1062See the bf(--perms) and bf(--executability) options for how the resulting
1063permission value can be applied to the files in the transfer.
1064
eb06fa95 1065dit(bf(-o, --owner)) This option causes rsync to set the owner of the
8641d287
WD
1066destination file to be the same as the source file, but only if the
1067receiving rsync is being run as the super-user (see also the bf(--super)
9439c0cb 1068and bf(--fake-super) options).
0f6b4909
WD
1069Without this option, the owner of new and/or transferred files are set to
1070the invoking user on the receiving side.
8641d287
WD
1071
1072The preservation of ownership will associate matching names by default, but
1073may fall back to using the ID number in some circumstances (see also the
1074bf(--numeric-ids) option for a full discussion).
41059f75 1075
eb06fa95
MP
1076dit(bf(-g, --group)) This option causes rsync to set the group of the
1077destination file to be the same as the source file. If the receiving
8641d287
WD
1078program is not running as the super-user (or if bf(--no-super) was
1079specified), only groups that the invoking user on the receiving side
1080is a member of will be preserved.
1081Without this option, the group is set to the default group of the invoking
1082user on the receiving side.
1083
1084The preservation of group information will associate matching names by
1085default, but may fall back to using the ID number in some circumstances
1086(see also the bf(--numeric-ids) option for a full discussion).
41059f75 1087
4e7d07c8 1088dit(bf(--devices)) This option causes rsync to transfer character and
d38772e0
WD
1089block device files to the remote system to recreate these devices.
1090This option has no effect if the receiving rsync is not run as the
9439c0cb 1091super-user (see also the bf(--super) and bf(--fake-super) options).
41059f75 1092
4e7d07c8
WD
1093dit(bf(--specials)) This option causes rsync to transfer special files
1094such as named sockets and fifos.
1095
1096dit(bf(-D)) The bf(-D) option is equivalent to bf(--devices) bf(--specials).
1097
41059f75 1098dit(bf(-t, --times)) This tells rsync to transfer modification times along
baf3e504
DD
1099with the files and update them on the remote system. Note that if this
1100option is not used, the optimization that excludes files that have not been
faa82484
WD
1101modified cannot be effective; in other words, a missing bf(-t) or bf(-a) will
1102cause the next transfer to behave as if it used bf(-I), causing all files to be
adc4ebdd 1103updated (though rsync's delta-transfer algorithm will make the update fairly efficient
faa82484 1104if the files haven't actually changed, you're much better off using bf(-t)).
41059f75 1105
54e66f1d 1106dit(bf(-O, --omit-dir-times)) This tells rsync to omit directories when
faa82484
WD
1107it is preserving modification times (see bf(--times)). If NFS is sharing
1108the directories on the receiving side, it is a good idea to use bf(-O).
fbe5eeb8 1109This option is inferred if you use bf(--backup) without bf(--backup-dir).
54e66f1d 1110
d38772e0
WD
1111dit(bf(--super)) This tells the receiving side to attempt super-user
1112activities even if the receiving rsync wasn't run by the super-user. These
1113activities include: preserving users via the bf(--owner) option, preserving
1114all groups (not just the current user's groups) via the bf(--groups)
1115option, and copying devices via the bf(--devices) option. This is useful
1116for systems that allow such activities without being the super-user, and
1117also for ensuring that you will get errors if the receiving side isn't
0cdb547f 1118being run as the super-user. To turn off super-user activities, the
d38772e0
WD
1119super-user can use bf(--no-super).
1120
9439c0cb 1121dit(bf(--fake-super)) When this option is enabled, rsync simulates
0f6b4909
WD
1122super-user activities by saving/restoring the privileged attributes via
1123special extended attributes that are attached to each file (as needed). This
9439c0cb
WD
1124includes the file's owner and group (if it is not the default), the file's
1125device info (device & special files are created as empty text files), and
1126any permission bits that we won't allow to be set on the real file (e.g.
1127the real file gets u-s,g-s,o-t for safety) or that would limit the owner's
809724d7
WD
1128access (since the real super-user can always access/change a file, the
1129files we create can always be accessed/changed by the creating user).
0f6b4909
WD
1130This option also handles ACLs (if bf(--acls) was specified) and non-user
1131extended attributes (if bf(--xattrs) was specified).
1132
84e1a34e 1133This is a good way to backup data without using a super-user, and to store
0f6b4909 1134ACLs from incompatible systems.
9439c0cb
WD
1135
1136The bf(--fake-super) option only affects the side where the option is used.
7a2eca41
WD
1137To affect the remote side of a remote-shell connection, use the
1138bf(--remote-option) (bf(-M)) option:
9439c0cb 1139
7a2eca41 1140quote(tt( rsync -av -M--fake-super /src/ host:/dest/))
9439c0cb 1141
7a2eca41
WD
1142For a local copy, this option affects both the source and the destination.
1143If you wish a local copy to enable this option just for the destination
1144files, specify bf(-M--fake-super). If you wish a local copy to enable
1145this option just for the source files, combine bf(--fake-super) with
1146bf(-M--super).
9439c0cb
WD
1147
1148This option is overridden by both bf(--super) and bf(--no-super).
1149
1150See also the "fake super" setting in the daemon's rsyncd.conf file.
1151
41059f75 1152dit(bf(-S, --sparse)) Try to handle sparse files efficiently so they take
a8cbb57c
WD
1153up less space on the destination. Conflicts with bf(--inplace) because it's
1154not possible to overwrite data in a sparse fashion.
41059f75 1155
d310a212 1156NOTE: Don't use this option when the destination is a Solaris "tmpfs"
6f098b0f
WD
1157filesystem. It seems to have problems seeking over null regions,
1158and ends up corrupting the files.
d310a212 1159
d100e733
WD
1160dit(bf(-n, --dry-run)) This makes rsync perform a trial run that doesn't
1161make any changes (and produces mostly the same output as a real run). It
1162is most commonly used in combination with the bf(-v, --verbose) and/or
1163bf(-i, --itemize-changes) options to see what an rsync command is going
1164to do before one actually runs it.
1165
1166The output of bf(--itemize-changes) is supposed to be exactly the same on a
1167dry run and a subsequent real run (barring intentional trickery and system
6f098b0f
WD
1168call failures); if it isn't, that's a bug. Other output should be mostly
1169unchanged, but may differ in some areas. Notably, a dry run does not
d100e733
WD
1170send the actual data for file transfers, so bf(--progress) has no effect,
1171the "bytes sent", "bytes received", "literal data", and "matched data"
1172statistics are too small, and the "speedup" value is equivalent to a run
6f098b0f 1173where no file transfers were needed.
f2ebbebe 1174
adc4ebdd 1175dit(bf(-W, --whole-file)) With this option rsync's delta-transfer algorithm
f2ebbebe
WD
1176is not used and the whole file is sent as-is instead. The transfer may be
1177faster if this option is used when the bandwidth between the source and
1178destination machines is higher than the bandwidth to disk (especially when the
1179"disk" is actually a networked filesystem). This is the default when both
63070274
WD
1180the source and destination are specified as local paths, but only if no
1181batch-writing option is in effect.
f2ebbebe 1182
4e5baafe
WD
1183dit(bf(-x, --one-file-system)) This tells rsync to avoid crossing a
1184filesystem boundary when recursing. This does not limit the user's ability
1185to specify items to copy from multiple filesystems, just rsync's recursion
1186through the hierarchy of each directory that the user specified, and also
1187the analogous recursion on the receiving side during deletion. Also keep
1188in mind that rsync treats a "bind" mount to the same device as being on the
77ed253c 1189same filesystem.
4e5baafe
WD
1190
1191If this option is repeated, rsync omits all mount-point directories from
1192the copy. Otherwise, it includes an empty directory at each mount-point it
1193encounters (using the attributes of the mounted directory because those of
1194the underlying mount-point directory are inaccessible).
1195
1196If rsync has been told to collapse symlinks (via bf(--copy-links) or
1197bf(--copy-unsafe-links)), a symlink to a directory on another device is
49140b27
WD
1198treated like a mount-point. Symlinks to non-directories are unaffected
1199by this option.
6d8c6bdb 1200
9639c718 1201dit(bf(--existing, --ignore-non-existing)) This tells rsync to skip
58a06312
WD
1202creating files (including directories) that do not exist
1203yet on the destination. If this option is
9639c718 1204combined with the bf(--ignore-existing) option, no files will be updated
8e3b627d 1205(which can be useful if all you want to do is delete extraneous files).
9639c718 1206
fd2b6046
WD
1207This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't affect the
1208data that goes into the file-lists, and thus it doesn't affect deletions.
1209It just limits the files that the receiver requests to be transferred.
1210
58a06312
WD
1211dit(bf(--ignore-existing)) This tells rsync to skip updating files that
1212already exist on the destination (this does em(not) ignore existing
c5b6e57a 1213directories, or nothing would get done). See also bf(--existing).
1347d512 1214
fd2b6046
WD
1215This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't affect the
1216data that goes into the file-lists, and thus it doesn't affect deletions.
1217It just limits the files that the receiver requests to be transferred.
1218
8e3b627d
WD
1219This option can be useful for those doing backups using the bf(--link-dest)
1220option when they need to continue a backup run that got interrupted. Since
1221a bf(--link-dest) run is copied into a new directory hierarchy (when it is
1222used properly), using bf(--ignore existing) will ensure that the
1223already-handled files don't get tweaked (which avoids a change in
1224permissions on the hard-linked files). This does mean that this option
1225is only looking at the existing files in the destination hierarchy itself.
1226
47c11975 1227dit(bf(--remove-source-files)) This tells rsync to remove from the sending
fb41a3c6
WD
1228side the files (meaning non-directories) that are a part of the transfer
1229and have been successfully duplicated on the receiving side.
96110304 1230
2c0fa6c5 1231dit(bf(--delete)) This tells rsync to delete extraneous files from the
e8b155a3
WD
1232receiving side (ones that aren't on the sending side), but only for the
1233directories that are being synchronized. You must have asked rsync to
1234send the whole directory (e.g. "dir" or "dir/") without using a wildcard
1235for the directory's contents (e.g. "dir/*") since the wildcard is expanded
ae76a740 1236by the shell and rsync thus gets a request to transfer individual files, not
d252e47d 1237the files' parent directory. Files that are excluded from the transfer are
0dfffb88
WD
1238also excluded from being deleted unless you use the bf(--delete-excluded)
1239option or mark the rules as only matching on the sending side (see the
1240include/exclude modifiers in the FILTER RULES section).
41059f75 1241
505ada14 1242Prior to rsync 2.6.7, this option would have no effect unless bf(--recursive)
d9f46544
WD
1243was enabled. Beginning with 2.6.7, deletions will also occur when bf(--dirs)
1244(bf(-d)) is enabled, but only for directories whose contents are being copied.
24986abd 1245
32b9011a
WD
1246This option can be dangerous if used incorrectly! It is a very good idea to
1247first try a run using the bf(--dry-run) option (bf(-n)) to see what files are
1248going to be deleted.
41059f75 1249
e8b155a3 1250If the sending side detects any I/O errors, then the deletion of any
3e578a19
AT
1251files at the destination will be automatically disabled. This is to
1252prevent temporary filesystem failures (such as NFS errors) on the
6f098b0f 1253sending side from causing a massive deletion of files on the
faa82484 1254destination. You can override this with the bf(--ignore-errors) option.
41059f75 1255
faa82484
WD
1256The bf(--delete) option may be combined with one of the --delete-WHEN options
1257without conflict, as well as bf(--delete-excluded). However, if none of the
d9f46544 1258--delete-WHEN options are specified, rsync will choose the
d252e47d 1259bf(--delete-during) algorithm when talking to rsync 3.0.0 or newer, and
d9f46544
WD
1260the bf(--delete-before) algorithm when talking to an older rsync. See also
1261bf(--delete-delay) and bf(--delete-after).
2c0fa6c5
WD
1262
1263dit(bf(--delete-before)) Request that the file-deletions on the receiving
d9f46544 1264side be done before the transfer starts.
faa82484 1265See bf(--delete) (which is implied) for more details on file-deletion.
2c0fa6c5
WD
1266
1267Deleting before the transfer is helpful if the filesystem is tight for space
aaca3daa 1268and removing extraneous files would help to make the transfer possible.
ae76a740 1269However, it does introduce a delay before the start of the transfer,
faa82484 1270and this delay might cause the transfer to timeout (if bf(--timeout) was
d9f46544
WD
1271specified). It also forces rsync to use the old, non-incremental recursion
1272algorithm that requires rsync to scan all the files in the transfer into
1273memory at once (see bf(--recursive)).
ae76a740 1274
2c0fa6c5 1275dit(bf(--delete-during, --del)) Request that the file-deletions on the
d252e47d
WD
1276receiving side be done incrementally as the transfer happens. The
1277per-directory delete scan is done right before each directory is checked
1278for updates, so it behaves like a more efficient bf(--delete-before),
1279including doing the deletions prior to any per-directory filter files
1280being updated. This option was first added in rsync version 2.6.4.
faa82484 1281See bf(--delete) (which is implied) for more details on file-deletion.
aaca3daa 1282
fd0a130c 1283dit(bf(--delete-delay)) Request that the file-deletions on the receiving
d252e47d
WD
1284side be computed during the transfer (like bf(--delete-during)), and then
1285removed after the transfer completes. This is useful when combined with
1286bf(--delay-updates) and/or bf(--fuzzy), and is more efficient than using
1287bf(--delete-after) (but can behave differently, since bf(--delete-after)
1288computes the deletions in a separate pass after all updates are done).
1289If the number of removed files overflows an internal buffer, a
d9f46544
WD
1290temporary file will be created on the receiving side to hold the names (it
1291is removed while open, so you shouldn't see it during the transfer). If
1292the creation of the temporary file fails, rsync will try to fall back to
1293using bf(--delete-after) (which it cannot do if bf(--recursive) is doing an
1294incremental scan).
d252e47d 1295See bf(--delete) (which is implied) for more details on file-deletion.
fd0a130c 1296
2c0fa6c5 1297dit(bf(--delete-after)) Request that the file-deletions on the receiving
ae76a740
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1298side be done after the transfer has completed. This is useful if you
1299are sending new per-directory merge files as a part of the transfer and
1300you want their exclusions to take effect for the delete phase of the
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1301current transfer. It also forces rsync to use the old, non-incremental
1302recursion algorithm that requires rsync to scan all the files in the
1303transfer into memory at once (see bf(--recursive)).
faa82484 1304See bf(--delete) (which is implied) for more details on file-deletion.
e8b155a3 1305
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1306dit(bf(--delete-excluded)) In addition to deleting the files on the
1307receiving side that are not on the sending side, this tells rsync to also
faa82484 1308delete any files on the receiving side that are excluded (see bf(--exclude)).
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WD
1309See the FILTER RULES section for a way to make individual exclusions behave
1310this way on the receiver, and for a way to protect files from
1311bf(--delete-excluded).
faa82484 1312See bf(--delete) (which is implied) for more details on file-deletion.
