Move var declaration for older C compilers.
[rsync/rsync.git] / rsync.yo
CommitLineData
9e3c856a 1mailto(rsync-bugs@samba.org)
db8f3f73 2manpage(rsync)(1)(29 Jun 2008)()()
ddf8c2b0 3manpagename(rsync)(a fast, versatile, remote (and local) file-copying tool)
41059f75
AT
4manpagesynopsis()
5
ddf8c2b0 6verb(Local: rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [DEST]
868676dc 7
8f61dfdb 8Access via remote shell:
ddf8c2b0
WD
9 Pull: rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST:SRC... [DEST]
10 Push: rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST:DEST
41059f75 11
8f61dfdb 12Access via rsync daemon:
ddf8c2b0
WD
13 Pull: rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST::SRC... [DEST]
14 rsync [OPTION...] rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC... [DEST]
15 Push: rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST::DEST
16 rsync [OPTION...] SRC... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/DEST)
41059f75 17
a6fa5bde
WD
18Usages with just one SRC arg and no DEST arg will list the source files
19instead of copying.
039faa86 20
41059f75
AT
21manpagedescription()
22
a6fa5bde
WD
23Rsync is a fast and extraordinarily versatile file copying tool. It can
24copy locally, to/from another host over any remote shell, or to/from a
25remote rsync daemon. It offers a large number of options that control
26every aspect of its behavior and permit very flexible specification of the
27set of files to be copied. It is famous for its delta-transfer algorithm,
28which reduces the amount of data sent over the network by sending only the
29differences between the source files and the existing files in the
30destination. Rsync is widely used for backups and mirroring and as an
31improved copy command for everyday use.
32
33Rsync finds files that need to be transferred using a "quick check"
34algorithm (by default) that looks for files that have changed in size or
35in last-modified time. Any changes in the other preserved attributes (as
36requested by options) are made on the destination file directly when the
37quick check indicates that the file's data does not need to be updated.
1874f7e2 38
41059f75
AT
39Some of the additional features of rsync are:
40
b8a6dae0 41itemization(
b9f592fb 42 it() support for copying links, devices, owners, groups, and permissions
41059f75
AT
43 it() exclude and exclude-from options similar to GNU tar
44 it() a CVS exclude mode for ignoring the same files that CVS would ignore
43cd760f 45 it() can use any transparent remote shell, including ssh or rsh
d38772e0 46 it() does not require super-user privileges
41059f75 47 it() pipelining of file transfers to minimize latency costs
5a727522 48 it() support for anonymous or authenticated rsync daemons (ideal for
41059f75
AT
49 mirroring)
50)
51
52manpagesection(GENERAL)
53
15997547
WD
54Rsync copies files either to or from a remote host, or locally on the
55current host (it does not support copying files between two remote hosts).
56
57There are two different ways for rsync to contact a remote system: using a
58remote-shell program as the transport (such as ssh or rsh) or contacting an
59rsync daemon directly via TCP. The remote-shell transport is used whenever
60the source or destination path contains a single colon (:) separator after
61a host specification. Contacting an rsync daemon directly happens when the
62source or destination path contains a double colon (::) separator after a
ba3542cf 63host specification, OR when an rsync:// URL is specified (see also the
754a080f 64"USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION" section for
ba3542cf 65an exception to this latter rule).
15997547 66
c897f711
WD
67As a special case, if a single source arg is specified without a
68destination, the files are listed in an output format similar to "ls -l".
15997547
WD
69
70As expected, if neither the source or destination path specify a remote
71host, the copy occurs locally (see also the bf(--list-only) option).
72
1049378d
WD
73Rsync refers to the local side as the "client" and the remote side as the
74"server". Don't confuse "server" with an rsync daemon -- a daemon is always a
75server, but a server can be either a daemon or a remote-shell spawned process.
76
41059f75
AT
77manpagesection(SETUP)
78
79See the file README for installation instructions.
80
1bbf83c0
WD
81Once installed, you can use rsync to any machine that you can access via
82a remote shell (as well as some that you can access using the rsync
43cd760f 83daemon-mode protocol). For remote transfers, a modern rsync uses ssh
1bbf83c0 84for its communications, but it may have been configured to use a
43cd760f 85different remote shell by default, such as rsh or remsh.
41059f75 86
faa82484 87You can also specify any remote shell you like, either by using the bf(-e)
41059f75
AT
88command line option, or by setting the RSYNC_RSH environment variable.
89
8e987130 90Note that rsync must be installed on both the source and destination
faa82484 91machines.
8e987130 92
41059f75
AT
93manpagesection(USAGE)
94
95You use rsync in the same way you use rcp. You must specify a source
96and a destination, one of which may be remote.
97
4d888108 98Perhaps the best way to explain the syntax is with some examples:
41059f75 99
faa82484 100quote(tt(rsync -t *.c foo:src/))
41059f75 101
8a97fc2e 102This would transfer all files matching the pattern *.c from the
41059f75
AT
103current directory to the directory src on the machine foo. If any of
104the files already exist on the remote system then the rsync
105remote-update protocol is used to update the file by sending only the
106differences. See the tech report for details.
107
faa82484 108quote(tt(rsync -avz foo:src/bar /data/tmp))
41059f75 109
8a97fc2e 110This would recursively transfer all files from the directory src/bar on the
41059f75
AT
111machine foo into the /data/tmp/bar directory on the local machine. The
112files are transferred in "archive" mode, which ensures that symbolic
b5accaba 113links, devices, attributes, permissions, ownerships, etc. are preserved
14d43f1f 114in the transfer. Additionally, compression will be used to reduce the
41059f75
AT
115size of data portions of the transfer.
116
faa82484 117quote(tt(rsync -avz foo:src/bar/ /data/tmp))
41059f75 118
8a97fc2e
WD
119A trailing slash on the source changes this behavior to avoid creating an
120additional directory level at the destination. You can think of a trailing
121/ on a source as meaning "copy the contents of this directory" as opposed
122to "copy the directory by name", but in both cases the attributes of the
123containing directory are transferred to the containing directory on the
124destination. In other words, each of the following commands copies the
125files in the same way, including their setting of the attributes of
126/dest/foo:
127
faa82484
WD
128quote(
129tt(rsync -av /src/foo /dest)nl()
130tt(rsync -av /src/foo/ /dest/foo)nl()
131)
41059f75 132
c4833b02
WD
133Note also that host and module references don't require a trailing slash to
134copy the contents of the default directory. For example, both of these
135copy the remote directory's contents into "/dest":
136
137quote(
138tt(rsync -av host: /dest)nl()
139tt(rsync -av host::module /dest)nl()
140)
141
41059f75
AT
142You can also use rsync in local-only mode, where both the source and
143destination don't have a ':' in the name. In this case it behaves like
144an improved copy command.
145
bb9bdba4
WD
146Finally, you can list all the (listable) modules available from a
147particular rsync daemon by leaving off the module name:
148
faa82484 149quote(tt(rsync somehost.mydomain.com::))
14d43f1f 150
bb9bdba4 151See the following section for more details.
14d43f1f 152
675ef1aa
WD
153manpagesection(ADVANCED USAGE)
154
f92e15ef
WD
155The syntax for requesting multiple files from a remote host is done by
156specifying additional remote-host args in the same style as the first,
157or with the hostname omitted. For instance, all these work:
675ef1aa 158
f92e15ef
WD
159quote(tt(rsync -av host:file1 :file2 host:file{3,4} /dest/)nl()
160tt(rsync -av host::modname/file{1,2} host::modname/file3 /dest/)nl()
161tt(rsync -av host::modname/file1 ::modname/file{3,4}))
675ef1aa 162
f92e15ef
WD
163Older versions of rsync required using quoted spaces in the SRC, like these
164examples:
675ef1aa 165
f92e15ef
WD
166quote(tt(rsync -av host:'dir1/file1 dir2/file2' /dest)nl()
167tt(rsync host::'modname/dir1/file1 modname/dir2/file2' /dest))
675ef1aa 168
f92e15ef
WD
169This word-splitting still works (by default) in the latest rsync, but is
170not as easy to use as the first method.
675ef1aa 171
f92e15ef
WD
172If you need to transfer a filename that contains whitespace, you can either
173specify the bf(--protect-args) (bf(-s)) option, or you'll need to escape
174the whitespace in a way that the remote shell will understand. For
175instance:
675ef1aa 176
f92e15ef 177quote(tt(rsync -av host:'file\ name\ with\ spaces' /dest))
675ef1aa 178
5a727522 179manpagesection(CONNECTING TO AN RSYNC DAEMON)
41059f75 180
754a080f
WD
181It is also possible to use rsync without a remote shell as the transport.
182In this case you will directly connect to a remote rsync daemon, typically
183using TCP port 873. (This obviously requires the daemon to be running on
184the remote system, so refer to the STARTING AN RSYNC DAEMON TO ACCEPT
185CONNECTIONS section below for information on that.)
4c3b4b25 186
1bbf83c0 187Using rsync in this way is the same as using it with a remote shell except
41059f75
AT
188that:
189
b8a6dae0 190itemization(
62f27e3c
WD
191 it() you either use a double colon :: instead of a single colon to
192 separate the hostname from the path, or you use an rsync:// URL.
2c64b258 193 it() the first word of the "path" is actually a module name.
5a727522 194 it() the remote daemon may print a message of the day when you
14d43f1f 195 connect.
5a727522
WD
196 it() if you specify no path name on the remote daemon then the
197 list of accessible paths on the daemon will be shown.
f7632fc6 198 it() if you specify no local destination then a listing of the
5a727522 199 specified files on the remote daemon is provided.
2c64b258 200 it() you must not specify the bf(--rsh) (bf(-e)) option.
41059f75
AT
201)
202
754a080f
WD
203An example that copies all the files in a remote module named "src":
204
205verb( rsync -av host::src /dest)
206
207Some modules on the remote daemon may require authentication. If so,
4c3d16be
AT
208you will receive a password prompt when you connect. You can avoid the
209password prompt by setting the environment variable RSYNC_PASSWORD to
faa82484 210the password you want to use or using the bf(--password-file) option. This
65575e96 211may be useful when scripting rsync.