866925bf 1313
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WD
1314dit(bf(--ignore-missing-args)) When rsync is first processing the explicitly
1315requested source files (e.g. command-line arguments or bf(--files-from)
1316entries), it is normally an error if the file cannot be found. This option
1317suppresses that error, and does not try to transfer the file. This does not
1318affect subsequent vanished-file errors if a file was initially found to be
1319present and later is no longer there.
1320
1321dit(bf(--delete-missing-args)) This option takes the behavior of (the implied)
1322bf(--ignore-missing-args) option a step farther: each missing arg will become
1323a deletion request of the corresponding destination file on the receiving side
1324(should it exist). If the destination file is a non-empty directory, it will
1325only be successfully deleted if --force or --delete are in effect. Other than
1326that, this option is independent of any other type of delete processing.
1327
1328The missing source files are represented by special file-list entries which
1329display as a "*missing" entry in the bf(--list-only) output.
ce66f417 1330
faa82484 1331dit(bf(--ignore-errors)) Tells bf(--delete) to go ahead and delete files
b5accaba 1332even when there are I/O errors.
2c5548d2 1333
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1334dit(bf(--force)) This option tells rsync to delete a non-empty directory
1335when it is to be replaced by a non-directory. This is only relevant if
1336deletions are not active (see bf(--delete) for details).
1337
1338Note for older rsync versions: bf(--force) used to still be required when
1339using bf(--delete-after), and it used to be non-functional unless the
1340bf(--recursive) option was also enabled.
41059f75 1341
e2124620 1342dit(bf(--max-delete=NUM)) This tells rsync not to delete more than NUM
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1343files or directories. If that limit is exceeded, a warning is output
1344and rsync exits with an error code of 25 (new for 3.0.0).
1345
1346Also new for version 3.0.0, you may specify bf(--max-delete=0) to be warned
1347about any extraneous files in the destination without removing any of them.
1348Older clients interpreted this as "unlimited", so if you don't know what
1349version the client is, you can use the less obvious bf(--max-delete=-1) as
1350a backward-compatible way to specify that no deletions be allowed (though
1351older versions didn't warn when the limit was exceeded).
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1352
1353dit(bf(--max-size=SIZE)) This tells rsync to avoid transferring any
1354file that is larger than the specified SIZE. The SIZE value can be
926d86d1 1355suffixed with a string to indicate a size multiplier, and
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1356may be a fractional value (e.g. "bf(--max-size=1.5m)").
1357
fd2b6046
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1358This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't affect the
1359data that goes into the file-lists, and thus it doesn't affect deletions.
1360It just limits the files that the receiver requests to be transferred.
1361
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1362The suffixes are as follows: "K" (or "KiB") is a kibibyte (1024),
1363"M" (or "MiB") is a mebibyte (1024*1024), and "G" (or "GiB") is a
1364gibibyte (1024*1024*1024).
1365If you want the multiplier to be 1000 instead of 1024, use "KB",
1366"MB", or "GB". (Note: lower-case is also accepted for all values.)
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1367Finally, if the suffix ends in either "+1" or "-1", the value will
1368be offset by one byte in the indicated direction.
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1369
1370Examples: --max-size=1.5mb-1 is 1499999 bytes, and --max-size=2g+1 is
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13712147483649 bytes.
1372
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1373dit(bf(--min-size=SIZE)) This tells rsync to avoid transferring any
1374file that is smaller than the specified SIZE, which can help in not
1375transferring small, junk files.
fd2b6046 1376See the bf(--max-size) option for a description of SIZE and other information.
59dd6786 1377
3ed8eb3f 1378dit(bf(-B, --block-size=BLOCKSIZE)) This forces the block size used in
adc4ebdd 1379rsync's delta-transfer algorithm to a fixed value. It is normally selected based on
3ed8eb3f 1380the size of each file being updated. See the technical report for details.
41059f75 1381
b5679335 1382dit(bf(-e, --rsh=COMMAND)) This option allows you to choose an alternative
41059f75 1383remote shell program to use for communication between the local and
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1384remote copies of rsync. Typically, rsync is configured to use ssh by
1385default, but you may prefer to use rsh on a local network.
41059f75 1386
bef49340 1387If this option is used with bf([user@]host::module/path), then the
5a727522 1388remote shell em(COMMAND) will be used to run an rsync daemon on the
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1389remote host, and all data will be transmitted through that remote
1390shell connection, rather than through a direct socket connection to a
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1391running rsync daemon on the remote host. See the section "USING
1392RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION" above.
bef49340 1393
ea7f8108 1394Command-line arguments are permitted in COMMAND provided that COMMAND is
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1395presented to rsync as a single argument. You must use spaces (not tabs
1396or other whitespace) to separate the command and args from each other,
1397and you can use single- and/or double-quotes to preserve spaces in an
1398argument (but not backslashes). Note that doubling a single-quote
1399inside a single-quoted string gives you a single-quote; likewise for
1400double-quotes (though you need to pay attention to which quotes your
1401shell is parsing and which quotes rsync is parsing). Some examples:
98393ae2 1402
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1403quote(
1404tt( -e 'ssh -p 2234')nl()
1405tt( -e 'ssh -o "ProxyCommand nohup ssh firewall nc -w1 %h %p"')nl()
1406)
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WD
1407
1408(Note that ssh users can alternately customize site-specific connect
1409options in their .ssh/config file.)
1410
41059f75 1411You can also choose the remote shell program using the RSYNC_RSH
faa82484 1412environment variable, which accepts the same range of values as bf(-e).
41059f75 1413
faa82484 1414See also the bf(--blocking-io) option which is affected by this option.
735a816e 1415
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1416dit(bf(--rsync-path=PROGRAM)) Use this to specify what program is to be run
1417on the remote machine to start-up rsync. Often used when rsync is not in
1418the default remote-shell's path (e.g. --rsync-path=/usr/local/bin/rsync).
1419Note that PROGRAM is run with the help of a shell, so it can be any
1420program, script, or command sequence you'd care to run, so long as it does
1421not corrupt the standard-in & standard-out that rsync is using to
1422communicate.
1423
1424One tricky example is to set a different default directory on the remote
1425machine for use with the bf(--relative) option. For instance:
1426
c5b6e57a 1427quote(tt( rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /a/b && rsync" host:c/d /e/))
41059f75 1428
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WD
1429dit(bf(-M, --remote-option=OPTION)) This option is used for more advanced
1430situations where you want certain effects to be limited to one side of the
1431transfer only. For instance, if you want to pass bf(--log-file=FILE) and
1432bf(--fake-super) to the remote system, specify it like this:
1433
1434quote(tt( rsync -av -M --log-file=foo -M--fake-super src/ dest/))
1435
1436If you want to have an option affect only the local side of a transfer when
1437it normally affects both sides, send its negation to the remote side. Like
1438this:
1439
1440quote(tt( rsync -av -x -M--no-x src/ dest/))
1441
1442Be cautious using this, as it is possible to toggle an option that will cause
1443rsync to have a different idea about what data to expect next over the socket,
1444and that will make it fail in a cryptic fashion.
1445
1446Note that it is best to use a separate bf(--remote-option) for each option you
1447want to pass. This makes your useage compatible with the bf(--protect-args)
1448option. If that option is off, any spaces in your remote options will be split
1449by the remote shell unless you take steps to protect them.
1450
1451When performing a local transfer, the "local" side is the sender and the
1452"remote" side is the receiver.
1453
1454Note some versions of the popt option-parsing library have a bug in them that
1455prevents you from using an adjacent arg with an equal in it next to a short
1456option letter (e.g. tt(-M--log-file=/tmp/foo). If this bug affects your
1457version of popt, you can use the version of popt that is included with rsync.
1458
f177b7cc
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1459dit(bf(-C, --cvs-exclude)) This is a useful shorthand for excluding a
1460broad range of files that you often don't want to transfer between
c575f8ce 1461systems. It uses a similar algorithm to CVS to determine if
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1462a file should be ignored.
1463
c575f8ce
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1464The exclude list is initialized to exclude the following items (these
1465initial items are marked as perishable -- see the FILTER RULES section):
f177b7cc 1466
faa82484 1467quote(quote(tt(RCS SCCS CVS CVS.adm RCSLOG cvslog.* tags TAGS .make.state
9520ce4b
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1468.nse_depinfo *~ #* .#* ,* _$* *$ *.old *.bak *.BAK *.orig *.rej .del-*
1469*.a *.olb *.o *.obj *.so *.exe *.Z *.elc *.ln core .svn/ .git/ .bzr/)))
f177b7cc 1470
c575f8ce 1471then, files listed in a $HOME/.cvsignore are added to the list and any
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1472files listed in the CVSIGNORE environment variable (all cvsignore names
1473are delimited by whitespace).
1474
f177b7cc 1475Finally, any file is ignored if it is in the same directory as a
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1476.cvsignore file and matches one of the patterns listed therein. Unlike
1477rsync's filter/exclude files, these patterns are split on whitespace.
49f4cfdf 1478See the bf(cvs)(1) manual for more information.
f177b7cc 1479
bafa4875
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1480If you're combining bf(-C) with your own bf(--filter) rules, you should
1481note that these CVS excludes are appended at the end of your own rules,
3753975f 1482regardless of where the bf(-C) was placed on the command-line. This makes them
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1483a lower priority than any rules you specified explicitly. If you want to
1484control where these CVS excludes get inserted into your filter rules, you
1485should omit the bf(-C) as a command-line option and use a combination of
1486bf(--filter=:C) and bf(--filter=-C) (either on your command-line or by
1487putting the ":C" and "-C" rules into a filter file with your other rules).
1488The first option turns on the per-directory scanning for the .cvsignore
1489file. The second option does a one-time import of the CVS excludes
1490mentioned above.
1491
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1492dit(bf(-f, --filter=RULE)) This option allows you to add rules to selectively
1493exclude certain files from the list of files to be transferred. This is
1494most useful in combination with a recursive transfer.
41059f75 1495
faa82484 1496You may use as many bf(--filter) options on the command line as you like
5f0f2e08
WD
1497to build up the list of files to exclude. If the filter contains whitespace,
1498be sure to quote it so that the shell gives the rule to rsync as a single
1499argument. The text below also mentions that you can use an underscore to
1500replace the space that separates a rule from its arg.
41059f75 1501
16e5de84
WD
1502See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this option.
1503
faa82484 1504dit(bf(-F)) The bf(-F) option is a shorthand for adding two bf(--filter) rules to
16e5de84
WD
1505your command. The first time it is used is a shorthand for this rule:
1506
78be8e0f 1507quote(tt( --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'))
16e5de84
WD
1508
1509This tells rsync to look for per-directory .rsync-filter files that have
1510been sprinkled through the hierarchy and use their rules to filter the
faa82484 1511files in the transfer. If bf(-F) is repeated, it is a shorthand for this
16e5de84
WD
1512rule:
1513
78be8e0f 1514quote(tt( --filter='exclude .rsync-filter'))
16e5de84
WD
1515
1516This filters out the .rsync-filter files themselves from the transfer.
1517
1518See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on how these options
1519work.
1520
1521dit(bf(--exclude=PATTERN)) This option is a simplified form of the
faa82484 1522bf(--filter) option that defaults to an exclude rule and does not allow
16e5de84
WD
1523the full rule-parsing syntax of normal filter rules.
1524
1525See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this option.
41059f75 1526
78be8e0f
WD
1527dit(bf(--exclude-from=FILE)) This option is related to the bf(--exclude)
1528option, but it specifies a FILE that contains exclude patterns (one per line).
1529Blank lines in the file and lines starting with ';' or '#' are ignored.
1530If em(FILE) is bf(-), the list will be read from standard input.
f8a94f0d 1531
16e5de84 1532dit(bf(--include=PATTERN)) This option is a simplified form of the
faa82484 1533bf(--filter) option that defaults to an include rule and does not allow
16e5de84 1534the full rule-parsing syntax of normal filter rules.
43bd68e5 1535
16e5de84 1536See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this option.
43bd68e5 1537
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WD
1538dit(bf(--include-from=FILE)) This option is related to the bf(--include)
1539option, but it specifies a FILE that contains include patterns (one per line).
1540Blank lines in the file and lines starting with ';' or '#' are ignored.
1541If em(FILE) is bf(-), the list will be read from standard input.
f8a94f0d 1542
f177b7cc 1543dit(bf(--files-from=FILE)) Using this option allows you to specify the
78be8e0f 1544exact list of files to transfer (as read from the specified FILE or bf(-)
c769702f 1545for standard input). It also tweaks the default behavior of rsync to make
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1546transferring just the specified files and directories easier:
1547
b8a6dae0 1548quote(itemization(
faa82484
WD
1549 it() The bf(--relative) (bf(-R)) option is implied, which preserves the path
1550 information that is specified for each item in the file (use
f40aa6fb 1551 bf(--no-relative) or bf(--no-R) if you want to turn that off).
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WD
1552 it() The bf(--dirs) (bf(-d)) option is implied, which will create directories
1553 specified in the list on the destination rather than noisily skipping
f40aa6fb 1554 them (use bf(--no-dirs) or bf(--no-d) if you want to turn that off).
faa82484
WD
1555 it() The bf(--archive) (bf(-a)) option's behavior does not imply bf(--recursive)
1556 (bf(-r)), so specify it explicitly, if you want it.
f40aa6fb
WD
1557 it() These side-effects change the default state of rsync, so the position
1558 of the bf(--files-from) option on the command-line has no bearing on how
1559 other options are parsed (e.g. bf(-a) works the same before or after
1560 bf(--files-from), as does bf(--no-R) and all other options).
faa82484 1561))
f177b7cc 1562
809724d7 1563The filenames that are read from the FILE are all relative to the
f177b7cc
WD
1564source dir -- any leading slashes are removed and no ".." references are
1565allowed to go higher than the source dir. For example, take this
1566command:
1567
faa82484 1568quote(tt( rsync -a --files-from=/tmp/foo /usr remote:/backup))
f177b7cc
WD
1569
1570If /tmp/foo contains the string "bin" (or even "/bin"), the /usr/bin
51cc96e4
WD
1571directory will be created as /backup/bin on the remote host. If it
1572contains "bin/" (note the trailing slash), the immediate contents of
1573the directory would also be sent (without needing to be explicitly
1574mentioned in the file -- this began in version 2.6.4). In both cases,
1575if the bf(-r) option was enabled, that dir's entire hierarchy would
1576also be transferred (keep in mind that bf(-r) needs to be specified
1577explicitly with bf(--files-from), since it is not implied by bf(-a)).
1578Also note
faa82484 1579that the effect of the (enabled by default) bf(--relative) option is to
f177b7cc
WD
1580duplicate only the path info that is read from the file -- it does not
1581force the duplication of the source-spec path (/usr in this case).
1582
faa82484 1583In addition, the bf(--files-from) file can be read from the remote host
f177b7cc
WD
1584instead of the local host if you specify a "host:" in front of the file
1585(the host must match one end of the transfer). As a short-cut, you can
1586specify just a prefix of ":" to mean "use the remote end of the
1587transfer". For example:
1588
faa82484 1589quote(tt( rsync -a --files-from=:/path/file-list src:/ /tmp/copy))
f177b7cc
WD
1590
1591This would copy all the files specified in the /path/file-list file that
1592was located on the remote "src" host.