4c3d16be 212
3bc67f0c 213WARNING: On some systems environment variables are visible to all
faa82484 214users. On those systems using bf(--password-file) is recommended.
3bc67f0c 215
754a080f
WD
216You may establish the connection via a web proxy by setting the
217environment variable RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair pointing to
218your web proxy. Note that your web proxy's configuration must support
219proxy connections to port 873.
bef49340 220
b553a3dd
WD
221You may also establish a daemon connection using a program as a proxy by
222setting the environment variable RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG to the commands you
223wish to run in place of making a direct socket connection. The string may
224contain the escape "%H" to represent the hostname specified in the rsync
225command (so use "%%" if you need a single "%" in your string). For
226example:
227
228verb( export RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG='ssh proxyhost nc %H 873'
229 rsync -av targethost1::module/src/ /dest/
230 rsync -av rsync:://targethost2/module/src/ /dest/ )
231
84e1a34e 232The command specified above uses ssh to run nc (netcat) on a proxyhost,
b553a3dd
WD
233which forwards all data to port 873 (the rsync daemon) on the targethost
234(%H).
235
754a080f
WD
236manpagesection(USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION)
237
238It is sometimes useful to use various features of an rsync daemon (such as
239named modules) without actually allowing any new socket connections into a
240system (other than what is already required to allow remote-shell access).
241Rsync supports connecting to a host using a remote shell and then spawning
242a single-use "daemon" server that expects to read its config file in the
243home dir of the remote user. This can be useful if you want to encrypt a
244daemon-style transfer's data, but since the daemon is started up fresh by
245the remote user, you may not be able to use features such as chroot or
246change the uid used by the daemon. (For another way to encrypt a daemon
247transfer, consider using ssh to tunnel a local port to a remote machine and
248configure a normal rsync daemon on that remote host to only allow
249connections from "localhost".)
250
251From the user's perspective, a daemon transfer via a remote-shell
252connection uses nearly the same command-line syntax as a normal
253rsync-daemon transfer, with the only exception being that you must
254explicitly set the remote shell program on the command-line with the
255bf(--rsh=COMMAND) option. (Setting the RSYNC_RSH in the environment
256will not turn on this functionality.) For example:
257
258verb( rsync -av --rsh=ssh host::module /dest)
259
260If you need to specify a different remote-shell user, keep in mind that the
261user@ prefix in front of the host is specifying the rsync-user value (for a
262module that requires user-based authentication). This means that you must
f2ebbebe
WD
263give the '-l user' option to ssh when specifying the remote-shell, as in
264this example that uses the short version of the bf(--rsh) option:
754a080f
WD
265
266verb( rsync -av -e "ssh -l ssh-user" rsync-user@host::module /dest)
bef49340
WD
267
268The "ssh-user" will be used at the ssh level; the "rsync-user" will be
754a080f 269used to log-in to the "module".
bef49340 270
754a080f 271manpagesection(STARTING AN RSYNC DAEMON TO ACCEPT CONNECTIONS)
bef49340 272
754a080f
WD
273In order to connect to an rsync daemon, the remote system needs to have a
274daemon already running (or it needs to have configured something like inetd
275to spawn an rsync daemon for incoming connections on a particular port).
276For full information on how to start a daemon that will handling incoming
49f4cfdf 277socket connections, see the bf(rsyncd.conf)(5) man page -- that is the config
754a080f
WD
278file for the daemon, and it contains the full details for how to run the
279daemon (including stand-alone and inetd configurations).
bef49340 280
754a080f
WD
281If you're using one of the remote-shell transports for the transfer, there is
282no need to manually start an rsync daemon.
bef49340 283
41059f75
AT
284manpagesection(EXAMPLES)
285
286Here are some examples of how I use rsync.
287
14d43f1f
DD
288To backup my wife's home directory, which consists of large MS Word
289files and mail folders, I use a cron job that runs
41059f75 290
faa82484 291quote(tt(rsync -Cavz . arvidsjaur:backup))
41059f75 292
f39281ae 293each night over a PPP connection to a duplicate directory on my machine
41059f75
AT
294"arvidsjaur".
295
296To synchronize my samba source trees I use the following Makefile
297targets:
298
faa82484
WD
299verb( get:
300 rsync -avuzb --exclude '*~' samba:samba/ .
301 put:
302 rsync -Cavuzb . samba:samba/
303 sync: get put)
41059f75
AT
304
305this allows me to sync with a CVS directory at the other end of the
ae283632
WD
306connection. I then do CVS operations on the remote machine, which saves a
307lot of time as the remote CVS protocol isn't very efficient.
41059f75
AT
308
309I mirror a directory between my "old" and "new" ftp sites with the
faa82484 310command:
41059f75 311
faa82484 312tt(rsync -az -e ssh --delete ~ftp/pub/samba nimbus:"~ftp/pub/tridge")
41059f75 313
faa82484 314This is launched from cron every few hours.
41059f75 315
c95da96a
AT
316manpagesection(OPTIONS SUMMARY)
317
14d43f1f 318Here is a short summary of the options available in rsync. Please refer
faa82484 319to the detailed description below for a complete description. verb(
c95da96a 320 -v, --verbose increase verbosity
951e826b
WD
321 --info=FLAGS fine-grained informational verbosity
322 --debug=FLAGS fine-grained debug verbosity
44d98d61 323 -q, --quiet suppress non-error messages
1de02c27 324 --no-motd suppress daemon-mode MOTD (see caveat)
44d98d61 325 -c, --checksum skip based on checksum, not mod-time & size
16edf865 326 -a, --archive archive mode; equals -rlptgoD (no -H,-A,-X)
f40aa6fb 327 --no-OPTION turn off an implied OPTION (e.g. --no-D)
c95da96a
AT
328 -r, --recursive recurse into directories
329 -R, --relative use relative path names
f40aa6fb 330 --no-implied-dirs don't send implied dirs with --relative
915dd207 331 -b, --backup make backups (see --suffix & --backup-dir)
44d98d61 332 --backup-dir=DIR make backups into hierarchy based in DIR
915dd207 333 --suffix=SUFFIX backup suffix (default ~ w/o --backup-dir)
44d98d61
WD
334 -u, --update skip files that are newer on the receiver
335 --inplace update destination files in-place
94f20a9f 336 --append append data onto shorter files
84e1a34e 337 --append-verify --append w/old data in file checksum
09ed3099 338 -d, --dirs transfer directories without recursing
eb06fa95 339 -l, --links copy symlinks as symlinks
44d98d61
WD
340 -L, --copy-links transform symlink into referent file/dir
341 --copy-unsafe-links only "unsafe" symlinks are transformed
342 --safe-links ignore symlinks that point outside the tree
41adbcec 343 --munge-links munge symlinks to make them safer
f2ebbebe 344 -k, --copy-dirlinks transform symlink to dir into referent dir
09ed3099 345 -K, --keep-dirlinks treat symlinked dir on receiver as dir
f2ebbebe 346 -H, --hard-links preserve hard links
c95da96a 347 -p, --perms preserve permissions
2d5279ac 348 -E, --executability preserve executability
dfe1ed5e 349 --chmod=CHMOD affect file and/or directory permissions
1c3344a1 350 -A, --acls preserve ACLs (implies -p)
eb7e7b24 351 -X, --xattrs preserve extended attributes
d38772e0 352 -o, --owner preserve owner (super-user only)
c95da96a 353 -g, --group preserve group
d38772e0 354 --devices preserve device files (super-user only)
4e7d07c8
WD
355 --specials preserve special files
356 -D same as --devices --specials
42b06481
WD
357 -t, --times preserve modification times
358 -O, --omit-dir-times omit directories from --times
2624e005 359 -J, --omit-link-times omit symlinks from --times
d38772e0 360 --super receiver attempts super-user activities
9439c0cb 361 --fake-super store/recover privileged attrs using xattrs
c95da96a 362 -S, --sparse handle sparse files efficiently
d100e733 363 -n, --dry-run perform a trial run with no changes made
f7a2ac07 364 -W, --whole-file copy files whole (w/o delta-xfer algorithm)
c95da96a 365 -x, --one-file-system don't cross filesystem boundaries
3ed8eb3f 366 -B, --block-size=SIZE force a fixed checksum block-size
44d98d61 367 -e, --rsh=COMMAND specify the remote shell to use
68e169ab 368 --rsync-path=PROGRAM specify the rsync to run on remote machine
8517e9c1
WD
369 --existing skip creating new files on receiver
370 --ignore-existing skip updating files that exist on receiver
47c11975 371 --remove-source-files sender removes synchronized files (non-dir)
ae76a740 372 --del an alias for --delete-during
8517e9c1 373 --delete delete extraneous files from dest dirs
416cef36
WD
374 --delete-before receiver deletes before xfer, not during
375 --delete-during receiver deletes during transfer (default)
fd0a130c 376 --delete-delay find deletions during, delete after
ae76a740 377 --delete-after receiver deletes after transfer, not before
8517e9c1 378 --delete-excluded also delete excluded files from dest dirs
42d8ec61
WD
379 --ignore-missing-args ignore missing source args without error
380 --delete-missing-args delete missing source args from destination
b5accaba 381 --ignore-errors delete even if there are I/O errors
866925bf 382 --force force deletion of dirs even if not empty
0b73ca12 383 --max-delete=NUM don't delete more than NUM files
3610c458 384 --max-size=SIZE don't transfer any file larger than SIZE
59dd6786 385 --min-size=SIZE don't transfer any file smaller than SIZE
c95da96a 386 --partial keep partially transferred files
44cad59f 387 --partial-dir=DIR put a partially transferred file into DIR
44d98d61 388 --delay-updates put all updated files into place at end
a272ff8c 389 -m, --prune-empty-dirs prune empty directory chains from file-list
c95da96a 390 --numeric-ids don't map uid/gid values by user/group name
2df20057
WD
391 --usermap=STRING custom username mapping
392 --groupmap=STRING custom groupname mapping
393 --chown=USER:GROUP simple username/groupname mapping
ba22c9e2
WD
394 --timeout=SECONDS set I/O timeout in seconds
395 --contimeout=SECONDS set daemon connection timeout in seconds
44d98d61
WD
396 -I, --ignore-times don't skip files that match size and time
397 --size-only skip files that match in size
398 --modify-window=NUM compare mod-times with reduced accuracy
abce74bb 399 -T, --temp-dir=DIR create temporary files in directory DIR
5b483755 400 -y, --fuzzy find similar file for basis if no dest file
915dd207 401 --compare-dest=DIR also compare received files relative to DIR
2f03ce67 402 --copy-dest=DIR ... and include copies of unchanged files
b127c1dc 403 --link-dest=DIR hardlink to files in DIR when unchanged
32a5edf4 404 -z, --compress compress file data during the transfer
bad01106 405 --compress-level=NUM explicitly set compression level
2b967218 406 --skip-compress=LIST skip compressing files with suffix in LIST
44d98d61 407 -C, --cvs-exclude auto-ignore files in the same way CVS does
16e5de84 408 -f, --filter=RULE add a file-filtering RULE
8a6f3fea 409 -F same as --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'
16e5de84 410 repeated: --filter='- .rsync-filter'
2acf81eb 411 --exclude=PATTERN exclude files matching PATTERN
44d98d61 412 --exclude-from=FILE read exclude patterns from FILE
2acf81eb 413 --include=PATTERN don't exclude files matching PATTERN
44d98d61
WD
414 --include-from=FILE read include patterns from FILE
415 --files-from=FILE read list of source-file names from FILE
fa92818a 416 -0, --from0 all *from/filter files are delimited by 0s
82f37486 417 -s, --protect-args no space-splitting; wildcard chars only
3ae5367f 418 --address=ADDRESS bind address for outgoing socket to daemon
c259892c 419 --port=PORT specify double-colon alternate port number
04f48837 420 --sockopts=OPTIONS specify custom TCP options
b5accaba 421 --blocking-io use blocking I/O for the remote shell
44d98d61 422 --stats give some file-transfer stats
a6a27602 423 -8, --8-bit-output leave high-bit chars unescaped in output
955c3145 424 -h, --human-readable output numbers in a human-readable format
eb86d661 425 --progress show progress during transfer
44d98d61 426 -P same as --partial --progress
b78296cb 427 -i, --itemize-changes output a change-summary for all updates
7a2eca41 428 -M, --remote-option=OPTION send OPTION to the remote side only
c000002f
WD
429 --out-format=FORMAT output updates using the specified FORMAT
430 --log-file=FILE log what we're doing to the specified FILE
431 --log-file-format=FMT log updates using the specified FMT
09a54c39 432 --password-file=FILE read daemon-access password from FILE
09ed3099 433 --list-only list the files instead of copying them
ce795fcd 434 --bwlimit=RATE limit socket I/O bandwidth
faa82484 435 --write-batch=FILE write a batched update to FILE
326bb56e 436 --only-write-batch=FILE like --write-batch but w/o updating dest
44d98d61 437 --read-batch=FILE read a batched update from FILE
0b941479 438 --protocol=NUM force an older protocol version to be used
84e1a34e 439 --iconv=CONVERT_SPEC request charset conversion of filenames
44d98d61 440 --checksum-seed=NUM set block/file checksum seed (advanced)
abce74bb
WD
441 -4, --ipv4 prefer IPv4
442 -6, --ipv6 prefer IPv6
81c453b1 443 --version print version number
b8a6dae0 444(-h) --help show this help (see below for -h comment))
6902ed17 445
faa82484
WD
446Rsync can also be run as a daemon, in which case the following options are
447accepted: verb(
bdf278f7
WD
448 --daemon run as an rsync daemon
449 --address=ADDRESS bind to the specified address
ce795fcd 450 --bwlimit=RATE limit socket I/O bandwidth
bdf278f7 451 --config=FILE specify alternate rsyncd.conf file
2206abf8 452 -M, --dparam=OVERRIDE override global daemon config parameter
bdf278f7 453 --no-detach do not detach from the parent
c259892c 454 --port=PORT listen on alternate port number
a2ed5801 455 --log-file=FILE override the "log file" setting
4b90820d 456 --log-file-format=FMT override the "log format" setting
04f48837 457 --sockopts=OPTIONS specify custom TCP options
24b0922b 458 -v, --verbose increase verbosity
abce74bb
WD
459 -4, --ipv4 prefer IPv4
460 -6, --ipv6 prefer IPv6
b8a6dae0 461 -h, --help show this help (if used after --daemon))
c95da96a 462
41059f75
AT
463manpageoptions()
464
465rsync uses the GNU long options package. Many of the command line
466options have two variants, one short and one long. These are shown
14d43f1f 467below, separated by commas. Some options only have a long variant.
b5679335
DD
468The '=' for options that take a parameter is optional; whitespace
469can be used instead.
41059f75
AT
470
471startdit()
955c3145
WD
472dit(bf(--help)) Print a short help page describing the options
473available in rsync and exit. For backward-compatibility with older
467688dc
WD
474versions of rsync, the help will also be output if you use the bf(-h)
475option without any other args.
41059f75 476
bdf278f7 477dit(bf(--version)) print the rsync version number and exit.
41059f75
AT
478
479dit(bf(-v, --verbose)) This option increases the amount of information you
14d43f1f 480are given during the transfer. By default, rsync works silently. A
faa82484 481single bf(-v) will give you information about what files are being
951e826b 482transferred and a brief summary at the end. Two bf(-v) options will give you
41059f75 483information on what files are being skipped and slightly more
951e826b 484information at the end. More than two bf(-v) options should only be used if
14d43f1f 485you are debugging rsync.
41059f75 486
951e826b
WD
487In a modern rsync, the bf(-v) option is equivalent to the setting of groups
488of bf(--info) and bf(--debug) options. You can choose to use these newer
489options in addition to, or in place of using bf(--verbose), as any
490fine-grained settings override the implied settings of bf(-v). Both
491bf(--info) and bf(--debug) have a way to ask for help that tells you
492exactly what flags are set for each increase in verbosity.
493
494dit(bf(--info=FLAGS))
495This option lets you have fine-grained control over the
496information
497output you want to see. An individual flag name may be followed by a level
498number, with 0 meaning to silence that output, 1 being the default output
499level, and higher numbers increasing the output of that flag (for those
500that support higher levels). Use
501bf(--info=help)
502to see all the available flag names, what they output, and what flag names
503are added for each increase in the verbose level. Some examples:
504
505verb( rsync -a --info=progress2 src/ dest/
506 rsync -avv --info=stats2,misc1,flist0 src/ dest/ )
507
508Note that bf(--info=name)'s output is affected by the bf(--out-format) and
509bf(--itemize-changes) (bf(-i)) options. See those options for more
510information on what is output and when.
511
512This option was added to 3.1.0, so an older rsync on the server side might
513reject your attempts at fine-grained control (if one or more flags needed
514to be send to the server and the server was too old to understand them).
515
516dit(bf(--debug=FLAGS))
517This option lets you have fine-grained control over the
518debug
519output you want to see. An individual flag name may be followed by a level
520number, with 0 meaning to silence that output, 1 being the default output
521level, and higher numbers increasing the output of that flag (for those
522that support higher levels). Use
523bf(--debug=help)
524to see all the available flag names, what they output, and what flag names
525are added for each increase in the verbose level. Some examples:
526
527verb( rsync -avvv --debug=none src/ dest/
528 rsync -avA --del --debug=del2,acl src/ dest/ )
529
530This option was added to 3.1.0, so an older rsync on the server side might
531reject your attempts at fine-grained control (if one or more flags needed
532to be send to the server and the server was too old to understand them).
4f90eb43 533
b86f0cef
DD
534dit(bf(-q, --quiet)) This option decreases the amount of information you
535are given during the transfer, notably suppressing information messages
951e826b 536from the remote server. This option name is useful when invoking rsync from
b86f0cef
DD
537cron.
538
1de02c27
WD
539dit(bf(--no-motd)) This option affects the information that is output
540by the client at the start of a daemon transfer. This suppresses the
541message-of-the-day (MOTD) text, but it also affects the list of modules
542that the daemon sends in response to the "rsync host::" request (due to
543a limitation in the rsync protocol), so omit this option if you want to
c5b6e57a 544request the list of modules from the daemon.
1de02c27 545
41059f75 546dit(bf(-I, --ignore-times)) Normally rsync will skip any files that are
1874f7e2 547already the same size and have the same modification timestamp.
d04e95e9
WD
548This option turns off this "quick check" behavior, causing all files to
549be updated.
41059f75 550
1874f7e2
WD
551dit(bf(--size-only)) This modifies rsync's "quick check" algorithm for
552finding files that need to be transferred, changing it from the default of
553transferring files with either a changed size or a changed last-modified
d15f2ff0 554time to just looking for files that have changed in size. This is useful
1874f7e2
WD
555when starting to use rsync after using another mirroring system which may
556not preserve timestamps exactly.
f83f0548 557
4f1f94d1
WD
558dit(bf(--modify-window)) When comparing two timestamps, rsync treats the
559timestamps as being equal if they differ by no more than the modify-window
560value. This is normally 0 (for an exact match), but you may find it useful
561to set this to a larger value in some situations. In particular, when
562transferring to or from an MS Windows FAT filesystem (which represents
563times with a 2-second resolution), bf(--modify-window=1) is useful
564(allowing times to differ by up to 1 second).
5b56cc19 565
c64ff141
WD
566dit(bf(-c, --checksum)) This changes the way rsync checks if the files have
567been changed and are in need of a transfer. Without this option, rsync
568uses a "quick check" that (by default) checks if each file's size and time
569of last modification match between the sender and receiver. This option
e129500c 570changes this to compare a 128-bit checksum for each file that has a
c64ff141
WD
571matching size. Generating the checksums means that both sides will expend
572a lot of disk I/O reading all the data in the files in the transfer (and
573this is prior to any reading that will be done to transfer changed files),
574so this can slow things down significantly.
575
576The sending side generates its checksums while it is doing the file-system
577scan that builds the list of the available files. The receiver generates
578its checksums when it is scanning for changed files, and will checksum any
579file that has the same size as the corresponding sender's file: files with
580either a changed size or a changed checksum are selected for transfer.