1593
0dd2310c
WD
1594If the bf(--iconv) and bf(--protect-args) options are specified and the
1595bf(--files-from) filenames are being sent from one host to another, the
1596filenames will be translated from the sending host's charset to the
1597receiving host's charset.
1598
fa92818a 1599dit(bf(-0, --from0)) This tells rsync that the rules/filenames it reads from a
f177b7cc 1600file are terminated by a null ('\0') character, not a NL, CR, or CR+LF.
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WD
1601This affects bf(--exclude-from), bf(--include-from), bf(--files-from), and any
1602merged files specified in a bf(--filter) rule.
1603It does not affect bf(--cvs-exclude) (since all names read from a .cvsignore
f01b6368 1604file are split on whitespace).
41059f75 1605
0dd2310c 1606dit(bf(-s, --protect-args)) This option sends all filenames and most options to
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WD
1607the remote rsync without allowing the remote shell to interpret them. This
1608means that spaces are not split in names, and any non-wildcard special
1609characters are not translated (such as ~, $, ;, &, etc.). Wildcards are
1610expanded on the remote host by rsync (instead of the shell doing it).
1611
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WD
1612If you use this option with bf(--iconv), the args related to the remote
1613side will also be translated
0b52f94d 1614from the local to the remote character-set. The translation happens before
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WD
1615wild-cards are expanded. See also the bf(--files-from) option.
1616
2b2a4738
WD
1617You may also control this option via the RSYNC_PROTECT_ARGS environment
1618variable. If this variable has a non-zero value, this option will be enabled
1619by default, otherwise it will be disabled by default. Either state is
1620overridden by a manually specified positive or negative version of this option
1621(note that bf(--no-s) and bf(--no-protect-args) are the negative versions).
1622Since this option was first introduced in 3.0.0, you'll need to make sure it's
1623disabled if you ever need to interact with a remote rsync that is older than
1624that.
1625
1626Rsync can also be configured (at build time) to have this option enabled by
1627default (with is overridden by both the environment and the command-line).
1628This option will eventually become a new default setting at some
1629as-yet-undetermined point in the future.
1630
b5679335 1631dit(bf(-T, --temp-dir=DIR)) This option instructs rsync to use DIR as a
a9af5d8e
WD
1632scratch directory when creating temporary copies of the files transferred
1633on the receiving side. The default behavior is to create each temporary
1634file in the same directory as the associated destination file.
41059f75 1635
9ec1ef25
WD
1636This option is most often used when the receiving disk partition does not
1637have enough free space to hold a copy of the largest file in the transfer.
d770837e 1638In this case (i.e. when the scratch directory is on a different disk
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WD
1639partition), rsync will not be able to rename each received temporary file
1640over the top of the associated destination file, but instead must copy it
1641into place. Rsync does this by copying the file over the top of the
1642destination file, which means that the destination file will contain
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WD
1643truncated data during this copy. If this were not done this way (even if
1644the destination file were first removed, the data locally copied to a
1645temporary file in the destination directory, and then renamed into place)
1646it would be possible for the old file to continue taking up disk space (if
1647someone had it open), and thus there might not be enough room to fit the
1648new version on the disk at the same time.
9ec1ef25
WD
1649
1650If you are using this option for reasons other than a shortage of disk
1651space, you may wish to combine it with the bf(--delay-updates) option,
a0d9819f
WD
1652which will ensure that all copied files get put into subdirectories in the
1653destination hierarchy, awaiting the end of the transfer. If you don't
1654have enough room to duplicate all the arriving files on the destination
1655partition, another way to tell rsync that you aren't overly concerned
1656about disk space is to use the bf(--partial-dir) option with a relative
1657path; because this tells rsync that it is OK to stash off a copy of a
1658single file in a subdir in the destination hierarchy, rsync will use the
1659partial-dir as a staging area to bring over the copied file, and then
1660rename it into place from there. (Specifying a bf(--partial-dir) with
1661an absolute path does not have this side-effect.)
9ec1ef25 1662
5b483755
WD
1663dit(bf(-y, --fuzzy)) This option tells rsync that it should look for a
1664basis file for any destination file that is missing. The current algorithm
1665looks in the same directory as the destination file for either a file that
1666has an identical size and modified-time, or a similarly-named file. If
1667found, rsync uses the fuzzy basis file to try to speed up the transfer.
1668
1669Note that the use of the bf(--delete) option might get rid of any potential
1670fuzzy-match files, so either use bf(--delete-after) or specify some
1671filename exclusions if you need to prevent this.
1672
b127c1dc 1673dit(bf(--compare-dest=DIR)) This option instructs rsync to use em(DIR) on
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WD
1674the destination machine as an additional hierarchy to compare destination
1675files against doing transfers (if the files are missing in the destination
1676directory). If a file is found in em(DIR) that is identical to the
1677sender's file, the file will NOT be transferred to the destination
1678directory. This is useful for creating a sparse backup of just files that
1679have changed from an earlier backup.
1680
faa82484 1681Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple bf(--compare-dest) directories may be
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WD
1682provided, which will cause rsync to search the list in the order specified
1683for an exact match.
2f03ce67
WD
1684If a match is found that differs only in attributes, a local copy is made
1685and the attributes updated.
99eb41b2
WD
1686If a match is not found, a basis file from one of the em(DIR)s will be
1687selected to try to speed up the transfer.
e49f61f5
WD
1688
1689If em(DIR) is a relative path, it is relative to the destination directory.
2f03ce67 1690See also bf(--copy-dest) and bf(--link-dest).
b127c1dc 1691
2f03ce67
WD
1692dit(bf(--copy-dest=DIR)) This option behaves like bf(--compare-dest), but
1693rsync will also copy unchanged files found in em(DIR) to the destination
1694directory using a local copy.
1695This is useful for doing transfers to a new destination while leaving
1696existing files intact, and then doing a flash-cutover when all files have
1697been successfully transferred.
1698
1699Multiple bf(--copy-dest) directories may be provided, which will cause
1700rsync to search the list in the order specified for an unchanged file.
1701If a match is not found, a basis file from one of the em(DIR)s will be
1702selected to try to speed up the transfer.
1703
1704If em(DIR) is a relative path, it is relative to the destination directory.
1705See also bf(--compare-dest) and bf(--link-dest).
1706
1707dit(bf(--link-dest=DIR)) This option behaves like bf(--copy-dest), but
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WD
1708unchanged files are hard linked from em(DIR) to the destination directory.
1709The files must be identical in all preserved attributes (e.g. permissions,
1710possibly ownership) in order for the files to be linked together.
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WD
1711An example:
1712
faa82484 1713quote(tt( rsync -av --link-dest=$PWD/prior_dir host:src_dir/ new_dir/))
59c95e42 1714
45c37e73
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1715If file's aren't linking, double-check their attributes. Also check if some
1716attributes are getting forced outside of rsync's control, such a mount option
1717that squishes root to a single user, or mounts a removable drive with generic
1718ownership (such as OS X's "Ignore ownership on this volume" option).
1719
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1720Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple bf(--link-dest) directories may be
1721provided, which will cause rsync to search the list in the order specified
1722for an exact match.
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WD
1723If a match is found that differs only in attributes, a local copy is made
1724and the attributes updated.
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WD
1725If a match is not found, a basis file from one of the em(DIR)s will be
1726selected to try to speed up the transfer.
e49f61f5 1727
33689f48
WD
1728This option works best when copying into an empty destination hierarchy, as
1729rsync treats existing files as definitive (so it never looks in the link-dest
1730dirs when a destination file already exists), and as malleable (so it might
1731change the attributes of a destination file, which affects all the hard-linked
1732versions).
1733
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WD
1734Note that if you combine this option with bf(--ignore-times), rsync will not
1735link any files together because it only links identical files together as a
1736substitute for transferring the file, never as an additional check after the
1737file is updated.
1738
e49f61f5 1739If em(DIR) is a relative path, it is relative to the destination directory.
2f03ce67 1740See also bf(--compare-dest) and bf(--copy-dest).
b127c1dc 1741
e0204f56 1742Note that rsync versions prior to 2.6.1 had a bug that could prevent
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1743bf(--link-dest) from working properly for a non-super-user when bf(-o) was
1744specified (or implied by bf(-a)). You can work-around this bug by avoiding
1745the bf(-o) option when sending to an old rsync.
e0204f56 1746
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1747dit(bf(-z, --compress)) With this option, rsync compresses the file data
1748as it is sent to the destination machine, which reduces the amount of data
1749being transmitted -- something that is useful over a slow connection.
41059f75 1750
02184920 1751Note that this option typically achieves better compression ratios than can
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1752be achieved by using a compressing remote shell or a compressing transport
1753because it takes advantage of the implicit information in the matching data
1754blocks that are not explicitly sent over the connection.
41059f75 1755
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1756See the bf(--skip-compress) option for the default list of file suffixes
1757that will not be compressed.
1758
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1759dit(bf(--compress-level=NUM)) Explicitly set the compression level to use
1760(see bf(--compress)) instead of letting it default. If NUM is non-zero,
1761the bf(--compress) option is implied.
1762
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1763dit(bf(--skip-compress=LIST)) Override the list of file suffixes that will
1764not be compressed. The bf(LIST) should be one or more file suffixes
1765(without the dot) separated by slashes (/).
1766
1767You may specify an empty string to indicate that no file should be skipped.
1768
1769Simple character-class matching is supported: each must consist of a list
1770of letters inside the square brackets (e.g. no special classes, such as
4b660bae 1771"[:alpha:]", are supported, and '-' has no special meaning).
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1772
1773The characters asterisk (*) and question-mark (?) have no special meaning.
1774
1775Here's an example that specifies 6 suffixes to skip (since 1 of the 5 rules
1776matches 2 suffixes):
1777
1778verb( --skip-compress=gz/jpg/mp[34]/7z/bz2)
1779
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1780The default list of suffixes that will not be compressed is this (in this
1781version of rsync):
1782
1783bf(7z)
1784bf(ace)
1785bf(avi)
1786bf(bz2)
1787bf(deb)
1788bf(gpg)
1789bf(gz)
1790bf(iso)
1791bf(jpeg)
1792bf(jpg)
1793bf(lzma)
1794bf(lzo)
1795bf(mov)
1796bf(mp3)
1797bf(mp4)
1798bf(ogg)
1799bf(rar)
1800bf(rpm)
1801bf(rzip)
1802bf(tbz)
1803bf(tgz)
1804bf(z)
1805bf(zip)
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1806
1807This list will be replaced by your bf(--skip-compress) list in all but one
1808situation: a copy from a daemon rsync will add your skipped suffixes to
1809its list of non-compressing files (and its list may be configured to a
1810different default).
1811
41059f75 1812dit(bf(--numeric-ids)) With this option rsync will transfer numeric group
4d888108 1813and user IDs rather than using user and group names and mapping them
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AT
1814at both ends.
1815
4d888108 1816By default rsync will use the username and groupname to determine
41059f75 1817what ownership to give files. The special uid 0 and the special group
faa82484 18180 are never mapped via user/group names even if the bf(--numeric-ids)
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AT
1819option is not specified.
1820
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WD
1821If a user or group has no name on the source system or it has no match
1822on the destination system, then the numeric ID
1823from the source system is used instead. See also the comments on the
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1824"use chroot" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage for information on how
1825the chroot setting affects rsync's ability to look up the names of the
1826users and groups and what you can do about it.
41059f75 1827
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1828dit(bf(--usermap=STRING, --groupmap=STRING)) These options allow you to
1829specify users and groups that should be mapped to other values by the
1830receiving side. The bf(STRING) is one or more bf(FROM):bf(TO) pairs of
1831values separated by commas. Any matching bf(FROM) value from the sender is
1832replaced with a bf(TO) value from the receiver. You may specify usernames
1833or user IDs for the bf(FROM) and bf(TO) values, and the bf(FROM) value may
1834also be a wild-card string, which will be matched against the sender's
1835names (wild-cards do NOT match against ID numbers, though see below for
1836why a '*' matches everything). You may instead specify a range of ID
1837numbers via an inclusive range: LOW-HIGH. For example:
1838
1839verb( --usermap=0-99:nobody,wayne:admin,*:normal --groupmap=usr:1,1:usr)
1840
1841The first match in the list is the one that is used. You should specify
1842all your user mappings using a single bf(--usermap) option, and/or all
1843your group mappings using a single bf(--groupmap) option.
1844
1845Note that the sender's name for the 0 user and group are not transmitted
1846to the receiver, so you should either match these values using a 0, or use
1847the names in effect on the receiving side (typically "root"). All other
1848bf(FROM) names match those in use on the sending side. All bf(TO) names
1849match those in use on the receiving side.
1850
1851Any IDs that do not have a name on the sending side are treated as having an
1852empty name for the purpose of matching. This allows them to be matched via
1853a "*" or using an empty name. For instance:
1854
1855verb( --usermap=:nobody --groupmap=*:nobody)
1856
1857When the bf(--numeric-ids) option is used, the sender does not send any
1858names, so all the IDs are treated as having an empty name. This means that
1859you will need to specify numeric bf(FROM) values if you want to map these
1860nameless IDs to different values.
1861
1862For the bf(--usermap) option to have any effect, the bf(-o) (bf(--owner))
1863option must be used (or implied), and the receiver will need to be running
1864as a super-user (see also the bf(--fake-super) option). For the bf(--groupmap)
1865option to have any effect, the bf(-g) (bf(--groups)) option must be used
1866(or implied), and the receiver will need to have permissions to set that
1867group.
1868
1869dit(bf(--chown=USER:GROUP)) This option forces all files to be owned by USER
1870with group GROUP. This is a simpler interface than using bf(--usermap) and
1871bf(--groupmap) directly, but it is implemented using those options internally,
1872so you cannot mix them. If either the USER or GROUP is empty, no mapping for
1873the omitted user/group will occur. If GROUP is empty, the trailing colon may
1874be omitted, but if USER is empty, a leading colon must be supplied.
1875
1876If you specify "--chown=foo:bar, this is exactly the same as specifying
1877"--usermap=*:foo --groupmap=*:bar", only easier.
1878
b5accaba 1879dit(bf(--timeout=TIMEOUT)) This option allows you to set a maximum I/O
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AT
1880timeout in seconds. If no data is transferred for the specified time
1881then rsync will exit. The default is 0, which means no timeout.
41059f75 1882
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1883dit(bf(--contimeout)) This option allows you to set the amount of time
1884that rsync will wait for its connection to an rsync daemon to succeed.
1885If the timeout is reached, rsync exits with an error.
1886
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1887dit(bf(--address)) By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when
1888connecting to an rsync daemon. The bf(--address) option allows you to
1889specify a specific IP address (or hostname) to bind to. See also this
1890option in the bf(--daemon) mode section.