581
582Note that rsync always verifies that each em(transferred) file was
583correctly reconstructed on the receiving side by checking a whole-file
f96bac84 584checksum that is generated as the file is transferred, but that
c64ff141 585automatic after-the-transfer verification has nothing to do with this
2a24b4bd 586option's before-the-transfer "Does this file need to be updated?" check.
41059f75 587
e129500c
WD
588For protocol 30 and beyond (first supported in 3.0.0), the checksum used is
589MD5. For older protocols, the checksum used is MD4.
590
faa82484 591dit(bf(-a, --archive)) This is equivalent to bf(-rlptgoD). It is a quick
e7bf3e5e 592way of saying you want recursion and want to preserve almost
f40aa6fb
WD
593everything (with -H being a notable omission).
594The only exception to the above equivalence is when bf(--files-from) is
5dd97ab9 595specified, in which case bf(-r) is not implied.
e7bf3e5e 596
faa82484 597Note that bf(-a) bf(does not preserve hardlinks), because
e7bf3e5e
MP
598finding multiply-linked files is expensive. You must separately
599specify bf(-H).
41059f75 600
f40aa6fb
WD
601dit(--no-OPTION) You may turn off one or more implied options by prefixing
602the option name with "no-". Not all options may be prefixed with a "no-":
603only options that are implied by other options (e.g. bf(--no-D),
604bf(--no-perms)) or have different defaults in various circumstances
605(e.g. bf(--no-whole-file), bf(--no-blocking-io), bf(--no-dirs)). You may
606specify either the short or the long option name after the "no-" prefix
607(e.g. bf(--no-R) is the same as bf(--no-relative)).
608
609For example: if you want to use bf(-a) (bf(--archive)) but don't want
610bf(-o) (bf(--owner)), instead of converting bf(-a) into bf(-rlptgD), you
611could specify bf(-a --no-o) (or bf(-a --no-owner)).
612
613The order of the options is important: if you specify bf(--no-r -a), the
614bf(-r) option would end up being turned on, the opposite of bf(-a --no-r).
615Note also that the side-effects of the bf(--files-from) option are NOT
a9af5d8e 616positional, as it affects the default state of several options and slightly
f40aa6fb
WD
617changes the meaning of bf(-a) (see the bf(--files-from) option for more
618details).
619
24986abd 620dit(bf(-r, --recursive)) This tells rsync to copy directories
faa82484 621recursively. See also bf(--dirs) (bf(-d)).
41059f75 622
d9f46544
WD
623Beginning with rsync 3.0.0, the recursive algorithm used is now an
624incremental scan that uses much less memory than before and begins the
625transfer after the scanning of the first few directories have been
626completed. This incremental scan only affects our recursion algorithm, and
ba2d43d7
WD
627does not change a non-recursive transfer. It is also only possible when
628both ends of the transfer are at least version 3.0.0.
d9f46544
WD
629
630Some options require rsync to know the full file list, so these options
1e05b590 631disable the incremental recursion mode. These include: bf(--delete-before),
ba2d43d7 632bf(--delete-after), bf(--prune-empty-dirs), and bf(--delay-updates).
d9f46544 633Because of this, the default delete mode when you specify bf(--delete) is now
1e05b590
WD
634bf(--delete-during) when both ends of the connection are at least 3.0.0
635(use bf(--del) or bf(--delete-during) to request this improved deletion mode
d9f46544
WD
636explicitly). See also the bf(--delete-delay) option that is a better choice
637than using bf(--delete-after).
638
ba2d43d7 639Incremental recursion can be disabled using the bf(--no-inc-recursive)
27999aba 640option or its shorter bf(--no-i-r) alias.
ba2d43d7 641
41059f75
AT
642dit(bf(-R, --relative)) Use relative paths. This means that the full path
643names specified on the command line are sent to the server rather than
644just the last parts of the filenames. This is particularly useful when
14d43f1f 645you want to send several different directories at the same time. For
1dc42d12 646example, if you used this command:
41059f75 647
1dc42d12 648quote(tt( rsync -av /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/))
41059f75 649
58718881 650... this would create a file named baz.c in /tmp/ on the remote
41059f75
AT
651machine. If instead you used
652
1dc42d12 653quote(tt( rsync -avR /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/))
41059f75 654
58718881 655then a file named /tmp/foo/bar/baz.c would be created on the remote
0758b2db
WD
656machine, preserving its full path. These extra path elements are called
657"implied directories" (i.e. the "foo" and the "foo/bar" directories in the
658above example).
659
660Beginning with rsync 3.0.0, rsync always sends these implied directories as
661real directories in the file list, even if a path element is really a
662symlink on the sending side. This prevents some really unexpected
663behaviors when copying the full path of a file that you didn't realize had
664a symlink in its path. If you want to duplicate a server-side symlink,
665include both the symlink via its path, and referent directory via its real
666path. If you're dealing with an older rsync on the sending side, you may
667need to use the bf(--no-implied-dirs) option.
668
669It is also possible to limit the amount of path information that is sent as
670implied directories for each path you specify. With a modern rsync on the
671sending side (beginning with 2.6.7), you can insert a dot and a slash into
672the source path, like this:
1dc42d12
WD
673
674quote(tt( rsync -avR /foo/./bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/))
675
676That would create /tmp/bar/baz.c on the remote machine. (Note that the
f2ebbebe 677dot must be followed by a slash, so "/foo/." would not be abbreviated.)
6f098b0f 678For older rsync versions, you would need to use a chdir to limit the
1dc42d12
WD
679source path. For example, when pushing files:
680
53cf0b8b 681quote(tt( (cd /foo; rsync -avR bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/) ))
1dc42d12 682
53cf0b8b
WD
683(Note that the parens put the two commands into a sub-shell, so that the
684"cd" command doesn't remain in effect for future commands.)
0758b2db
WD
685If you're pulling files from an older rsync, use this idiom (but only
686for a non-daemon transfer):
9bef934c 687
faa82484 688quote(
1dc42d12
WD
689tt( rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /foo; rsync" \ )nl()
690tt( remote:bar/baz.c /tmp/)
faa82484 691)
9bef934c 692
f2ebbebe
WD
693dit(bf(--no-implied-dirs)) This option affects the default behavior of the
694bf(--relative) option. When it is specified, the attributes of the implied
695directories from the source names are not included in the transfer. This
696means that the corresponding path elements on the destination system are
697left unchanged if they exist, and any missing implied directories are
698created with default attributes. This even allows these implied path
699elements to have big differences, such as being a symlink to a directory on
0758b2db 700the receiving side.
f2ebbebe
WD
701
702For instance, if a command-line arg or a files-from entry told rsync to
703transfer the file "path/foo/file", the directories "path" and "path/foo"
704are implied when bf(--relative) is used. If "path/foo" is a symlink to
705"bar" on the destination system, the receiving rsync would ordinarily
706delete "path/foo", recreate it as a directory, and receive the file into
707the new directory. With bf(--no-implied-dirs), the receiving rsync updates
708"path/foo/file" using the existing path elements, which means that the file
709ends up being created in "path/bar". Another way to accomplish this link
710preservation is to use the bf(--keep-dirlinks) option (which will also
711affect symlinks to directories in the rest of the transfer).
712
0758b2db
WD
713When pulling files from an rsync older than 3.0.0, you may need to use this
714option if the sending side has a symlink in the path you request and you
715wish the implied directories to be transferred as normal directories.
41059f75 716
b19fd07c
WD
717dit(bf(-b, --backup)) With this option, preexisting destination files are
718renamed as each file is transferred or deleted. You can control where the
719backup file goes and what (if any) suffix gets appended using the
faa82484 720bf(--backup-dir) and bf(--suffix) options.
4c72f27d
WD
721
722Note that if you don't specify bf(--backup-dir), (1) the
723bf(--omit-dir-times) option will be implied, and (2) if bf(--delete) is
2d5279ac 724also in effect (without bf(--delete-excluded)), rsync will add a "protect"
4c72f27d 725filter-rule for the backup suffix to the end of all your existing excludes
89cb4721 726(e.g. bf(-f "P *~")). This will prevent previously backed-up files from being
4c72f27d
WD
727deleted. Note that if you are supplying your own filter rules, you may
728need to manually insert your own exclude/protect rule somewhere higher up
729in the list so that it has a high enough priority to be effective (e.g., if
730your rules specify a trailing inclusion/exclusion of '*', the auto-added
731rule would never be reached).
41059f75 732
faa82484 733dit(bf(--backup-dir=DIR)) In combination with the bf(--backup) option, this
ad75d18d
WD
734tells rsync to store all backups in the specified directory on the receiving
735side. This can be used for incremental backups. You can additionally
faa82484 736specify a backup suffix using the bf(--suffix) option
759ac870
DD
737(otherwise the files backed up in the specified directory
738will keep their original filenames).
66203a98 739
cf0f454b
WD
740Note that if you specify a relative path, the backup directory will be
741relative to the destination directory, so you probably want to specify
742either an absolute path or a path that starts with "../". If an rsync
743daemon is the receiver, the backup dir cannot go outside the module's path
744hierarchy, so take extra care not to delete it or copy into it.
745
b5679335 746dit(bf(--suffix=SUFFIX)) This option allows you to override the default
faa82484
WD
747backup suffix used with the bf(--backup) (bf(-b)) option. The default suffix is a ~
748if no -bf(-backup-dir) was specified, otherwise it is an empty string.
9ef53907 749
4539c0d7
WD
750dit(bf(-u, --update)) This forces rsync to skip any files which exist on
751the destination and have a modified time that is newer than the source
42b06481 752file. (If an existing destination file has a modification time equal to the
4539c0d7 753source file's, it will be updated if the sizes are different.)
41059f75 754
4a4622bb
WD
755Note that this does not affect the copying of symlinks or other special
756files. Also, a difference of file format between the sender and receiver
757is always considered to be important enough for an update, no matter what
758date is on the objects. In other words, if the source has a directory
759where the destination has a file, the transfer would occur regardless of
760the timestamps.
adddd075 761
fd2b6046
WD
762This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't affect the
763data that goes into the file-lists, and thus it doesn't affect deletions.
764It just limits the files that the receiver requests to be transferred.
765
6f098b0f
WD
766dit(bf(--inplace)) This option changes how rsync transfers a file when
767its data needs to be updated: instead of the default method of creating
adc4ebdd
WD
768a new copy of the file and moving it into place when it is complete, rsync
769instead writes the updated data directly to the destination file.
770
58a79f4b
MM
771This has several effects:
772
773quote(itemization(
774 it() Hard links are not broken. This means the new data will be visible
775 through other hard links to the destination file. Moreover, attempts to
776 copy differing source files onto a multiply-linked destination file will
777 result in a "tug of war" with the destination data changing back and forth.
778 it() In-use binaries cannot be updated (either the OS will prevent this from
779 happening, or binaries that attempt to swap-in their data will misbehave or
780 crash).
781 it() The file's data will be in an inconsistent state during the transfer
782 and will be left that way if the transfer is interrupted or if an update
783 fails.
e630fd11
WD
784 it() A file that rsync cannot write to cannot be updated. While a super user
785 can update any file, a normal user needs to be granted write permission for
786 the open of the file for writing to be successful.
58a79f4b
MM
787 it() The efficiency of rsync's delta-transfer algorithm may be reduced if
788 some data in the destination file is overwritten before it can be copied to
789 a position later in the file. This does not apply if you use bf(--backup),
790 since rsync is smart enough to use the backup file as the basis file for the
791 transfer.
792))
adc4ebdd
WD
793
794WARNING: you should not use this option to update files that are being
795accessed by others, so be careful when choosing to use this for a copy.
a3221d2a 796
6f098b0f 797This option is useful for transferring large files with block-based changes
183150b7 798or appended data, and also on systems that are disk bound, not network
e630fd11
WD
799bound. It can also help keep a copy-on-write filesystem snapshot from
800diverging the entire contents of a file that only has minor changes.
183150b7 801
faa82484
WD
802The option implies bf(--partial) (since an interrupted transfer does not delete
803the file), but conflicts with bf(--partial-dir) and bf(--delay-updates).
b7c24819
WD
804Prior to rsync 2.6.4 bf(--inplace) was also incompatible with bf(--compare-dest)
805and bf(--link-dest).
a3221d2a 806
94f20a9f
WD
807dit(bf(--append)) This causes rsync to update a file by appending data onto
808the end of the file, which presumes that the data that already exists on
809the receiving side is identical with the start of the file on the sending
022dec7a
WD
810side. If a file needs to be transferred and its size on the receiver is
811the same or longer than the size on the sender, the file is skipped. This
812does not interfere with the updating of a file's non-content attributes
813(e.g. permissions, ownership, etc.) when the file does not need to be
814transferred, nor does it affect the updating of any non-regular files.
815Implies bf(--inplace),
07bbf870
WD
816but does not conflict with bf(--sparse) (since it is always extending a
817file's length).
818
819dit(bf(--append-verify)) This works just like the bf(--append) option, but
820the existing data on the receiving side is included in the full-file
821checksum verification step, which will cause a file to be resent if the
822final verification step fails (rsync uses a normal, non-appending
823bf(--inplace) transfer for the resend).
824
825Note: prior to rsync 3.0.0, the bf(--append) option worked like
826bf(--append-verify), so if you are interacting with an older rsync (or the
827transfer is using a protocol prior to 30), specifying either append option
828will initiate an bf(--append-verify) transfer.
94f20a9f 829
09ed3099 830dit(bf(-d, --dirs)) Tell the sending side to include any directories that
faa82484 831are encountered. Unlike bf(--recursive), a directory's contents are not copied
57b66a24
WD
832unless the directory name specified is "." or ends with a trailing slash
833(e.g. ".", "dir/.", "dir/", etc.). Without this option or the
faa82484 834bf(--recursive) option, rsync will skip all directories it encounters (and
f40aa6fb 835output a message to that effect for each one). If you specify both
6e6cc163 836bf(--dirs) and bf(--recursive), bf(--recursive) takes precedence.
09ed3099 837
73cb6738
WD
838The bf(--dirs) option is implied by the bf(--files-from) option
839or the bf(--list-only) option (including an implied
32b9011a
WD
840bf(--list-only) usage) if bf(--recursive) wasn't specified (so that
841directories are seen in the listing). Specify bf(--no-dirs) (or bf(--no-d))
73cb6738
WD
842if you want to turn this off.
843
844There is also a backward-compatibility helper option, bf(--old-dirs) (or
845bf(--old-d)) that tells rsync to use a hack of "-r --exclude='/*/*'" to get
846an older rsync to list a single directory without recursing.
32b9011a 847
eb06fa95
MP
848dit(bf(-l, --links)) When symlinks are encountered, recreate the
849symlink on the destination.
41059f75 850
f2ebbebe 851dit(bf(-L, --copy-links)) When symlinks are encountered, the item that
ef855d19
WD
852they point to (the referent) is copied, rather than the symlink. In older
853versions of rsync, this option also had the side-effect of telling the
854receiving side to follow symlinks, such as symlinks to directories. In a
faa82484 855modern rsync such as this one, you'll need to specify bf(--keep-dirlinks) (bf(-K))
ef855d19 856to get this extra behavior. The only exception is when sending files to
faa82484
WD
857an rsync that is too old to understand bf(-K) -- in that case, the bf(-L) option
858will still have the side-effect of bf(-K) on that older receiving rsync.
b5313607 859
eb06fa95 860dit(bf(--copy-unsafe-links)) This tells rsync to copy the referent of
7af4227a 861symbolic links that point outside the copied tree. Absolute symlinks
eb06fa95 862are also treated like ordinary files, and so are any symlinks in the
f2ebbebe
WD
863source path itself when bf(--relative) is used. This option has no
864additional effect if bf(--copy-links) was also specified.
41059f75 865
d310a212 866dit(bf(--safe-links)) This tells rsync to ignore any symbolic links
7af4227a 867which point outside the copied tree. All absolute symlinks are
faa82484
WD
868also ignored. Using this option in conjunction with bf(--relative) may
869give unexpected results.
d310a212 870
41adbcec
WD
871dit(bf(--munge-links)) This option tells rsync to (1) modify all symlinks on
872the receiving side in a way that makes them unusable but recoverable (see
873below), or (2) to unmunge symlinks on the sending side that had been stored in
874a munged state. This is useful if you don't quite trust the source of the data
875to not try to slip in a symlink to a unexpected place.
876
877The way rsync disables the use of symlinks is to prefix each one with the
878string "/rsyncd-munged/". This prevents the links from being used as long as
879that directory does not exist. When this option is enabled, rsync will refuse
880to run if that path is a directory or a symlink to a directory.
881
882The option only affects the client side of the transfer, so if you need it to
883affect the server, specify it via bf(--remote-option). (Note that in a local
884transfer, the client side is the sender.)
885
886This option has no affect on a daemon, since the daemon configures whether it
887wants munged symlinks via its "munge symlinks" parameter. See also the
888"munge-symlinks" perl script in the support directory of the source code.
889
1a515b49 890dit(bf(-k, --copy-dirlinks)) This option causes the sending side to treat
f2ebbebe
WD
891a symlink to a directory as though it were a real directory. This is
892useful if you don't want symlinks to non-directories to be affected, as
893they would be using bf(--copy-links).
41059f75 894
f2ebbebe
WD
895Without this option, if the sending side has replaced a directory with a
896symlink to a directory, the receiving side will delete anything that is in
897the way of the new symlink, including a directory hierarchy (as long as
898bf(--force) or bf(--delete) is in effect).
41059f75 899
f2ebbebe
WD
900See also bf(--keep-dirlinks) for an analogous option for the receiving
901side.
41059f75 902
ae03e0e0
MM
903bf(--copy-dirlinks) applies to all symlinks to directories in the source. If
904you want to follow only a few specified symlinks, a trick you can use is to
905pass them as additional source args with a trailing slash, using bf(--relative)
906to make the paths match up right. For example:
907
908quote(tt(rsync -r --relative src/./ src/./follow-me/ dest/))
909
910This works because rsync calls bf(lstat)(2) on the source arg as given, and the
911trailing slash makes bf(lstat)(2) follow the symlink, giving rise to a directory
912in the file-list which overrides the symlink found during the scan of "src/./".
913
f2ebbebe
WD
914dit(bf(-K, --keep-dirlinks)) This option causes the receiving side to treat
915a symlink to a directory as though it were a real directory, but only if it
916matches a real directory from the sender. Without this option, the
917receiver's symlink would be deleted and replaced with a real directory.
09ed3099 918
f2ebbebe
WD
919For example, suppose you transfer a directory "foo" that contains a file
920"file", but "foo" is a symlink to directory "bar" on the receiver. Without
921bf(--keep-dirlinks), the receiver deletes symlink "foo", recreates it as a
922directory, and receives the file into the new directory. With
923bf(--keep-dirlinks), the receiver keeps the symlink and "file" ends up in
924"bar".
925
ce055e86
WD
926One note of caution: if you use bf(--keep-dirlinks), you must trust all
927the symlinks in the copy! If it is possible for an untrusted user to
928create their own symlink to any directory, the user could then (on a
929subsequent copy) replace the symlink with a real directory and affect the
930content of whatever directory the symlink references. For backup copies,
931you are better off using something like a bind mount instead of a symlink
932to modify your receiving hierarchy.
933
f2ebbebe
WD
934See also bf(--copy-dirlinks) for an analogous option for the sending side.
935
936dit(bf(-H, --hard-links)) This tells rsync to look for hard-linked files in
58a79f4b
MM
937the source and link together the corresponding files on the destination.
938Without this option, hard-linked files in the source are treated
f2ebbebe
WD
939as though they were separate files.
940
58a79f4b
MM
941This option does NOT necessarily ensure that the pattern of hard links on the
942destination exactly matches that on the source. Cases in which the
943destination may end up with extra hard links include the following:
944
945quote(itemization(
da9b72b3
WD
946 it() If the destination contains extraneous hard-links (more linking than
947 what is present in the source file list), the copying algorithm will not
3bd9f519
WD
948 break them explicitly. However, if one or more of the paths have content
949 differences, the normal file-update process will break those extra links
950 (unless you are using the bf(--inplace) option).