1891
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WD
1892dit(bf(--port=PORT)) This specifies an alternate TCP port number to use
1893rather than the default of 873. This is only needed if you are using the
1894double-colon (::) syntax to connect with an rsync daemon (since the URL
1895syntax has a way to specify the port as a part of the URL). See also this
faa82484 1896option in the bf(--daemon) mode section.
c259892c 1897
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1898dit(bf(--sockopts)) This option can provide endless fun for people
1899who like to tune their systems to the utmost degree. You can set all
1900sorts of socket options which may make transfers faster (or
49f4cfdf 1901slower!). Read the man page for the code(setsockopt()) system call for
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1902details on some of the options you may be able to set. By default no
1903special socket options are set. This only affects direct socket
1904connections to a remote rsync daemon. This option also exists in the
1905bf(--daemon) mode section.
1906
b5accaba 1907dit(bf(--blocking-io)) This tells rsync to use blocking I/O when launching
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WD
1908a remote shell transport. If the remote shell is either rsh or remsh,
1909rsync defaults to using
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WD
1910blocking I/O, otherwise it defaults to using non-blocking I/O. (Note that
1911ssh prefers non-blocking I/O.)
64c704f0 1912
0cfdf226 1913dit(bf(-i, --itemize-changes)) Requests a simple itemized list of the
4f90eb43 1914changes that are being made to each file, including attribute changes.
4b90820d 1915This is exactly the same as specifying bf(--out-format='%i %n%L').
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1916If you repeat the option, unchanged files will also be output, but only
1917if the receiving rsync is at least version 2.6.7 (you can use bf(-vv)
1918with older versions of rsync, but that also turns on the output of other
1919verbose messages).
ea67c715 1920
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1921The "%i" escape has a cryptic output that is 11 letters long. The general
1922format is like the string bf(YXcstpoguax), where bf(Y) is replaced by the
4f417448 1923type of update being done, bf(X) is replaced by the file-type, and the
a314f7c1 1924other letters represent attributes that may be output if they are being
ee171c6d 1925modified.
ea67c715 1926
2d5279ac 1927The update types that replace the bf(Y) are as follows:
ea67c715 1928
b8a6dae0 1929quote(itemization(
cc3e0770 1930 it() A bf(<) means that a file is being transferred to the remote host
a314f7c1 1931 (sent).
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WD
1932 it() A bf(>) means that a file is being transferred to the local host
1933 (received).
c48cff9f 1934 it() A bf(c) means that a local change/creation is occurring for the item
ee171c6d 1935 (such as the creation of a directory or the changing of a symlink, etc.).
02184920 1936 it() A bf(h) means that the item is a hard link to another item (requires
b4875de4 1937 bf(--hard-links)).
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WD
1938 it() A bf(.) means that the item is not being updated (though it might
1939 have attributes that are being modified).
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WD
1940 it() A bf(*) means that the rest of the itemized-output area contains
1941 a message (e.g. "deleting").
a314f7c1 1942))
ea67c715 1943
a314f7c1 1944The file-types that replace the bf(X) are: bf(f) for a file, a bf(d) for a
4e7d07c8
WD
1945directory, an bf(L) for a symlink, a bf(D) for a device, and a bf(S) for a
1946special file (e.g. named sockets and fifos).
ea67c715 1947
a314f7c1 1948The other letters in the string above are the actual letters that
ea67c715
WD
1949will be output if the associated attribute for the item is being updated or
1950a "." for no change. Three exceptions to this are: (1) a newly created
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WD
1951item replaces each letter with a "+", (2) an identical item replaces the
1952dots with spaces, and (3) an unknown attribute replaces each letter with
81c453b1 1953a "?" (this can happen when talking to an older rsync).
ea67c715
WD
1954
1955The attribute that is associated with each letter is as follows:
1956
b8a6dae0 1957quote(itemization(
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WD
1958 it() A bf(c) means either that a regular file has a different checksum
1959 (requires bf(--checksum)) or that a symlink, device, or special file has
1960 a changed value.
600b56b3 1961 Note that if you are sending files to an rsync prior to 3.0.1, this
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WD
1962 change flag will be present only for checksum-differing regular files.
1963 it() A bf(s) means the size of a regular file is different and will be updated
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WD
1964 by the file transfer.
1965 it() A bf(t) means the modification time is different and is being updated
5a727522 1966 to the sender's value (requires bf(--times)). An alternate value of bf(T)
42b06481 1967 means that the modification time will be set to the transfer time, which happens
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WD
1968 when a file/symlink/device is updated without bf(--times) and when a
1969 symlink is changed and the receiver can't set its time.
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WD
1970 (Note: when using an rsync 3.0.0 client, you might see the bf(s) flag combined
1971 with bf(t) instead of the proper bf(T) flag for this time-setting failure.)
ea67c715 1972 it() A bf(p) means the permissions are different and are being updated to
5a727522 1973 the sender's value (requires bf(--perms)).
4dc67d5e 1974 it() An bf(o) means the owner is different and is being updated to the
d38772e0 1975 sender's value (requires bf(--owner) and super-user privileges).
4dc67d5e 1976 it() A bf(g) means the group is different and is being updated to the
5a727522 1977 sender's value (requires bf(--group) and the authority to set the group).
7869953b 1978 it() The bf(u) slot is reserved for future use.
1c3344a1 1979 it() The bf(a) means that the ACL information changed.
7869953b 1980 it() The bf(x) means that the extended attribute information changed.
ea67c715
WD
1981))
1982
1983One other output is possible: when deleting files, the "%i" will output
ee171c6d 1984the string "*deleting" for each item that is being removed (assuming that
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WD
1985you are talking to a recent enough rsync that it logs deletions instead of
1986outputting them as a verbose message).
dc0f2497 1987
4b90820d 1988dit(bf(--out-format=FORMAT)) This allows you to specify exactly what the
951e826b
WD
1989rsync client outputs to the user on a per-update basis. The format is a
1990text string containing embedded single-character escape sequences prefixed
1991with a percent (%) character. A default format of "%n%L" is assumed if
1992either bf(--info=name) or bf(-v) is specified (this tells you just the name
1993of the file and, if the item is a link, where it points). For a full list
1994of the possible escape characters, see the "log format" setting in the
1995rsyncd.conf manpage.
1996
1997Specifying the bf(--out-format) option implies the bf(--info=name) option,
1998which will mention each file, dir, etc. that gets updated in a significant
1999way (a transferred file, a recreated symlink/device, or a touched
2000directory). In addition, if the itemize-changes escape (%i) is included in
2001the string (e.g. if the bf(--itemize-changes) option was used), the logging
2002of names increases to mention any item that is changed in any way (as long
2003as the receiving side is at least 2.6.4). See the bf(--itemize-changes)
2004option for a description of the output of "%i".
ea67c715 2005
4b90820d 2006Rsync will output the out-format string prior to a file's transfer unless
ea67c715
WD
2007one of the transfer-statistic escapes is requested, in which case the
2008logging is done at the end of the file's transfer. When this late logging
2009is in effect and bf(--progress) is also specified, rsync will also output
2010the name of the file being transferred prior to its progress information
4b90820d
WD
2011(followed, of course, by the out-format output).
2012
2013dit(bf(--log-file=FILE)) This option causes rsync to log what it is doing
2014to a file. This is similar to the logging that a daemon does, but can be
2015requested for the client side and/or the server side of a non-daemon
2016transfer. If specified as a client option, transfer logging will be
2017enabled with a default format of "%i %n%L". See the bf(--log-file-format)
2018option if you wish to override this.
2019
2020Here's a example command that requests the remote side to log what is
2021happening:
2022
7a2eca41 2023verb( rsync -av --remote-option=--log-file=/tmp/rlog src/ dest/)
4b90820d
WD
2024
2025This is very useful if you need to debug why a connection is closing
2026unexpectedly.
2027
2028dit(bf(--log-file-format=FORMAT)) This allows you to specify exactly what
2029per-update logging is put into the file specified by the bf(--log-file) option
2030(which must also be specified for this option to have any effect). If you
2031specify an empty string, updated files will not be mentioned in the log file.
2032For a list of the possible escape characters, see the "log format" setting
2033in the rsyncd.conf manpage.
b6062654 2034
e129500c
WD
2035The default FORMAT used if bf(--log-file) is specified and this option is not
2036is '%i %n%L'.
2037
b72f24c7 2038dit(bf(--stats)) This tells rsync to print a verbose set of statistics
adc4ebdd 2039on the file transfer, allowing you to tell how effective rsync's delta-transfer
951e826b
WD
2040algorithm is for your data. This option is equivalent to bf(--info=stats2)
2041if combined with 0 or 1 bf(-v) options, or bf(--info=stats3) if combined
2042with 2 or more bf(-v) options.
b72f24c7 2043
b8a6dae0 2044The current statistics are as follows: quote(itemization(
7b13ff97
WD
2045 it() bf(Number of files) is the count of all "files" (in the generic
2046 sense), which includes directories, symlinks, etc.
2047 it() bf(Number of files transferred) is the count of normal files that
adc4ebdd 2048 were updated via rsync's delta-transfer algorithm, which does not include created
7b13ff97
WD
2049 dirs, symlinks, etc.
2050 it() bf(Total file size) is the total sum of all file sizes in the transfer.
2051 This does not count any size for directories or special files, but does
2052 include the size of symlinks.
2053 it() bf(Total transferred file size) is the total sum of all files sizes
2054 for just the transferred files.
2055 it() bf(Literal data) is how much unmatched file-update data we had to
2056 send to the receiver for it to recreate the updated files.
2057 it() bf(Matched data) is how much data the receiver got locally when
2058 recreating the updated files.
2059 it() bf(File list size) is how big the file-list data was when the sender
2060 sent it to the receiver. This is smaller than the in-memory size for the
2061 file list due to some compressing of duplicated data when rsync sends the
2062 list.
2063 it() bf(File list generation time) is the number of seconds that the
2064 sender spent creating the file list. This requires a modern rsync on the
2065 sending side for this to be present.
2066 it() bf(File list transfer time) is the number of seconds that the sender
2067 spent sending the file list to the receiver.
2068 it() bf(Total bytes sent) is the count of all the bytes that rsync sent
2069 from the client side to the server side.
2070 it() bf(Total bytes received) is the count of all non-message bytes that
2071 rsync received by the client side from the server side. "Non-message"
2072 bytes means that we don't count the bytes for a verbose message that the
2073 server sent to us, which makes the stats more consistent.
38a4b9c2 2074))
7b13ff97 2075
a6a27602 2076dit(bf(-8, --8-bit-output)) This tells rsync to leave all high-bit characters
d0022dd9
WD
2077unescaped in the output instead of trying to test them to see if they're
2078valid in the current locale and escaping the invalid ones. All control
2079characters (but never tabs) are always escaped, regardless of this option's
2080setting.
2081
2082The escape idiom that started in 2.6.7 is to output a literal backslash (\)
2083and a hash (#), followed by exactly 3 octal digits. For example, a newline
2084would output as "\#012". A literal backslash that is in a filename is not
2085escaped unless it is followed by a hash and 3 digits (0-9).
2086
955c3145 2087dit(bf(-h, --human-readable)) Output numbers in a more human-readable format.
adc2476f
WD
2088There are 3 possible levels: (1) output numbers with a separator between each
2089set of 3 digits (either a comma or a period, depending on if the decimal point
2090is represented by a period or a comma); (2) output numbers in units of 1000
2091(with a character suffix for larger units -- see below); (3) output numbers in
2092units of 1024.
2093
2094The default is human-readable level 1. Each bf(-h) option increases the level
2095by one. You can take the level down to 0 (to output numbers as pure digits) by
2096specifing the bf(--no-human-readable) (bf(--no-h)) option.
2097
2098The unit letters that are appended in levels 2 and 3 are: K (kilo), M (mega),
2099G (giga), or T (tera). For example, a 1234567-byte file would output as 1.23M
2100in level-2 (assuming that a period is your local decimal point).
2101
2102Backward compatibility note: versions of rsync prior to 3.1.0 do not support
2103human-readable level 1, and they default to level 0. Thus, specifying one or
2104two bf(-h) options behaves the same in old and new versions as long as you
2105didn't specify a bf(--no-h) option prior to one or more bf(-h) options.
3b4ecc6b 2106
d9fcc198
AT
2107dit(bf(--partial)) By default, rsync will delete any partially
2108transferred file if the transfer is interrupted. In some circumstances
2109it is more desirable to keep partially transferred files. Using the
faa82484 2110bf(--partial) option tells rsync to keep the partial file which should
d9fcc198
AT
2111make a subsequent transfer of the rest of the file much faster.
2112
c2582307
WD
2113dit(bf(--partial-dir=DIR)) A better way to keep partial files than the
2114bf(--partial) option is to specify a em(DIR) that will be used to hold the
2115partial data (instead of writing it out to the destination file).
2116On the next transfer, rsync will use a file found in this
9ec1ef25 2117dir as data to speed up the resumption of the transfer and then delete it
c2582307 2118after it has served its purpose.
9ec1ef25 2119
c2582307
WD
2120Note that if bf(--whole-file) is specified (or implied), any partial-dir
2121file that is found for a file that is being updated will simply be removed
2122(since
adc4ebdd 2123rsync is sending files without using rsync's delta-transfer algorithm).
44cad59f 2124
c2582307
WD
2125Rsync will create the em(DIR) if it is missing (just the last dir -- not
2126the whole path). This makes it easy to use a relative path (such as
2127"bf(--partial-dir=.rsync-partial)") to have rsync create the
2128partial-directory in the destination file's directory when needed, and then
2129remove it again when the partial file is deleted.
44cad59f 2130
ee554411
WD
2131If the partial-dir value is not an absolute path, rsync will add an exclude
2132rule at the end of all your existing excludes. This will prevent the
2133sending of any partial-dir files that may exist on the sending side, and
2134will also prevent the untimely deletion of partial-dir items on the
2135receiving side. An example: the above bf(--partial-dir) option would add
f49c8376 2136the equivalent of "bf(-f '-p .rsync-partial/')" at the end of any other
ee554411
WD
2137filter rules.
2138
2139If you are supplying your own exclude rules, you may need to add your own
2140exclude/hide/protect rule for the partial-dir because (1) the auto-added
2141rule may be ineffective at the end of your other rules, or (2) you may wish
2142to override rsync's exclude choice. For instance, if you want to make
2143rsync clean-up any left-over partial-dirs that may be lying around, you
2144should specify bf(--delete-after) and add a "risk" filter rule, e.g.
2145bf(-f 'R .rsync-partial/'). (Avoid using bf(--delete-before) or
2146bf(--delete-during) unless you don't need rsync to use any of the
2147left-over partial-dir data during the current run.)
44cad59f 2148
faa82484 2149IMPORTANT: the bf(--partial-dir) should not be writable by other users or it
b4d1e854
WD
2150is a security risk. E.g. AVOID "/tmp".
2151
2152You can also set the partial-dir value the RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR environment
faa82484 2153variable. Setting this in the environment does not force bf(--partial) to be
02184920 2154enabled, but rather it affects where partial files go when bf(--partial) is
faa82484
WD
2155specified. For instance, instead of using bf(--partial-dir=.rsync-tmp)
2156along with bf(--progress), you could set RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR=.rsync-tmp in your
2157environment and then just use the bf(-P) option to turn on the use of the
9ec1ef25
WD
2158.rsync-tmp dir for partial transfers. The only times that the bf(--partial)
2159option does not look for this environment value are (1) when bf(--inplace) was
2160specified (since bf(--inplace) conflicts with bf(--partial-dir)), and (2) when
faa82484 2161bf(--delay-updates) was specified (see below).