58a79f4b 951 it() If you specify a bf(--link-dest) directory that contains hard links,
3bd9f519
WD
952 the linking of the destination files against the bf(--link-dest) files can
953 cause some paths in the destination to become linked together due to the
954 bf(--link-dest) associations.
58a79f4b 955))
5f0f2e08
WD
956
957Note that rsync can only detect hard links between files that are inside
958the transfer set. If rsync updates a file that has extra hard-link
959connections to files outside the transfer, that linkage will be broken. If
960you are tempted to use the bf(--inplace) option to avoid this breakage, be
961very careful that you know how your files are being updated so that you are
962certain that no unintended changes happen due to lingering hard links (and
963see the bf(--inplace) option for more caveats).
41059f75 964
ba2d43d7 965If incremental recursion is active (see bf(--recursive)), rsync may transfer
5f0f2e08 966a missing hard-linked file before it finds that another link for that contents
968061bb 967exists elsewhere in the hierarchy. This does not affect the accuracy of
8030518d
WD
968the transfer (i.e. which files are hard-linked together), just its efficiency
969(i.e. copying the data for a new, early copy of a hard-linked file that could
970have been found later in the transfer in another member of the hard-linked
971set of files). One way to avoid this inefficiency is to disable
27999aba 972incremental recursion using the bf(--no-inc-recursive) option.
ba2d43d7 973
2d5279ac
WD
974dit(bf(-p, --perms)) This option causes the receiving rsync to set the
975destination permissions to be the same as the source permissions. (See
976also the bf(--chmod) option for a way to modify what rsync considers to
977be the source permissions.)
8dc74608 978
2d5279ac
WD
979When this option is em(off), permissions are set as follows:
980
b8a6dae0 981quote(itemization(
2d5279ac
WD
982 it() Existing files (including updated files) retain their existing
983 permissions, though the bf(--executability) option might change just
984 the execute permission for the file.
77ed253c 985 it() New files get their "normal" permission bits set to the source
1c3344a1
WD
986 file's permissions masked with the receiving directory's default
987 permissions (either the receiving process's umask, or the permissions
988 specified via the destination directory's default ACL), and
77ed253c
WD
989 their special permission bits disabled except in the case where a new
990 directory inherits a setgid bit from its parent directory.
2d5279ac 991))
77ed253c 992
2d5279ac
WD
993Thus, when bf(--perms) and bf(--executability) are both disabled,
994rsync's behavior is the same as that of other file-copy utilities,
995such as bf(cp)(1) and bf(tar)(1).
996
77ed253c
WD
997In summary: to give destination files (both old and new) the source
998permissions, use bf(--perms). To give new files the destination-default
1f77038e 999permissions (while leaving existing files unchanged), make sure that the
77ed253c
WD
1000bf(--perms) option is off and use bf(--chmod=ugo=rwX) (which ensures that
1001all non-masked bits get enabled). If you'd care to make this latter
1002behavior easier to type, you could define a popt alias for it, such as
58b7b3d6 1003putting this line in the file ~/.popt (the following defines the bf(-Z) option,
662127e6 1004and includes --no-g to use the default group of the destination dir):
77ed253c 1005
58b7b3d6 1006quote(tt( rsync alias -Z --no-p --no-g --chmod=ugo=rwX))
77ed253c
WD
1007
1008You could then use this new option in a command such as this one:
1009
58b7b3d6 1010quote(tt( rsync -avZ src/ dest/))
77ed253c 1011
58b7b3d6
WD
1012(Caveat: make sure that bf(-a) does not follow bf(-Z), or it will re-enable
1013the two "--no-*" options mentioned above.)
662127e6 1014
77ed253c
WD
1015The preservation of the destination's setgid bit on newly-created
1016directories when bf(--perms) is off was added in rsync 2.6.7. Older rsync
1017versions erroneously preserved the three special permission bits for
1018newly-created files when bf(--perms) was off, while overriding the
1c3344a1
WD
1019destination's setgid bit setting on a newly-created directory. Default ACL
1020observance was added to the ACL patch for rsync 2.6.7, so older (or
1021non-ACL-enabled) rsyncs use the umask even if default ACLs are present.
1022(Keep in mind that it is the version of the receiving rsync that affects
1023these behaviors.)
77ed253c 1024
2d5279ac
WD
1025dit(bf(-E, --executability)) This option causes rsync to preserve the
1026executability (or non-executability) of regular files when bf(--perms) is
1027not enabled. A regular file is considered to be executable if at least one
77ed253c
WD
1028'x' is turned on in its permissions. When an existing destination file's
1029executability differs from that of the corresponding source file, rsync
1030modifies the destination file's permissions as follows:
2d5279ac 1031
b8a6dae0 1032quote(itemization(
2d5279ac
WD
1033 it() To make a file non-executable, rsync turns off all its 'x'
1034 permissions.
1035 it() To make a file executable, rsync turns on each 'x' permission that
1036 has a corresponding 'r' permission enabled.
1037))
1038
1039If bf(--perms) is enabled, this option is ignored.
41059f75 1040
1c3344a1 1041dit(bf(-A, --acls)) This option causes rsync to update the destination
0f6b4909
WD
1042ACLs to be the same as the source ACLs.
1043The option also implies bf(--perms).
1044
1045The source and destination systems must have compatible ACL entries for this
1046option to work properly. See the bf(--fake-super) option for a way to backup
1047and restore ACLs that are not compatible.
1c3344a1 1048
5deb19e4
MM
1049dit(bf(-X, --xattrs)) This option causes rsync to update the destination
1050extended attributes to be the same as the source ones.
0f6b4909
WD
1051
1052For systems that support extended-attribute namespaces, a copy being done by a
1053super-user copies all namespaces except system.*. A normal user only copies
1054the user.* namespace. To be able to backup and restore non-user namespaces as
1055a normal user, see the bf(--fake-super) option.
16edf865 1056
0d78a278
WD
1057Note that this option does not copy rsyncs special xattr values (e.g. those
1058used by bf(--fake-super)) unless you repeat the option (e.g. -XX). This
1059"copy all xattrs" mode cannot be used with bf(--fake-super).
1060
9f822556 1061dit(bf(--chmod)) This option tells rsync to apply one or more
aef2b8ce 1062comma-separated "chmod" modes to the permission of the files in the
6f098b0f 1063transfer. The resulting value is treated as though it were the permissions
9f822556
WD
1064that the sending side supplied for the file, which means that this option
1065can seem to have no effect on existing files if bf(--perms) is not enabled.
1066
1067In addition to the normal parsing rules specified in the bf(chmod)(1)
1068manpage, you can specify an item that should only apply to a directory by
1069prefixing it with a 'D', or specify an item that should only apply to a
aef2b8ce
WD
1070file by prefixing it with a 'F'. For example, the following will ensure
1071that all directories get marked set-gid, that no files are other-writable,
1072that both are user-writable and group-writable, and that both have
1073consistent executability across all bits:
9f822556
WD
1074
1075quote(--chmod=Dg+s,ug+w,Fo-w,+X)
1076
aef2b8ce
WD
1077Using octal mode numbers is also allowed:
1078
1079quote(--chmod=D2775,F664)
1080
9f822556
WD
1081It is also legal to specify multiple bf(--chmod) options, as each
1082additional option is just appended to the list of changes to make.
1083
1084See the bf(--perms) and bf(--executability) options for how the resulting
1085permission value can be applied to the files in the transfer.
1086
eb06fa95 1087dit(bf(-o, --owner)) This option causes rsync to set the owner of the
8641d287
WD
1088destination file to be the same as the source file, but only if the
1089receiving rsync is being run as the super-user (see also the bf(--super)
9439c0cb 1090and bf(--fake-super) options).
0f6b4909
WD
1091Without this option, the owner of new and/or transferred files are set to
1092the invoking user on the receiving side.
8641d287
WD
1093
1094The preservation of ownership will associate matching names by default, but
1095may fall back to using the ID number in some circumstances (see also the
1096bf(--numeric-ids) option for a full discussion).
41059f75 1097
eb06fa95
MP
1098dit(bf(-g, --group)) This option causes rsync to set the group of the
1099destination file to be the same as the source file. If the receiving
8641d287
WD
1100program is not running as the super-user (or if bf(--no-super) was
1101specified), only groups that the invoking user on the receiving side
1102is a member of will be preserved.
1103Without this option, the group is set to the default group of the invoking
1104user on the receiving side.
1105
1106The preservation of group information will associate matching names by
1107default, but may fall back to using the ID number in some circumstances
1108(see also the bf(--numeric-ids) option for a full discussion).
41059f75 1109
4e7d07c8 1110dit(bf(--devices)) This option causes rsync to transfer character and
d38772e0
WD
1111block device files to the remote system to recreate these devices.
1112This option has no effect if the receiving rsync is not run as the
9439c0cb 1113super-user (see also the bf(--super) and bf(--fake-super) options).
41059f75 1114
4e7d07c8
WD
1115dit(bf(--specials)) This option causes rsync to transfer special files
1116such as named sockets and fifos.
1117
1118dit(bf(-D)) The bf(-D) option is equivalent to bf(--devices) bf(--specials).
1119
41059f75 1120dit(bf(-t, --times)) This tells rsync to transfer modification times along
baf3e504
DD
1121with the files and update them on the remote system. Note that if this
1122option is not used, the optimization that excludes files that have not been
faa82484
WD
1123modified cannot be effective; in other words, a missing bf(-t) or bf(-a) will
1124cause the next transfer to behave as if it used bf(-I), causing all files to be
adc4ebdd 1125updated (though rsync's delta-transfer algorithm will make the update fairly efficient
faa82484 1126if the files haven't actually changed, you're much better off using bf(-t)).
41059f75 1127
54e66f1d 1128dit(bf(-O, --omit-dir-times)) This tells rsync to omit directories when
faa82484
WD
1129it is preserving modification times (see bf(--times)). If NFS is sharing
1130the directories on the receiving side, it is a good idea to use bf(-O).
fbe5eeb8 1131This option is inferred if you use bf(--backup) without bf(--backup-dir).