01b835c2 2162
5a727522 2163For the purposes of the daemon-config's "refuse options" setting,
c2582307
WD
2164bf(--partial-dir) does em(not) imply bf(--partial). This is so that a
2165refusal of the bf(--partial) option can be used to disallow the overwriting
2166of destination files with a partial transfer, while still allowing the
2167safer idiom provided by bf(--partial-dir).
2168
01b835c2 2169dit(bf(--delay-updates)) This option puts the temporary file from each
c2582307 2170updated file into a holding directory until the end of the
01b835c2
WD
2171transfer, at which time all the files are renamed into place in rapid
2172succession. This attempts to make the updating of the files a little more
c2582307 2173atomic. By default the files are placed into a directory named ".~tmp~" in
64318670 2174each file's destination directory, but if you've specified the
ee554411
WD
2175bf(--partial-dir) option, that directory will be used instead. See the
2176comments in the bf(--partial-dir) section for a discussion of how this
2177".~tmp~" dir will be excluded from the transfer, and what you can do if
c5b6e57a 2178you want rsync to cleanup old ".~tmp~" dirs that might be lying around.
64318670 2179Conflicts with bf(--inplace) and bf(--append).
01b835c2
WD
2180
2181This option uses more memory on the receiving side (one bit per file
2182transferred) and also requires enough free disk space on the receiving
2183side to hold an additional copy of all the updated files. Note also that
5efbddba
WD
2184you should not use an absolute path to bf(--partial-dir) unless (1)
2185there is no
01b835c2
WD
2186chance of any of the files in the transfer having the same name (since all
2187the updated files will be put into a single directory if the path is
5efbddba
WD
2188absolute)
2189and (2) there are no mount points in the hierarchy (since the
2190delayed updates will fail if they can't be renamed into place).
01b835c2
WD
2191
2192See also the "atomic-rsync" perl script in the "support" subdir for an
faa82484 2193update algorithm that is even more atomic (it uses bf(--link-dest) and a
01b835c2 2194parallel hierarchy of files).
44cad59f 2195
a272ff8c 2196dit(bf(-m, --prune-empty-dirs)) This option tells the receiving rsync to get
fb72aaba
WD
2197rid of empty directories from the file-list, including nested directories
2198that have no non-directory children. This is useful for avoiding the
2199creation of a bunch of useless directories when the sending rsync is
2200recursively scanning a hierarchy of files using include/exclude/filter
a272ff8c
WD
2201rules.
2202
fd2b6046
WD
2203Note that the use of transfer rules, such as the bf(--min-size) option, does
2204not affect what goes into the file list, and thus does not leave directories
2205empty, even if none of the files in a directory match the transfer rule.
2206
a272ff8c
WD
2207Because the file-list is actually being pruned, this option also affects
2208what directories get deleted when a delete is active. However, keep in
2209mind that excluded files and directories can prevent existing items from
fd2b6046
WD
2210being deleted due to an exclude both hiding source files and protecting
2211destination files. See the perishable filter-rule option for how to avoid
2212this.
a272ff8c
WD
2213
2214You can prevent the pruning of certain empty directories from the file-list
2215by using a global "protect" filter. For instance, this option would ensure
2216that the directory "emptydir" was kept in the file-list:
2217
2218quote( --filter 'protect emptydir/')
fb72aaba
WD
2219
2220Here's an example that copies all .pdf files in a hierarchy, only creating
2221the necessary destination directories to hold the .pdf files, and ensures
2222that any superfluous files and directories in the destination are removed
a272ff8c
WD
2223(note the hide filter of non-directories being used instead of an exclude):
2224
58718881 2225quote( rsync -avm --del --include='*.pdf' -f 'hide,! */' src/ dest)
fb72aaba 2226
a272ff8c 2227If you didn't want to remove superfluous destination files, the more
4743f0f4 2228time-honored options of "bf(--include='*/' --exclude='*')" would work fine
a272ff8c 2229in place of the hide-filter (if that is more natural to you).
fb72aaba 2230
eb86d661
AT
2231dit(bf(--progress)) This option tells rsync to print information
2232showing the progress of the transfer. This gives a bored user
2233something to watch.
951e826b
WD
2234With a modern rsync this is the same as specifying
2235bf(--info=flist2,name,progress), but any user-supplied settings for those
2236info flags takes precedence (e.g. "--info=flist0 --progress").
7b10f91d 2237
5e1f082d
WD
2238While rsync is transferring a regular file, it updates a progress line that
2239looks like this:
68f9910d 2240
faa82484 2241verb( 782448 63% 110.64kB/s 0:00:04)
68f9910d 2242
5e1f082d
WD
2243In this example, the receiver has reconstructed 782448 bytes or 63% of the
2244sender's file, which is being reconstructed at a rate of 110.64 kilobytes
2245per second, and the transfer will finish in 4 seconds if the current rate
2246is maintained until the end.
2247
adc4ebdd 2248These statistics can be misleading if rsync's delta-transfer algorithm is
5e1f082d
WD
2249in use. For example, if the sender's file consists of the basis file
2250followed by additional data, the reported rate will probably drop
2251dramatically when the receiver gets to the literal data, and the transfer
2252will probably take much longer to finish than the receiver estimated as it
2253was finishing the matched part of the file.
2254
2255When the file transfer finishes, rsync replaces the progress line with a
2256summary line that looks like this:
2257
8d10cbfc 2258verb( 1,238,099 100% 146.38kB/s 0:00:08 (xfr#5, to-chk=169/396))
5e1f082d 2259
8d10cbfc 2260In this example, the file was 1,238,099 bytes long in total, the average rate
5e1f082d
WD
2261of transfer for the whole file was 146.38 kilobytes per second over the 8
2262seconds that it took to complete, it was the 5th transfer of a regular file
2263during the current rsync session, and there are 169 more files for the
2264receiver to check (to see if they are up-to-date or not) remaining out of
2265the 396 total files in the file-list.
68f9910d 2266
8d10cbfc
WD
2267In an incremental recursion scan, rsync won't know the total number of files
2268in the file-list until it reaches the ends of the scan, but since it starts to
2269transfer files during the scan, it will display a line with the text "ir-chk"
2270(for incremental recursion check) instead of "to-chk" until the point that it
2271knows the full size of the list, at which point it will switch to using
2272"to-chk". Thus, seeing "ir-chk" lets you know that the total count of files
2273in the file list is still going to increase (and each time it does, the count
2274of files left to check will increase by the number of the files added to the
2275list).
2276
faa82484 2277dit(bf(-P)) The bf(-P) option is equivalent to bf(--partial) bf(--progress). Its
183150b7
WD
2278purpose is to make it much easier to specify these two options for a long
2279transfer that may be interrupted.
d9fcc198 2280
951e826b
WD
2281There is also a bf(--info=progress2) option that outputs statistics based
2282on the whole transfer, rather than individual files. Use this flag without
2283outputting a filename (e.g. avoid bf(-v) or specify bf(--info=name0) if you
2284want to see how the transfer is doing without scrolling the screen with a
2285lot of names. (You don't need to specify the bf(--progress) option in
2286order to use bf(--info=progress2).)
2287
9586e593
WD
2288dit(bf(--password-file)) This option allows you to provide a password in a
2289file for accessing an rsync daemon. The file must not be world readable.
6437b817
WD
2290It should contain just the password as the first line of the file (all
2291other lines are ignored).
9586e593 2292
b2057d38
WD
2293This option does not supply a password to a remote shell transport such as
2294ssh; to learn how to do that, consult the remote shell's documentation.
9586e593
WD
2295When accessing an rsync daemon using a remote shell as the transport, this
2296option only comes into effect after the remote shell finishes its
2297authentication (i.e. if you have also specified a password in the daemon's
2298config file).
65575e96 2299
09ed3099 2300dit(bf(--list-only)) This option will cause the source files to be listed
b4c7c1ca
WD
2301instead of transferred. This option is inferred if there is a single source
2302arg and no destination specified, so its main uses are: (1) to turn a copy
2303command that includes a
32b9011a
WD
2304destination arg into a file-listing command, or (2) to be able to specify
2305more than one source arg (note: be sure to include the destination).
2306Caution: keep in mind that a source arg with a wild-card is expanded by the
2307shell into multiple args, so it is never safe to try to list such an arg
b4c7c1ca
WD
2308without using this option. For example:
2309
2310verb( rsync -av --list-only foo* dest/)
09ed3099 2311
32b9011a
WD
2312Compatibility note: when requesting a remote listing of files from an rsync
2313that is version 2.6.3 or older, you may encounter an error if you ask for a
2314non-recursive listing. This is because a file listing implies the bf(--dirs)
2315option w/o bf(--recursive), and older rsyncs don't have that option. To
2316avoid this problem, either specify the bf(--no-dirs) option (if you don't
2317need to expand a directory's content), or turn on recursion and exclude
2318the content of subdirectories: bf(-r --exclude='/*/*').
2319
ce795fcd
WD
2320dit(bf(--bwlimit=RATE)) This option allows you to specify the maximum transfer
2321rate for the data sent over the socket, specified in units per second. The
2322RATE value can be suffixed with a string to indicate a size multiplier, and may
2323be a fractional value (e.g. "bf(--bwlimit=1.5m)"). If no suffix is specified,
2324the value will be assumed to be in units of 1024 bytes (as if "K" or "KiB" had
2325been appended). See the bf(--max-size) option for a description of all the
2326available suffixes. A value of zero specifies no limit.
2327
2328For backward-compatibility reasons, the rate limit will be rounded to the
2329nearest KiB unit, so no rate smaller than 1024 bytes per second is possible.
2330
2331Rsync writes data over the socket in blocks, and this option both limits the
2332size of the blocks that rsync writes, and tries to keep the average transfer
2333rate at the requested limit. Some "burstiness" may be seen where rsync writes
2334out a block of data and then sleeps to bring the average rate into compliance.
2335
2336Due to the internal buffering of data, the bf(--progress) option may not be an
2337accurate reflection on how fast the data is being sent. This is because some
2338files can show up as being rapidly sent when the data is quickly buffered,
2339while other can show up as very slow when the flushing of the output buffer
2340occurs. This may be fixed in a future version.
ef5d23eb 2341
b9f592fb 2342dit(bf(--write-batch=FILE)) Record a file that can later be applied to
faa82484 2343another identical destination with bf(--read-batch). See the "BATCH MODE"
32c7f91a 2344section for details, and also the bf(--only-write-batch) option.
6902ed17 2345
326bb56e
WD
2346dit(bf(--only-write-batch=FILE)) Works like bf(--write-batch), except that
2347no updates are made on the destination system when creating the batch.
2348This lets you transport the changes to the destination system via some
32c7f91a
WD
2349other means and then apply the changes via bf(--read-batch).
2350
2351Note that you can feel free to write the batch directly to some portable
2352media: if this media fills to capacity before the end of the transfer, you
2353can just apply that partial transfer to the destination and repeat the
2354whole process to get the rest of the changes (as long as you don't mind a
2355partially updated destination system while the multi-update cycle is
2356happening).
2357
2358Also note that you only save bandwidth when pushing changes to a remote
2359system because this allows the batched data to be diverted from the sender
2360into the batch file without having to flow over the wire to the receiver
2361(when pulling, the sender is remote, and thus can't write the batch).
326bb56e 2362
b9f592fb 2363dit(bf(--read-batch=FILE)) Apply all of the changes stored in FILE, a
faa82484 2364file previously generated by bf(--write-batch).
78be8e0f 2365If em(FILE) is bf(-), the batch data will be read from standard input.
c769702f 2366See the "BATCH MODE" section for details.
6902ed17 2367
0b941479
WD
2368dit(bf(--protocol=NUM)) Force an older protocol version to be used. This
2369is useful for creating a batch file that is compatible with an older
2370version of rsync. For instance, if rsync 2.6.4 is being used with the
2371bf(--write-batch) option, but rsync 2.6.3 is what will be used to run the
81c453b1
WD
2372bf(--read-batch) option, you should use "--protocol=28" when creating the
2373batch file to force the older protocol version to be used in the batch
2374file (assuming you can't upgrade the rsync on the reading system).
0b941479 2375
332cf6df
WD
2376dit(bf(--iconv=CONVERT_SPEC)) Rsync can convert filenames between character
2377sets using this option. Using a CONVERT_SPEC of "." tells rsync to look up
2378the default character-set via the locale setting. Alternately, you can
2379fully specify what conversion to do by giving a local and a remote charset
0b52f94d
WD
2380separated by a comma in the order bf(--iconv=LOCAL,REMOTE), e.g.
2381bf(--iconv=utf8,iso88591). This order ensures that the option
2382will stay the same whether you're pushing or pulling files.
2383Finally, you can specify either bf(--no-iconv) or a CONVERT_SPEC of "-"
2384to turn off any conversion.
332cf6df
WD
2385The default setting of this option is site-specific, and can also be
2386affected via the RSYNC_ICONV environment variable.
2387
0b52f94d
WD
2388For a list of what charset names your local iconv library supports, you can
2389run "iconv --list".
2390
82f37486
WD
2391If you specify the bf(--protect-args) option (bf(-s)), rsync will translate
2392the filenames you specify on the command-line that are being sent to the
2393remote host. See also the bf(--files-from) option.
2394
332cf6df 2395Note that rsync does not do any conversion of names in filter files
82f37486
WD
2396(including include/exclude files). It is up to you to ensure that you're
2397specifying matching rules that can match on both sides of the transfer.
2398For instance, you can specify extra include/exclude rules if there are
2399filename differences on the two sides that need to be accounted for.
332cf6df 2400
0b52f94d
WD
2401When you pass an bf(--iconv) option to an rsync daemon that allows it, the
2402daemon uses the charset specified in its "charset" configuration parameter
2403regardless of the remote charset you actually pass. Thus, you may feel free to
2404specify just the local charset for a daemon transfer (e.g. bf(--iconv=utf8)).
2405
e40a46de
WD
2406dit(bf(-4, --ipv4) or bf(-6, --ipv6)) Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6
2407when creating sockets. This only affects sockets that rsync has direct
2408control over, such as the outgoing socket when directly contacting an
faa82484 2409rsync daemon. See also these options in the bf(--daemon) mode section.
e40a46de 2410
24d677fc
WD
2411If rsync was complied without support for IPv6, the bf(--ipv6) option
2412will have no effect. The bf(--version) output will tell you if this
2413is the case.
2414
e129500c 2415dit(bf(--checksum-seed=NUM)) Set the checksum seed to the integer
c8d895de 2416NUM. This 4 byte checksum seed is included in each block and file
e129500c 2417checksum calculation. By default the checksum seed is generated
49f4cfdf 2418by the server and defaults to the current code(time()). This option
c8d895de
WD
2419is used to set a specific checksum seed, which is useful for
2420applications that want repeatable block and file checksums, or
2421in the case where the user wants a more random checksum seed.