54e66f1d 1132
2624e005
WD
1133dit(bf(-J, --omit-link-times)) This tells rsync to omit symlinks when
1134it is preserving modification times (see bf(--times)).
1135
d38772e0
WD
1136dit(bf(--super)) This tells the receiving side to attempt super-user
1137activities even if the receiving rsync wasn't run by the super-user. These
1138activities include: preserving users via the bf(--owner) option, preserving
1139all groups (not just the current user's groups) via the bf(--groups)
1140option, and copying devices via the bf(--devices) option. This is useful
1141for systems that allow such activities without being the super-user, and
1142also for ensuring that you will get errors if the receiving side isn't
0cdb547f 1143being run as the super-user. To turn off super-user activities, the
d38772e0
WD
1144super-user can use bf(--no-super).
1145
9439c0cb 1146dit(bf(--fake-super)) When this option is enabled, rsync simulates
0f6b4909
WD
1147super-user activities by saving/restoring the privileged attributes via
1148special extended attributes that are attached to each file (as needed). This
9439c0cb
WD
1149includes the file's owner and group (if it is not the default), the file's
1150device info (device & special files are created as empty text files), and
1151any permission bits that we won't allow to be set on the real file (e.g.
1152the real file gets u-s,g-s,o-t for safety) or that would limit the owner's
809724d7
WD
1153access (since the real super-user can always access/change a file, the
1154files we create can always be accessed/changed by the creating user).
0f6b4909
WD
1155This option also handles ACLs (if bf(--acls) was specified) and non-user
1156extended attributes (if bf(--xattrs) was specified).
1157
84e1a34e 1158This is a good way to backup data without using a super-user, and to store
0f6b4909 1159ACLs from incompatible systems.
9439c0cb
WD
1160
1161The bf(--fake-super) option only affects the side where the option is used.
7a2eca41
WD
1162To affect the remote side of a remote-shell connection, use the
1163bf(--remote-option) (bf(-M)) option:
9439c0cb 1164
7a2eca41 1165quote(tt( rsync -av -M--fake-super /src/ host:/dest/))
9439c0cb 1166
7a2eca41
WD
1167For a local copy, this option affects both the source and the destination.
1168If you wish a local copy to enable this option just for the destination
1169files, specify bf(-M--fake-super). If you wish a local copy to enable
1170this option just for the source files, combine bf(--fake-super) with
1171bf(-M--super).
9439c0cb
WD
1172
1173This option is overridden by both bf(--super) and bf(--no-super).
1174
1175See also the "fake super" setting in the daemon's rsyncd.conf file.
1176
41059f75 1177dit(bf(-S, --sparse)) Try to handle sparse files efficiently so they take
a8cbb57c
WD
1178up less space on the destination. Conflicts with bf(--inplace) because it's
1179not possible to overwrite data in a sparse fashion.
41059f75 1180
d100e733
WD
1181dit(bf(-n, --dry-run)) This makes rsync perform a trial run that doesn't
1182make any changes (and produces mostly the same output as a real run). It
1183is most commonly used in combination with the bf(-v, --verbose) and/or
1184bf(-i, --itemize-changes) options to see what an rsync command is going
1185to do before one actually runs it.
1186
1187The output of bf(--itemize-changes) is supposed to be exactly the same on a
1188dry run and a subsequent real run (barring intentional trickery and system
6f098b0f
WD
1189call failures); if it isn't, that's a bug. Other output should be mostly
1190unchanged, but may differ in some areas. Notably, a dry run does not
d100e733
WD
1191send the actual data for file transfers, so bf(--progress) has no effect,
1192the "bytes sent", "bytes received", "literal data", and "matched data"
1193statistics are too small, and the "speedup" value is equivalent to a run
6f098b0f 1194where no file transfers were needed.
f2ebbebe 1195
adc4ebdd 1196dit(bf(-W, --whole-file)) With this option rsync's delta-transfer algorithm
f2ebbebe
WD
1197is not used and the whole file is sent as-is instead. The transfer may be
1198faster if this option is used when the bandwidth between the source and
1199destination machines is higher than the bandwidth to disk (especially when the
1200"disk" is actually a networked filesystem). This is the default when both
63070274
WD
1201the source and destination are specified as local paths, but only if no
1202batch-writing option is in effect.
f2ebbebe 1203
4e5baafe
WD
1204dit(bf(-x, --one-file-system)) This tells rsync to avoid crossing a
1205filesystem boundary when recursing. This does not limit the user's ability
1206to specify items to copy from multiple filesystems, just rsync's recursion
1207through the hierarchy of each directory that the user specified, and also
1208the analogous recursion on the receiving side during deletion. Also keep
1209in mind that rsync treats a "bind" mount to the same device as being on the
77ed253c 1210same filesystem.
4e5baafe
WD
1211
1212If this option is repeated, rsync omits all mount-point directories from
1213the copy. Otherwise, it includes an empty directory at each mount-point it
1214encounters (using the attributes of the mounted directory because those of
1215the underlying mount-point directory are inaccessible).
1216
1217If rsync has been told to collapse symlinks (via bf(--copy-links) or
1218bf(--copy-unsafe-links)), a symlink to a directory on another device is
49140b27
WD
1219treated like a mount-point. Symlinks to non-directories are unaffected
1220by this option.
6d8c6bdb 1221
9639c718 1222dit(bf(--existing, --ignore-non-existing)) This tells rsync to skip
58a06312
WD
1223creating files (including directories) that do not exist
1224yet on the destination. If this option is
9639c718 1225combined with the bf(--ignore-existing) option, no files will be updated
8e3b627d 1226(which can be useful if all you want to do is delete extraneous files).
9639c718 1227
fd2b6046
WD
1228This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't affect the
1229data that goes into the file-lists, and thus it doesn't affect deletions.
1230It just limits the files that the receiver requests to be transferred.
1231
58a06312
WD
1232dit(bf(--ignore-existing)) This tells rsync to skip updating files that
1233already exist on the destination (this does em(not) ignore existing
c5b6e57a 1234directories, or nothing would get done). See also bf(--existing).
1347d512 1235
fd2b6046
WD
1236This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't affect the
1237data that goes into the file-lists, and thus it doesn't affect deletions.
1238It just limits the files that the receiver requests to be transferred.
1239
8e3b627d
WD
1240This option can be useful for those doing backups using the bf(--link-dest)
1241option when they need to continue a backup run that got interrupted. Since
1242a bf(--link-dest) run is copied into a new directory hierarchy (when it is
1243used properly), using bf(--ignore existing) will ensure that the
1244already-handled files don't get tweaked (which avoids a change in
1245permissions on the hard-linked files). This does mean that this option
1246is only looking at the existing files in the destination hierarchy itself.
1247
47c11975 1248dit(bf(--remove-source-files)) This tells rsync to remove from the sending
fb41a3c6
WD
1249side the files (meaning non-directories) that are a part of the transfer
1250and have been successfully duplicated on the receiving side.
96110304 1251
2c0fa6c5 1252dit(bf(--delete)) This tells rsync to delete extraneous files from the
e8b155a3
WD
1253receiving side (ones that aren't on the sending side), but only for the
1254directories that are being synchronized. You must have asked rsync to
1255send the whole directory (e.g. "dir" or "dir/") without using a wildcard
1256for the directory's contents (e.g. "dir/*") since the wildcard is expanded
ae76a740 1257by the shell and rsync thus gets a request to transfer individual files, not
d252e47d 1258the files' parent directory. Files that are excluded from the transfer are
0dfffb88
WD
1259also excluded from being deleted unless you use the bf(--delete-excluded)
1260option or mark the rules as only matching on the sending side (see the
1261include/exclude modifiers in the FILTER RULES section).
41059f75 1262
505ada14 1263Prior to rsync 2.6.7, this option would have no effect unless bf(--recursive)
d9f46544
WD
1264was enabled. Beginning with 2.6.7, deletions will also occur when bf(--dirs)
1265(bf(-d)) is enabled, but only for directories whose contents are being copied.
24986abd 1266
32b9011a
WD
1267This option can be dangerous if used incorrectly! It is a very good idea to
1268first try a run using the bf(--dry-run) option (bf(-n)) to see what files are
1269going to be deleted.
41059f75 1270
e8b155a3 1271If the sending side detects any I/O errors, then the deletion of any
3e578a19
AT
1272files at the destination will be automatically disabled. This is to
1273prevent temporary filesystem failures (such as NFS errors) on the
6f098b0f 1274sending side from causing a massive deletion of files on the
faa82484 1275destination. You can override this with the bf(--ignore-errors) option.
41059f75 1276
faa82484
WD
1277The bf(--delete) option may be combined with one of the --delete-WHEN options
1278without conflict, as well as bf(--delete-excluded). However, if none of the
d9f46544 1279--delete-WHEN options are specified, rsync will choose the
d252e47d 1280bf(--delete-during) algorithm when talking to rsync 3.0.0 or newer, and
d9f46544
WD
1281the bf(--delete-before) algorithm when talking to an older rsync. See also
1282bf(--delete-delay) and bf(--delete-after).
2c0fa6c5
WD
1283
1284dit(bf(--delete-before)) Request that the file-deletions on the receiving
d9f46544 1285side be done before the transfer starts.
faa82484 1286See bf(--delete) (which is implied) for more details on file-deletion.
2c0fa6c5
WD
1287
1288Deleting before the transfer is helpful if the filesystem is tight for space
aaca3daa 1289and removing extraneous files would help to make the transfer possible.
ae76a740 1290However, it does introduce a delay before the start of the transfer,
faa82484 1291and this delay might cause the transfer to timeout (if bf(--timeout) was
d9f46544
WD
1292specified). It also forces rsync to use the old, non-incremental recursion
1293algorithm that requires rsync to scan all the files in the transfer into
1294memory at once (see bf(--recursive)).
ae76a740 1295
2c0fa6c5 1296dit(bf(--delete-during, --del)) Request that the file-deletions on the
d252e47d
WD
1297receiving side be done incrementally as the transfer happens. The
1298per-directory delete scan is done right before each directory is checked
1299for updates, so it behaves like a more efficient bf(--delete-before),
1300including doing the deletions prior to any per-directory filter files
1301being updated. This option was first added in rsync version 2.6.4.
faa82484 1302See bf(--delete) (which is implied) for more details on file-deletion.
aaca3daa 1303
fd0a130c 1304dit(bf(--delete-delay)) Request that the file-deletions on the receiving
d252e47d
WD
1305side be computed during the transfer (like bf(--delete-during)), and then
1306removed after the transfer completes. This is useful when combined with
1307bf(--delay-updates) and/or bf(--fuzzy), and is more efficient than using
1308bf(--delete-after) (but can behave differently, since bf(--delete-after)
1309computes the deletions in a separate pass after all updates are done).