886df221 2422Setting NUM to 0 causes rsync to use the default of code(time())
b9f592fb 2423for checksum seed.
41059f75
AT
2424enddit()
2425
faa82484
WD
2426manpagesection(DAEMON OPTIONS)
2427
bdf278f7
WD
2428The options allowed when starting an rsync daemon are as follows:
2429
2430startdit()
bdf278f7 2431dit(bf(--daemon)) This tells rsync that it is to run as a daemon. The
62f27e3c
WD
2432daemon you start running may be accessed using an rsync client using
2433the bf(host::module) or bf(rsync://host/module/) syntax.
bdf278f7
WD
2434
2435If standard input is a socket then rsync will assume that it is being
2436run via inetd, otherwise it will detach from the current terminal and
2437become a background daemon. The daemon will read the config file
2438(rsyncd.conf) on each connect made by a client and respond to
49f4cfdf 2439requests accordingly. See the bf(rsyncd.conf)(5) man page for more
bdf278f7
WD
2440details.
2441
3ae5367f
WD
2442dit(bf(--address)) By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when
2443run as a daemon with the bf(--daemon) option. The bf(--address) option
2444allows you to specify a specific IP address (or hostname) to bind to. This
2445makes virtual hosting possible in conjunction with the bf(--config) option.
2446See also the "address" global option in the rsyncd.conf manpage.
bdf278f7 2447
ce795fcd
WD
2448dit(bf(--bwlimit=RATE)) This option allows you to specify the maximum transfer
2449rate for the data the daemon sends over the socket. The client can still
2450specify a smaller bf(--bwlimit) value, but no larger value will be allowed.
2451See the client version of this option (above) for some extra details.
1f69bec4 2452
bdf278f7 2453dit(bf(--config=FILE)) This specifies an alternate config file than
faa82484 2454the default. This is only relevant when bf(--daemon) is specified.
bdf278f7 2455The default is /etc/rsyncd.conf unless the daemon is running over
d38772e0 2456a remote shell program and the remote user is not the super-user; in that case
bdf278f7
WD
2457the default is rsyncd.conf in the current directory (typically $HOME).
2458
2206abf8
WD
2459dit(bf(-M, --dparam=OVERRIDE)) This option can be used to set a daemon-config
2460parameter when starting up rsync in daemon mode. It is equivalent to adding
2461the parameter at the end of the global settings prior to the first module's
2462definition. The parameter names can be specified without spaces, if you so
2463desire. For instance:
2464
2465verb( rsync --daemon -M pidfile=/path/rsync.pid )
2466
bdf278f7
WD
2467dit(bf(--no-detach)) When running as a daemon, this option instructs
2468rsync to not detach itself and become a background process. This
2469option is required when running as a service on Cygwin, and may also
2470be useful when rsync is supervised by a program such as
2471bf(daemontools) or AIX's bf(System Resource Controller).
2472bf(--no-detach) is also recommended when rsync is run under a
2473debugger. This option has no effect if rsync is run from inetd or
2474sshd.
2475
c259892c
WD
2476dit(bf(--port=PORT)) This specifies an alternate TCP port number for the
2477daemon to listen on rather than the default of 873. See also the "port"
2478global option in the rsyncd.conf manpage.
bdf278f7 2479
a2ed5801
WD
2480dit(bf(--log-file=FILE)) This option tells the rsync daemon to use the
2481given log-file name instead of using the "log file" setting in the config
2482file.
2483
4b90820d
WD
2484dit(bf(--log-file-format=FORMAT)) This option tells the rsync daemon to use the
2485given FORMAT string instead of using the "log format" setting in the config
2486file. It also enables "transfer logging" unless the string is empty, in which
2487case transfer logging is turned off.
2488
04f48837
WD
2489dit(bf(--sockopts)) This overrides the bf(socket options) setting in the
2490rsyncd.conf file and has the same syntax.
2491
24b0922b
WD
2492dit(bf(-v, --verbose)) This option increases the amount of information the
2493daemon logs during its startup phase. After the client connects, the
2494daemon's verbosity level will be controlled by the options that the client
2495used and the "max verbosity" setting in the module's config section.
2496
bdf278f7
WD
2497dit(bf(-4, --ipv4) or bf(-6, --ipv6)) Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6
2498when creating the incoming sockets that the rsync daemon will use to
2499listen for connections. One of these options may be required in older
2500versions of Linux to work around an IPv6 bug in the kernel (if you see
2501an "address already in use" error when nothing else is using the port,
faa82484 2502try specifying bf(--ipv6) or bf(--ipv4) when starting the daemon).
bdf278f7 2503
24d677fc
WD
2504If rsync was complied without support for IPv6, the bf(--ipv6) option
2505will have no effect. The bf(--version) output will tell you if this
2506is the case.
2507
faa82484 2508dit(bf(-h, --help)) When specified after bf(--daemon), print a short help
bdf278f7 2509page describing the options available for starting an rsync daemon.
bdf278f7
WD
2510enddit()
2511
16e5de84 2512manpagesection(FILTER RULES)
43bd68e5 2513
16e5de84
WD
2514The filter rules allow for flexible selection of which files to transfer
2515(include) and which files to skip (exclude). The rules either directly
2516specify include/exclude patterns or they specify a way to acquire more
2517include/exclude patterns (e.g. to read them from a file).
43bd68e5 2518
16e5de84
WD
2519As the list of files/directories to transfer is built, rsync checks each
2520name to be transferred against the list of include/exclude patterns in
2521turn, and the first matching pattern is acted on: if it is an exclude
2522pattern, then that file is skipped; if it is an include pattern then that
2523filename is not skipped; if no matching pattern is found, then the
43bd68e5
AT
2524filename is not skipped.
2525
16e5de84
WD
2526Rsync builds an ordered list of filter rules as specified on the
2527command-line. Filter rules have the following syntax:
2528
faa82484 2529quote(
d91de046
WD
2530tt(RULE [PATTERN_OR_FILENAME])nl()
2531tt(RULE,MODIFIERS [PATTERN_OR_FILENAME])nl()
16e5de84
WD
2532)
2533
d91de046
WD
2534You have your choice of using either short or long RULE names, as described
2535below. If you use a short-named rule, the ',' separating the RULE from the
2536MODIFIERS is optional. The PATTERN or FILENAME that follows (when present)
2537must come after either a single space or an underscore (_).
2538Here are the available rule prefixes:
16e5de84 2539
faa82484 2540quote(
d91de046
WD
2541bf(exclude, -) specifies an exclude pattern. nl()
2542bf(include, +) specifies an include pattern. nl()
2543bf(merge, .) specifies a merge-file to read for more rules. nl()
2544bf(dir-merge, :) specifies a per-directory merge-file. nl()
0dfffb88
WD
2545bf(hide, H) specifies a pattern for hiding files from the transfer. nl()
2546bf(show, S) files that match the pattern are not hidden. nl()
2547bf(protect, P) specifies a pattern for protecting files from deletion. nl()
2548bf(risk, R) files that match the pattern are not protected. nl()
d91de046 2549bf(clear, !) clears the current include/exclude list (takes no arg) nl()
16e5de84
WD
2550)
2551
d91de046
WD
2552When rules are being read from a file, empty lines are ignored, as are
2553comment lines that start with a "#".
2554
faa82484 2555Note that the bf(--include)/bf(--exclude) command-line options do not allow the
16e5de84 2556full range of rule parsing as described above -- they only allow the
d91de046
WD
2557specification of include/exclude patterns plus a "!" token to clear the
2558list (and the normal comment parsing when rules are read from a file).
2559If a pattern
16e5de84
WD
2560does not begin with "- " (dash, space) or "+ " (plus, space), then the
2561rule will be interpreted as if "+ " (for an include option) or "- " (for
faa82484 2562an exclude option) were prefixed to the string. A bf(--filter) option, on
d91de046
WD
2563the other hand, must always contain either a short or long rule name at the
2564start of the rule.
16e5de84 2565
faa82484 2566Note also that the bf(--filter), bf(--include), and bf(--exclude) options take one
16e5de84 2567rule/pattern each. To add multiple ones, you can repeat the options on
faa82484
WD
2568the command-line, use the merge-file syntax of the bf(--filter) option, or
2569the bf(--include-from)/bf(--exclude-from) options.
16e5de84 2570
16e5de84
WD
2571manpagesection(INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERN RULES)
2572
0dfffb88
WD
2573You can include and exclude files by specifying patterns using the "+",
2574"-", etc. filter rules (as introduced in the FILTER RULES section above).
bb5f4e72
WD
2575The include/exclude rules each specify a pattern that is matched against
2576the names of the files that are going to be transferred. These patterns
2577can take several forms:
16e5de84 2578
b8a6dae0 2579itemization(
16e5de84
WD
2580 it() if the pattern starts with a / then it is anchored to a
2581 particular spot in the hierarchy of files, otherwise it is matched
2582 against the end of the pathname. This is similar to a leading ^ in
2583 regular expressions.
809724d7 2584 Thus "/foo" would match a name of "foo" at either the "root of the
16e5de84
WD
2585 transfer" (for a global rule) or in the merge-file's directory (for a
2586 per-directory rule).
809724d7
WD
2587 An unqualified "foo" would match a name of "foo" anywhere in the
2588 tree because the algorithm is applied recursively from the
16e5de84 2589 top down; it behaves as if each path component gets a turn at being the
809724d7 2590 end of the filename. Even the unanchored "sub/foo" would match at
16e5de84
WD
2591 any point in the hierarchy where a "foo" was found within a directory
2592 named "sub". See the section on ANCHORING INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS for
2593 a full discussion of how to specify a pattern that matches at the root
2594 of the transfer.
16e5de84 2595 it() if the pattern ends with a / then it will only match a
809724d7 2596 directory, not a regular file, symlink, or device.
9639c718
WD
2597 it() rsync chooses between doing a simple string match and wildcard
2598 matching by checking if the pattern contains one of these three wildcard
2599 characters: '*', '?', and '[' .
7fdb3bda 2600 it() a '*' matches any path component, but it stops at slashes.
9639c718
WD
2601 it() use '**' to match anything, including slashes.
2602 it() a '?' matches any character except a slash (/).
2603 it() a '[' introduces a character class, such as [a-z] or [[:alpha:]].
2604 it() in a wildcard pattern, a backslash can be used to escape a wildcard
2605 character, but it is matched literally when no wildcards are present.
2606 it() if the pattern contains a / (not counting a trailing /) or a "**",
16e5de84
WD
2607 then it is matched against the full pathname, including any leading
2608 directories. If the pattern doesn't contain a / or a "**", then it is
2609 matched only against the final component of the filename.
2610 (Remember that the algorithm is applied recursively so "full filename"
ae283632 2611 can actually be any portion of a path from the starting directory on
16e5de84 2612 down.)
d3db3eef 2613 it() a trailing "dir_name/***" will match both the directory (as if
809724d7 2614 "dir_name/" had been specified) and everything in the directory
c575f8ce
WD
2615 (as if "dir_name/**" had been specified). This behavior was added in
2616 version 2.6.7.
16e5de84
WD
2617)
2618
faa82484
WD
2619Note that, when using the bf(--recursive) (bf(-r)) option (which is implied by
2620bf(-a)), every subcomponent of every path is visited from the top down, so
16e5de84
WD
2621include/exclude patterns get applied recursively to each subcomponent's
2622full name (e.g. to include "/foo/bar/baz" the subcomponents "/foo" and
2623"/foo/bar" must not be excluded).
2624The exclude patterns actually short-circuit the directory traversal stage
2625when rsync finds the files to send. If a pattern excludes a particular
2626parent directory, it can render a deeper include pattern ineffectual
2627because rsync did not descend through that excluded section of the
2628hierarchy. This is particularly important when using a trailing '*' rule.
2629For instance, this won't work:
2630
faa82484
WD
2631quote(
2632tt(+ /some/path/this-file-will-not-be-found)nl()
2633tt(+ /file-is-included)nl()
2634tt(- *)nl()
16e5de84
WD
2635)
2636
2637This fails because the parent directory "some" is excluded by the '*'
2638rule, so rsync never visits any of the files in the "some" or "some/path"
2639directories. One solution is to ask for all directories in the hierarchy
a5a26484 2640to be included by using a single rule: "+ */" (put it somewhere before the
58718881
WD
2641"- *" rule), and perhaps use the bf(--prune-empty-dirs) option. Another
2642solution is to add specific include rules for all
16e5de84
WD
2643the parent dirs that need to be visited. For instance, this set of rules
2644works fine:
2645
faa82484
WD
2646quote(
2647tt(+ /some/)nl()
2648tt(+ /some/path/)nl()
2649tt(+ /some/path/this-file-is-found)nl()
2650tt(+ /file-also-included)nl()
2651tt(- *)nl()
16e5de84
WD
2652)
2653
2654Here are some examples of exclude/include matching:
2655
b8a6dae0 2656itemization(
809724d7 2657 it() "- *.o" would exclude all names matching *.o
58718881
WD
2658 it() "- /foo" would exclude a file (or directory) named foo in the
2659 transfer-root directory
2660 it() "- foo/" would exclude any directory named foo
2661 it() "- /foo/*/bar" would exclude any file named bar which is at two
2662 levels below a directory named foo in the transfer-root directory
2663 it() "- /foo/**/bar" would exclude any file named bar two
2664 or more levels below a directory named foo in the transfer-root directory
faa82484 2665 it() The combination of "+ */", "+ *.c", and "- *" would include all
58718881
WD
2666 directories and C source files but nothing else (see also the
2667 bf(--prune-empty-dirs) option)
16e5de84
WD
2668 it() The combination of "+ foo/", "+ foo/bar.c", and "- *" would include
2669 only the foo directory and foo/bar.c (the foo directory must be
2670 explicitly included or it would be excluded by the "*")
2671)
2672
d960af72
MM
2673The following modifiers are accepted after a "+" or "-":
2674
2675itemization(
2676 it() A bf(/) specifies that the include/exclude rule should be matched
2677 against the absolute pathname of the current item. For example,
2678 "-/ /etc/passwd" would exclude the passwd file any time the transfer
2679 was sending files from the "/etc" directory, and "-/ subdir/foo"
2680 would always exclude "foo" when it is in a dir named "subdir", even
2681 if "foo" is at the root of the current transfer.
2682 it() A bf(!) specifies that the include/exclude should take effect if
2683 the pattern fails to match. For instance, "-! */" would exclude all
2684 non-directories.
2685 it() A bf(C) is used to indicate that all the global CVS-exclude rules
2686 should be inserted as excludes in place of the "-C". No arg should
2687 follow.
2688 it() An bf(s) is used to indicate that the rule applies to the sending
2689 side. When a rule affects the sending side, it prevents files from
2690 being transferred. The default is for a rule to affect both sides
2691 unless bf(--delete-excluded) was specified, in which case default rules
2692 become sender-side only. See also the hide (H) and show (S) rules,
2693 which are an alternate way to specify sending-side includes/excludes.
2694 it() An bf(r) is used to indicate that the rule applies to the receiving
2695 side. When a rule affects the receiving side, it prevents files from
2696 being deleted. See the bf(s) modifier for more info. See also the
2697 protect (P) and risk (R) rules, which are an alternate way to
2698 specify receiver-side includes/excludes.
2699 it() A bf(p) indicates that a rule is perishable, meaning that it is
2700 ignored in directories that are being deleted. For instance, the bf(-C)
2701 option's default rules that exclude things like "CVS" and "*.o" are
2702 marked as perishable, and will not prevent a directory that was removed
2703 on the source from being deleted on the destination.
2704)
2705
16e5de84
WD
2706manpagesection(MERGE-FILE FILTER RULES)
2707
2708You can merge whole files into your filter rules by specifying either a
d91de046
WD
2709merge (.) or a dir-merge (:) filter rule (as introduced in the FILTER RULES
2710section above).
16e5de84
WD
2711
2712There are two kinds of merged files -- single-instance ('.') and
2713per-directory (':'). A single-instance merge file is read one time, and
2714its rules are incorporated into the filter list in the place of the "."
2715rule. For per-directory merge files, rsync will scan every directory that
2716it traverses for the named file, merging its contents when the file exists
2717into the current list of inherited rules. These per-directory rule files
2718must be created on the sending side because it is the sending side that is
2719being scanned for the available files to transfer. These rule files may
2720also need to be transferred to the receiving side if you want them to
2721affect what files don't get deleted (see PER-DIRECTORY RULES AND DELETE
2722below).
2723
2724Some examples:
2725
faa82484 2726quote(
d91de046 2727tt(merge /etc/rsync/default.rules)nl()
faa82484 2728tt(. /etc/rsync/default.rules)nl()
d91de046
WD
2729tt(dir-merge .per-dir-filter)nl()
2730tt(dir-merge,n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes)nl()
faa82484 2731tt(:n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes)nl()
16e5de84
WD
2732)
2733
d91de046 2734The following modifiers are accepted after a merge or dir-merge rule:
16e5de84 2735
b8a6dae0 2736itemization(
62bf783f 2737 it() A bf(-) specifies that the file should consist of only exclude
d91de046 2738 patterns, with no other rule-parsing except for in-file comments.
62bf783f 2739 it() A bf(+) specifies that the file should consist of only include
d91de046
WD
2740 patterns, with no other rule-parsing except for in-file comments.
2741 it() A bf(C) is a way to specify that the file should be read in a
2742 CVS-compatible manner. This turns on 'n', 'w', and '-', but also
2743 allows the list-clearing token (!) to be specified. If no filename is
2744 provided, ".cvsignore" is assumed.
2745 it() A bf(e) will exclude the merge-file name from the transfer; e.g.
a5a26484 2746 "dir-merge,e .rules" is like "dir-merge .rules" and "- .rules".
62bf783f
WD
2747 it() An bf(n) specifies that the rules are not inherited by subdirectories.
2748 it() A bf(w) specifies that the rules are word-split on whitespace instead
16e5de84
WD
2749 of the normal line-splitting. This also turns off comments. Note: the
2750 space that separates the prefix from the rule is treated specially, so
d91de046
WD
2751 "- foo + bar" is parsed as two rules (assuming that prefix-parsing wasn't
2752 also disabled).
2753 it() You may also specify any of the modifiers for the "+" or "-" rules
d960af72 2754 (above) in order to have the rules that are read in from the file
c8fa85b2
MM
2755 default to having that modifier set (except for the bf(!) modifier, which
2756 would not be useful). For instance, "merge,-/ .excl" would
0dfffb88
WD
2757 treat the contents of .excl as absolute-path excludes,
2758 while "dir-merge,s .filt" and ":sC" would each make all their
c8fa85b2
MM
2759 per-directory rules apply only on the sending side. If the merge rule
2760 specifies sides to affect (via the bf(s) or bf(r) modifier or both),
2761 then the rules in the file must not specify sides (via a modifier or
2762 a rule prefix such as bf(hide)).
16e5de84
WD
2763)
2764
2765Per-directory rules are inherited in all subdirectories of the directory
2766where the merge-file was found unless the 'n' modifier was used. Each
2767subdirectory's rules are prefixed to the inherited per-directory rules
2768from its parents, which gives the newest rules a higher priority than the
d91de046 2769inherited rules. The entire set of dir-merge rules are grouped together in
16e5de84 2770the spot where the merge-file was specified, so it is possible to override
d91de046 2771dir-merge rules via a rule that got specified earlier in the list of global
16e5de84
WD
2772rules. When the list-clearing rule ("!") is read from a per-directory
2773file, it only clears the inherited rules for the current merge file.
2774
d91de046 2775Another way to prevent a single rule from a dir-merge file from being inherited is to
16e5de84
WD
2776anchor it with a leading slash. Anchored rules in a per-directory
2777merge-file are relative to the merge-file's directory, so a pattern "/foo"
d91de046 2778would only match the file "foo" in the directory where the dir-merge filter
16e5de84
WD
2779file was found.
2780
faa82484 2781Here's an example filter file which you'd specify via bf(--filter=". file":)
16e5de84 2782
faa82484 2783quote(
d91de046 2784tt(merge /home/user/.global-filter)nl()
faa82484 2785tt(- *.gz)nl()
d91de046 2786tt(dir-merge .rules)nl()
faa82484
WD
2787tt(+ *.[ch])nl()
2788tt(- *.o)nl()
16e5de84
WD
2789)
2790
2791This will merge the contents of the /home/user/.global-filter file at the
2792start of the list and also turns the ".rules" filename into a per-directory
467688dc 2793filter file. All rules read in prior to the start of the directory scan
16e5de84
WD
2794follow the global anchoring rules (i.e. a leading slash matches at the root
2795of the transfer).
2796
2797If a per-directory merge-file is specified with a path that is a parent
2798directory of the first transfer directory, rsync will scan all the parent
2799dirs from that starting point to the transfer directory for the indicated
faa82484 2800per-directory file. For instance, here is a common filter (see bf(-F)):
16e5de84 2801
faa82484 2802quote(tt(--filter=': /.rsync-filter'))
16e5de84
WD
2803
2804That rule tells rsync to scan for the file .rsync-filter in all
2805directories from the root down through the parent directory of the
2806transfer prior to the start of the normal directory scan of the file in
2807the directories that are sent as a part of the transfer. (Note: for an
2808rsync daemon, the root is always the same as the module's "path".)
2809
2810Some examples of this pre-scanning for per-directory files:
2811
faa82484
WD
2812quote(
2813tt(rsync -avF /src/path/ /dest/dir)nl()
2814tt(rsync -av --filter=': ../../.rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir)nl()
2815tt(rsync -av --filter=': .rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir)nl()
16e5de84
WD
2816)
2817
2818The first two commands above will look for ".rsync-filter" in "/" and
2819"/src" before the normal scan begins looking for the file in "/src/path"
2820and its subdirectories. The last command avoids the parent-dir scan
2821and only looks for the ".rsync-filter" files in each directory that is
2822a part of the transfer.
2823
2824If you want to include the contents of a ".cvsignore" in your patterns,
d91de046
WD
2825you should use the rule ":C", which creates a dir-merge of the .cvsignore
2826file, but parsed in a CVS-compatible manner. You can
faa82484 2827use this to affect where the bf(--cvs-exclude) (bf(-C)) option's inclusion of the
d91de046 2828per-directory .cvsignore file gets placed into your rules by putting the
16e5de84 2829":C" wherever you like in your filter rules. Without this, rsync would
d91de046 2830add the dir-merge rule for the .cvsignore file at the end of all your other
16e5de84
WD
2831rules (giving it a lower priority than your command-line rules). For
2832example:
2833
faa82484
WD
2834quote(
2835tt(cat <<EOT | rsync -avC --filter='. -' a/ b)nl()
2836tt(+ foo.o)nl()
2837tt(:C)nl()
2838tt(- *.old)nl()
2839tt(EOT)nl()
2840tt(rsync -avC --include=foo.o -f :C --exclude='*.old' a/ b)nl()
16e5de84
WD
2841)
2842
2843Both of the above rsync commands are identical. Each one will merge all
2844the per-directory .cvsignore rules in the middle of the list rather than
2845at the end. This allows their dir-specific rules to supersede the rules
bafa4875
WD
2846that follow the :C instead of being subservient to all your rules. To
2847affect the other CVS exclude rules (i.e. the default list of exclusions,
2848the contents of $HOME/.cvsignore, and the value of $CVSIGNORE) you should
2849omit the bf(-C) command-line option and instead insert a "-C" rule into
4743f0f4 2850your filter rules; e.g. "bf(--filter=-C)".
16e5de84
WD
2851
2852manpagesection(LIST-CLEARING FILTER RULE)
2853
2854You can clear the current include/exclude list by using the "!" filter
2855rule (as introduced in the FILTER RULES section above). The "current"
2856list is either the global list of rules (if the rule is encountered while
2857parsing the filter options) or a set of per-directory rules (which are
2858inherited in their own sub-list, so a subdirectory can use this to clear
2859out the parent's rules).
2860
2861manpagesection(ANCHORING INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS)
2862
2863As mentioned earlier, global include/exclude patterns are anchored at the
2864"root of the transfer" (as opposed to per-directory patterns, which are
2865anchored at the merge-file's directory). If you think of the transfer as
2866a subtree of names that are being sent from sender to receiver, the
2867transfer-root is where the tree starts to be duplicated in the destination
2868directory. This root governs where patterns that start with a / match.
a4b6f305
WD
2869
2870Because the matching is relative to the transfer-root, changing the
faa82484 2871trailing slash on a source path or changing your use of the bf(--relative)
a4b6f305
WD
2872option affects the path you need to use in your matching (in addition to
2873changing how much of the file tree is duplicated on the destination
16e5de84 2874host). The following examples demonstrate this.
a4b6f305 2875
b5ebe6d9
WD
2876Let's say that we want to match two source files, one with an absolute
2877path of "/home/me/foo/bar", and one with a path of "/home/you/bar/baz".
2878Here is how the various command choices differ for a 2-source transfer:
a4b6f305 2879
faa82484
WD
2880quote(
2881 Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me /home/you /dest nl()
2882 +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar nl()
2883 +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz nl()
2884 Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar nl()
2885 Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz nl()
2886)
2887
2888quote(
2889 Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me/ /home/you/ /dest nl()
2890 +/- pattern: /foo/bar (note missing "me") nl()
2891 +/- pattern: /bar/baz (note missing "you") nl()
2892 Target file: /dest/foo/bar nl()
2893 Target file: /dest/bar/baz nl()
2894)
2895
2896quote(
2897 Example cmd: rsync -a --relative /home/me/ /home/you /dest nl()
2898 +/- pattern: /home/me/foo/bar (note full path) nl()
2899 +/- pattern: /home/you/bar/baz (ditto) nl()
2900 Target file: /dest/home/me/foo/bar nl()
2901 Target file: /dest/home/you/bar/baz nl()
2902)
2903
2904quote(
2905 Example cmd: cd /home; rsync -a --relative me/foo you/ /dest nl()
2906 +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar (starts at specified path) nl()
2907 +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz (ditto) nl()
2908 Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar nl()
2909 Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz nl()
a4b6f305
WD
2910)
2911
16e5de84 2912The easiest way to see what name you should filter is to just
faa82484
WD
2913look at the output when using bf(--verbose) and put a / in front of the name
2914(use the bf(--dry-run) option if you're not yet ready to copy any files).
d1cce1dd 2915
16e5de84 2916manpagesection(PER-DIRECTORY RULES AND DELETE)
43bd68e5 2917
16e5de84
WD
2918Without a delete option, per-directory rules are only relevant on the
2919sending side, so you can feel free to exclude the merge files themselves
2920without affecting the transfer. To make this easy, the 'e' modifier adds
2921this exclude for you, as seen in these two equivalent commands:
27b9a19b 2922
faa82484
WD
2923quote(
2924tt(rsync -av --filter=': .excl' --exclude=.excl host:src/dir /dest)nl()
2925tt(rsync -av --filter=':e .excl' host:src/dir /dest)nl()
43bd68e5
AT
2926)
2927
16e5de84
WD
2928However, if you want to do a delete on the receiving side AND you want some
2929files to be excluded from being deleted, you'll need to be sure that the
2930receiving side knows what files to exclude. The easiest way is to include
faa82484 2931the per-directory merge files in the transfer and use bf(--delete-after),
16e5de84
WD
2932because this ensures that the receiving side gets all the same exclude
2933rules as the sending side before it tries to delete anything:
43bd68e5 2934
faa82484 2935quote(tt(rsync -avF --delete-after host:src/dir /dest))
20af605e 2936
16e5de84
WD
2937However, if the merge files are not a part of the transfer, you'll need to
2938either specify some global exclude rules (i.e. specified on the command
2939line), or you'll need to maintain your own per-directory merge files on
2940the receiving side. An example of the first is this (assume that the
2941remote .rules files exclude themselves):
20af605e 2942
faa82484
WD
2943verb(rsync -av --filter=': .rules' --filter='. /my/extra.rules'
2944 --delete host:src/dir /dest)
20af605e 2945
16e5de84
WD
2946In the above example the extra.rules file can affect both sides of the
2947transfer, but (on the sending side) the rules are subservient to the rules
2948merged from the .rules files because they were specified after the
2949per-directory merge rule.
43bd68e5 2950
16e5de84
WD
2951In one final example, the remote side is excluding the .rsync-filter
2952files from the transfer, but we want to use our own .rsync-filter files
2953to control what gets deleted on the receiving side. To do this we must
2954specifically exclude the per-directory merge files (so that they don't get
2955deleted) and then put rules into the local files to control what else
2956should not get deleted. Like one of these commands:
2957
faa82484
WD
2958verb( rsync -av --filter=':e /.rsync-filter' --delete \
2959 host:src/dir /dest
2960 rsync -avFF --delete host:src/dir /dest)
43bd68e5 2961
6902ed17
MP
2962manpagesection(BATCH MODE)
2963
088aac85
DD
2964Batch mode can be used to apply the same set of updates to many
2965identical systems. Suppose one has a tree which is replicated on a
2966number of hosts. Now suppose some changes have been made to this
2967source tree and those changes need to be propagated to the other
2968hosts. In order to do this using batch mode, rsync is run with the
2969write-batch option to apply the changes made to the source tree to one
2970of the destination trees. The write-batch option causes the rsync
b9f592fb
WD
2971client to store in a "batch file" all the information needed to repeat
2972this operation against other, identical destination trees.
2973
b9f592fb
WD
2974Generating the batch file once saves having to perform the file
2975status, checksum, and data block generation more than once when
088aac85 2976updating multiple destination trees. Multicast transport protocols can
b9f592fb
WD
2977be used to transfer the batch update files in parallel to many hosts
2978at once, instead of sending the same data to every host individually.
088aac85 2979
7f2591ea
WD
2980To apply the recorded changes to another destination tree, run rsync
2981with the read-batch option, specifying the name of the same batch
2982file, and the destination tree. Rsync updates the destination tree
2983using the information stored in the batch file.
2984
2985For your convenience, a script file is also created when the write-batch
2986option is used: it will be named the same as the batch file with ".sh"
2987appended. This script file contains a command-line suitable for updating a
2988destination tree using the associated batch file. It can be executed using
2989a Bourne (or Bourne-like) shell, optionally passing in an alternate
2990destination tree pathname which is then used instead of the original
2991destination path. This is useful when the destination tree path on the
2992current host differs from the one used to create the batch file.
2993
4602eafa 2994Examples:
088aac85 2995
faa82484
WD
2996quote(
2997tt($ rsync --write-batch=foo -a host:/source/dir/ /adest/dir/)nl()
2998tt($ scp foo* remote:)nl()
2999tt($ ssh remote ./foo.sh /bdest/dir/)nl()
4602eafa
WD
3000)
3001
faa82484
WD
3002quote(
3003tt($ rsync --write-batch=foo -a /source/dir/ /adest/dir/)nl()
3004tt($ ssh remote rsync --read-batch=- -a /bdest/dir/ <foo)nl()
4602eafa
WD
3005)
3006
98f51bfb
WD
3007In these examples, rsync is used to update /adest/dir/ from /source/dir/
3008and the information to repeat this operation is stored in "foo" and
3009"foo.sh". The host "remote" is then updated with the batched data going
3010into the directory /bdest/dir. The differences between the two examples
3011reveals some of the flexibility you have in how you deal with batches:
3012
b8a6dae0 3013itemization(
98f51bfb
WD
3014 it() The first example shows that the initial copy doesn't have to be
3015 local -- you can push or pull data to/from a remote host using either the
3016 remote-shell syntax or rsync daemon syntax, as desired.
98f51bfb
WD
3017 it() The first example uses the created "foo.sh" file to get the right
3018 rsync options when running the read-batch command on the remote host.
98f51bfb
WD
3019 it() The second example reads the batch data via standard input so that
3020 the batch file doesn't need to be copied to the remote machine first.
3021 This example avoids the foo.sh script because it needed to use a modified
faa82484 3022 bf(--read-batch) option, but you could edit the script file if you wished to
98f51bfb 3023 make use of it (just be sure that no other option is trying to use
faa82484 3024 standard input, such as the "bf(--exclude-from=-)" option).
98f51bfb 3025)
088aac85
DD
3026
3027Caveats:
3028
98f51bfb 3029The read-batch option expects the destination tree that it is updating
088aac85
DD
3030to be identical to the destination tree that was used to create the
3031batch update fileset. When a difference between the destination trees
0b941479 3032is encountered the update might be discarded with a warning (if the file
7432ccf4
WD
3033appears to be up-to-date already) or the file-update may be attempted
3034and then, if the file fails to verify, the update discarded with an
3035error. This means that it should be safe to re-run a read-batch operation
59d73bf3 3036if the command got interrupted. If you wish to force the batched-update to
faa82484 3037always be attempted regardless of the file's size and date, use the bf(-I)
59d73bf3
WD
3038option (when reading the batch).
3039If an error occurs, the destination tree will probably be in a
7432ccf4 3040partially updated state. In that case, rsync can
088aac85
DD
3041be used in its regular (non-batch) mode of operation to fix up the
3042destination tree.
3043
b9f592fb 3044The rsync version used on all destinations must be at least as new as the
59d73bf3
WD
3045one used to generate the batch file. Rsync will die with an error if the
3046protocol version in the batch file is too new for the batch-reading rsync
0b941479
WD
3047to handle. See also the bf(--protocol) option for a way to have the
3048creating rsync generate a batch file that an older rsync can understand.
3049(Note that batch files changed format in version 2.6.3, so mixing versions
3050older than that with newer versions will not work.)
088aac85 3051
7432ccf4
WD
3052When reading a batch file, rsync will force the value of certain options
3053to match the data in the batch file if you didn't set them to the same
3054as the batch-writing command. Other options can (and should) be changed.
bb5f4e72
WD
3055For instance bf(--write-batch) changes to bf(--read-batch),
3056bf(--files-from) is dropped, and the
3057bf(--filter)/bf(--include)/bf(--exclude) options are not needed unless
3058one of the bf(--delete) options is specified.
b9f592fb 3059
faa82484 3060The code that creates the BATCH.sh file transforms any filter/include/exclude
98f51bfb
WD
3061options into a single list that is appended as a "here" document to the
3062shell script file. An advanced user can use this to modify the exclude
faa82484 3063list if a change in what gets deleted by bf(--delete) is desired. A normal
98f51bfb 3064user can ignore this detail and just use the shell script as an easy way
faa82484 3065to run the appropriate bf(--read-batch) command for the batched data.
98f51bfb 3066
59d73bf3
WD
3067The original batch mode in rsync was based on "rsync+", but the latest
3068version uses a new implementation.
6902ed17 3069
eb06fa95
MP
3070manpagesection(SYMBOLIC LINKS)
3071
f28bd833 3072Three basic behaviors are possible when rsync encounters a symbolic
eb06fa95
MP
3073link in the source directory.
3074
3075By default, symbolic links are not transferred at all. A message
3076"skipping non-regular" file is emitted for any symlinks that exist.
3077
3078If bf(--links) is specified, then symlinks are recreated with the same
3079target on the destination. Note that bf(--archive) implies
3080bf(--links).
3081
3082If bf(--copy-links) is specified, then symlinks are "collapsed" by
3083copying their referent, rather than the symlink.
3084
6f098b0f
WD
3085Rsync can also distinguish "safe" and "unsafe" symbolic links. An
3086example where this might be used is a web site mirror that wishes to
3087ensure that the rsync module that is copied does not include symbolic links to
eb06fa95
MP
3088bf(/etc/passwd) in the public section of the site. Using
3089bf(--copy-unsafe-links) will cause any links to be copied as the file
3090they point to on the destination. Using bf(--safe-links) will cause
6efe9416
WD
3091unsafe links to be omitted altogether. (Note that you must specify
3092bf(--links) for bf(--safe-links) to have any effect.)
eb06fa95 3093
7bd0cf5b 3094Symbolic links are considered unsafe if they are absolute symlinks
4743f0f4 3095(start with bf(/)), empty, or if they contain enough ".."
7bd0cf5b
MP
3096components to ascend from the directory being copied.
3097
6efe9416
WD
3098Here's a summary of how the symlink options are interpreted. The list is
3099in order of precedence, so if your combination of options isn't mentioned,
3100use the first line that is a complete subset of your options:
3101
3102dit(bf(--copy-links)) Turn all symlinks into normal files (leaving no
3103symlinks for any other options to affect).
3104
3105dit(bf(--links --copy-unsafe-links)) Turn all unsafe symlinks into files
3106and duplicate all safe symlinks.
3107
3108dit(bf(--copy-unsafe-links)) Turn all unsafe symlinks into files, noisily
3109skip all safe symlinks.
3110
02184920 3111dit(bf(--links --safe-links)) Duplicate safe symlinks and skip unsafe
6efe9416
WD
3112ones.
3113
3114dit(bf(--links)) Duplicate all symlinks.
3115
faa82484 3116manpagediagnostics()
d310a212 3117
14d43f1f 3118rsync occasionally produces error messages that may seem a little
d310a212 3119cryptic. The one that seems to cause the most confusion is "protocol
faa82484 3120version mismatch -- is your shell clean?".
d310a212
AT
3121
3122This message is usually caused by your startup scripts or remote shell
3123facility producing unwanted garbage on the stream that rsync is using
14d43f1f 3124for its transport. The way to diagnose this problem is to run your
d310a212
AT
3125remote shell like this:
3126
faa82484
WD
3127quote(tt(ssh remotehost /bin/true > out.dat))
3128
d310a212 3129then look at out.dat. If everything is working correctly then out.dat
2cfeab21 3130should be a zero length file. If you are getting the above error from
d310a212
AT
3131rsync then you will probably find that out.dat contains some text or
3132data. Look at the contents and try to work out what is producing
14d43f1f 3133it. The most common cause is incorrectly configured shell startup
d310a212
AT
3134scripts (such as .cshrc or .profile) that contain output statements
3135for non-interactive logins.
3136
16e5de84 3137If you are having trouble debugging filter patterns, then
faa82484 3138try specifying the bf(-vv) option. At this level of verbosity rsync will
e6c64e79
MP
3139show why each individual file is included or excluded.
3140
55b64e4b
MP
3141manpagesection(EXIT VALUES)
3142
3143startdit()
a73de5f3 3144dit(bf(0)) Success
faa82484
WD
3145dit(bf(1)) Syntax or usage error
3146dit(bf(2)) Protocol incompatibility
a73de5f3
WD
3147dit(bf(3)) Errors selecting input/output files, dirs
3148dit(bf(4)) Requested action not supported: an attempt
8212336a 3149was made to manipulate 64-bit files on a platform that cannot support
f28bd833 3150them; or an option was specified that is supported by the client and
8212336a 3151not by the server.
a73de5f3 3152dit(bf(5)) Error starting client-server protocol
124f349e 3153dit(bf(6)) Daemon unable to append to log-file
faa82484
WD
3154dit(bf(10)) Error in socket I/O
3155dit(bf(11)) Error in file I/O
3156dit(bf(12)) Error in rsync protocol data stream
3157dit(bf(13)) Errors with program diagnostics
3158dit(bf(14)) Error in IPC code
3159dit(bf(20)) Received SIGUSR1 or SIGINT
49f4cfdf 3160dit(bf(21)) Some error returned by code(waitpid())
faa82484 3161dit(bf(22)) Error allocating core memory buffers
3c1e2ad9
WD
3162dit(bf(23)) Partial transfer due to error
3163dit(bf(24)) Partial transfer due to vanished source files
124f349e 3164dit(bf(25)) The --max-delete limit stopped deletions
faa82484 3165dit(bf(30)) Timeout in data send/receive
ba22c9e2 3166dit(bf(35)) Timeout waiting for daemon connection
55b64e4b
MP
3167enddit()
3168
de2fd20e
AT
3169manpagesection(ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES)
3170
3171startdit()
de2fd20e 3172dit(bf(CVSIGNORE)) The CVSIGNORE environment variable supplements any
faa82484 3173ignore patterns in .cvsignore files. See the bf(--cvs-exclude) option for
de2fd20e 3174more details.
332cf6df 3175dit(bf(RSYNC_ICONV)) Specify a default bf(--iconv) setting using this
2b2a4738
WD
3176environment variable. (First supported in 3.0.0.)
3177dit(bf(RSYNC_PROTECT_ARGS)) Specify a non-zero numeric value if you want the
3178bf(--protect-args) option to be enabled by default, or a zero value to make
3179sure that it is disabled by default. (First supported in 3.1.0.)
de2fd20e 3180dit(bf(RSYNC_RSH)) The RSYNC_RSH environment variable allows you to
ea7f8108 3181override the default shell used as the transport for rsync. Command line
faa82484 3182options are permitted after the command name, just as in the bf(-e) option.
4c3b4b25
AT
3183dit(bf(RSYNC_PROXY)) The RSYNC_PROXY environment variable allows you to
3184redirect your rsync client to use a web proxy when connecting to a
3185rsync daemon. You should set RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair.
de2fd20e 3186dit(bf(RSYNC_PASSWORD)) Setting RSYNC_PASSWORD to the required
bb18e755 3187password allows you to run authenticated rsync connections to an rsync
de2fd20e 3188daemon without user intervention. Note that this does not supply a
b2057d38
WD
3189password to a remote shell transport such as ssh; to learn how to do that,
3190consult the remote shell's documentation.
de2fd20e 3191dit(bf(USER) or bf(LOGNAME)) The USER or LOGNAME environment variables
5a727522 3192are used to determine the default username sent to an rsync daemon.
4b2f6a7c 3193If neither is set, the username defaults to "nobody".
14d43f1f 3194dit(bf(HOME)) The HOME environment variable is used to find the user's
de2fd20e 3195default .cvsignore file.
de2fd20e
AT
3196enddit()
3197
41059f75
AT
3198manpagefiles()
3199
30e8c8e1 3200/etc/rsyncd.conf or rsyncd.conf
41059f75
AT
3201
3202manpageseealso()
3203
49f4cfdf 3204bf(rsyncd.conf)(5)
41059f75 3205
41059f75
AT
3206manpagebugs()
3207
02184920 3208times are transferred as *nix time_t values
41059f75 3209
f28bd833 3210When transferring to FAT filesystems rsync may re-sync
38843171 3211unmodified files.
faa82484 3212See the comments on the bf(--modify-window) option.
38843171 3213
b5accaba 3214file permissions, devices, etc. are transferred as native numerical
41059f75
AT
3215values
3216
faa82484 3217see also the comments on the bf(--delete) option
41059f75 3218
b553a3dd 3219Please report bugs! See the web site at
38843171 3220url(http://rsync.samba.org/)(http://rsync.samba.org/)
41059f75 3221
15997547
WD
3222manpagesection(VERSION)
3223
db8f3f73 3224This man page is current for version 3.0.3 of rsync.
15997547 3225
4e0bf977
WD
3226manpagesection(INTERNAL OPTIONS)
3227
3228The options bf(--server) and bf(--sender) are used internally by rsync,
3229and should never be typed by a user under normal circumstances. Some
3230awareness of these options may be needed in certain scenarios, such as
3231when setting up a login that can only run an rsync command. For instance,
3232the support directory of the rsync distribution has an example script
3233named rrsync (for restricted rsync) that can be used with a restricted
3234ssh login.
3235
41059f75
AT
3236manpagesection(CREDITS)
3237
3238rsync is distributed under the GNU public license. See the file
3239COPYING for details.
3240
41059f75 3241A WEB site is available at
3cd5eb3b
MP
3242url(http://rsync.samba.org/)(http://rsync.samba.org/). The site
3243includes an FAQ-O-Matic which may cover questions unanswered by this
3244manual page.
9e3c856a
AT
3245
3246The primary ftp site for rsync is
3247url(ftp://rsync.samba.org/pub/rsync)(ftp://rsync.samba.org/pub/rsync).
41059f75
AT
3248
3249We would be delighted to hear from you if you like this program.
03646b49 3250Please contact the mailing-list at rsync@lists.samba.org.
41059f75 3251
9e3c856a
AT
3252This program uses the excellent zlib compression library written by
3253Jean-loup Gailly and Mark Adler.
41059f75
AT
3254
3255manpagesection(THANKS)
3256
6f098b0f 3257Special thanks go out to: John Van Essen, Matt McCutchen, Wesley W. Terpstra,
03646b49
WD
3258David Dykstra, Jos Backus, Sebastian Krahmer, Martin Pool, and our
3259gone-but-not-forgotten compadre, J.W. Schultz.
7ff701e8 3260
03646b49
WD
3261Thanks also to Richard Brent, Brendan Mackay, Bill Waite, Stephen Rothwell
3262and David Bell. I've probably missed some people, my apologies if I have.
41059f75
AT
3263
3264manpageauthor()
3265
ce5f2732 3266rsync was originally written by Andrew Tridgell and Paul Mackerras.