1310If the number of removed files overflows an internal buffer, a
d9f46544
WD
1311temporary file will be created on the receiving side to hold the names (it
1312is removed while open, so you shouldn't see it during the transfer). If
1313the creation of the temporary file fails, rsync will try to fall back to
1314using bf(--delete-after) (which it cannot do if bf(--recursive) is doing an
1315incremental scan).
d252e47d 1316See bf(--delete) (which is implied) for more details on file-deletion.
fd0a130c 1317
2c0fa6c5 1318dit(bf(--delete-after)) Request that the file-deletions on the receiving
ae76a740
WD
1319side be done after the transfer has completed. This is useful if you
1320are sending new per-directory merge files as a part of the transfer and
1321you want their exclusions to take effect for the delete phase of the
d9f46544
WD
1322current transfer. It also forces rsync to use the old, non-incremental
1323recursion algorithm that requires rsync to scan all the files in the
1324transfer into memory at once (see bf(--recursive)).
faa82484 1325See bf(--delete) (which is implied) for more details on file-deletion.
e8b155a3 1326
866925bf
WD
1327dit(bf(--delete-excluded)) In addition to deleting the files on the
1328receiving side that are not on the sending side, this tells rsync to also
faa82484 1329delete any files on the receiving side that are excluded (see bf(--exclude)).
0dfffb88
WD
1330See the FILTER RULES section for a way to make individual exclusions behave
1331this way on the receiver, and for a way to protect files from
1332bf(--delete-excluded).
faa82484 1333See bf(--delete) (which is implied) for more details on file-deletion.
866925bf 1334
42d8ec61
WD
1335dit(bf(--ignore-missing-args)) When rsync is first processing the explicitly
1336requested source files (e.g. command-line arguments or bf(--files-from)
1337entries), it is normally an error if the file cannot be found. This option
1338suppresses that error, and does not try to transfer the file. This does not
1339affect subsequent vanished-file errors if a file was initially found to be
1340present and later is no longer there.
1341
1342dit(bf(--delete-missing-args)) This option takes the behavior of (the implied)
1343bf(--ignore-missing-args) option a step farther: each missing arg will become
1344a deletion request of the corresponding destination file on the receiving side
1345(should it exist). If the destination file is a non-empty directory, it will
1346only be successfully deleted if --force or --delete are in effect. Other than
1347that, this option is independent of any other type of delete processing.
1348
1349The missing source files are represented by special file-list entries which
1350display as a "*missing" entry in the bf(--list-only) output.
ce66f417 1351
faa82484 1352dit(bf(--ignore-errors)) Tells bf(--delete) to go ahead and delete files
b5accaba 1353even when there are I/O errors.
2c5548d2 1354
b3964d1d
WD
1355dit(bf(--force)) This option tells rsync to delete a non-empty directory
1356when it is to be replaced by a non-directory. This is only relevant if
1357deletions are not active (see bf(--delete) for details).
1358
1359Note for older rsync versions: bf(--force) used to still be required when
1360using bf(--delete-after), and it used to be non-functional unless the
1361bf(--recursive) option was also enabled.
41059f75 1362
e2124620 1363dit(bf(--max-delete=NUM)) This tells rsync not to delete more than NUM
e6109f49
WD
1364files or directories. If that limit is exceeded, a warning is output
1365and rsync exits with an error code of 25 (new for 3.0.0).
1366
1367Also new for version 3.0.0, you may specify bf(--max-delete=0) to be warned
1368about any extraneous files in the destination without removing any of them.
1369Older clients interpreted this as "unlimited", so if you don't know what
1370version the client is, you can use the less obvious bf(--max-delete=-1) as
1371a backward-compatible way to specify that no deletions be allowed (though
1372older versions didn't warn when the limit was exceeded).
e2124620
WD
1373
1374dit(bf(--max-size=SIZE)) This tells rsync to avoid transferring any
1375file that is larger than the specified SIZE. The SIZE value can be
926d86d1 1376suffixed with a string to indicate a size multiplier, and
e2124620
WD
1377may be a fractional value (e.g. "bf(--max-size=1.5m)").
1378
fd2b6046
WD
1379This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't affect the
1380data that goes into the file-lists, and thus it doesn't affect deletions.
1381It just limits the files that the receiver requests to be transferred.
1382
bee9df73
WD
1383The suffixes are as follows: "K" (or "KiB") is a kibibyte (1024),
1384"M" (or "MiB") is a mebibyte (1024*1024), and "G" (or "GiB") is a
1385gibibyte (1024*1024*1024).
1386If you want the multiplier to be 1000 instead of 1024, use "KB",
1387"MB", or "GB". (Note: lower-case is also accepted for all values.)
926d86d1
WD
1388Finally, if the suffix ends in either "+1" or "-1", the value will
1389be offset by one byte in the indicated direction.
bee9df73
WD
1390
1391Examples: --max-size=1.5mb-1 is 1499999 bytes, and --max-size=2g+1 is
926d86d1
WD
13922147483649 bytes.
1393
59dd6786
WD
1394dit(bf(--min-size=SIZE)) This tells rsync to avoid transferring any
1395file that is smaller than the specified SIZE, which can help in not
1396transferring small, junk files.
fd2b6046 1397See the bf(--max-size) option for a description of SIZE and other information.
59dd6786 1398
3ed8eb3f 1399dit(bf(-B, --block-size=BLOCKSIZE)) This forces the block size used in
adc4ebdd 1400rsync's delta-transfer algorithm to a fixed value. It is normally selected based on
3ed8eb3f 1401the size of each file being updated. See the technical report for details.
41059f75 1402
b5679335 1403dit(bf(-e, --rsh=COMMAND)) This option allows you to choose an alternative
41059f75 1404remote shell program to use for communication between the local and
43cd760f
WD
1405remote copies of rsync. Typically, rsync is configured to use ssh by
1406default, but you may prefer to use rsh on a local network.
41059f75 1407
bef49340 1408If this option is used with bf([user@]host::module/path), then the
5a727522 1409remote shell em(COMMAND) will be used to run an rsync daemon on the
bef49340
WD
1410remote host, and all data will be transmitted through that remote
1411shell connection, rather than through a direct socket connection to a
754a080f
WD
1412running rsync daemon on the remote host. See the section "USING
1413RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION" above.
bef49340 1414
ea7f8108 1415Command-line arguments are permitted in COMMAND provided that COMMAND is
5d9530fe
WD
1416presented to rsync as a single argument. You must use spaces (not tabs
1417or other whitespace) to separate the command and args from each other,
1418and you can use single- and/or double-quotes to preserve spaces in an
1419argument (but not backslashes). Note that doubling a single-quote
1420inside a single-quoted string gives you a single-quote; likewise for
1421double-quotes (though you need to pay attention to which quotes your
1422shell is parsing and which quotes rsync is parsing). Some examples:
98393ae2 1423
5d9530fe
WD
1424quote(
1425tt( -e 'ssh -p 2234')nl()
1426tt( -e 'ssh -o "ProxyCommand nohup ssh firewall nc -w1 %h %p"')nl()
1427)
98393ae2
WD
1428
1429(Note that ssh users can alternately customize site-specific connect
1430options in their .ssh/config file.)
1431
41059f75 1432You can also choose the remote shell program using the RSYNC_RSH
faa82484 1433environment variable, which accepts the same range of values as bf(-e).
41059f75 1434
faa82484 1435See also the bf(--blocking-io) option which is affected by this option.
735a816e 1436
68e169ab
WD
1437dit(bf(--rsync-path=PROGRAM)) Use this to specify what program is to be run
1438on the remote machine to start-up rsync. Often used when rsync is not in
1439the default remote-shell's path (e.g. --rsync-path=/usr/local/bin/rsync).
1440Note that PROGRAM is run with the help of a shell, so it can be any
1441program, script, or command sequence you'd care to run, so long as it does
1442not corrupt the standard-in & standard-out that rsync is using to
1443communicate.
1444
1445One tricky example is to set a different default directory on the remote
1446machine for use with the bf(--relative) option. For instance:
1447
c5b6e57a 1448quote(tt( rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /a/b && rsync" host:c/d /e/))
41059f75 1449
7a2eca41
WD
1450dit(bf(-M, --remote-option=OPTION)) This option is used for more advanced
1451situations where you want certain effects to be limited to one side of the
1452transfer only. For instance, if you want to pass bf(--log-file=FILE) and
1453bf(--fake-super) to the remote system, specify it like this:
1454
1455quote(tt( rsync -av -M --log-file=foo -M--fake-super src/ dest/))
1456
1457If you want to have an option affect only the local side of a transfer when
1458it normally affects both sides, send its negation to the remote side. Like
1459this:
1460
1461quote(tt( rsync -av -x -M--no-x src/ dest/))
1462
1463Be cautious using this, as it is possible to toggle an option that will cause
1464rsync to have a different idea about what data to expect next over the socket,
1465and that will make it fail in a cryptic fashion.
1466
1467Note that it is best to use a separate bf(--remote-option) for each option you
1468want to pass. This makes your useage compatible with the bf(--protect-args)
1469option. If that option is off, any spaces in your remote options will be split
1470by the remote shell unless you take steps to protect them.
1471
1472When performing a local transfer, the "local" side is the sender and the
1473"remote" side is the receiver.
1474
1475Note some versions of the popt option-parsing library have a bug in them that
1476prevents you from using an adjacent arg with an equal in it next to a short
1477option letter (e.g. tt(-M--log-file=/tmp/foo). If this bug affects your
1478version of popt, you can use the version of popt that is included with rsync.
1479
f177b7cc
WD
1480dit(bf(-C, --cvs-exclude)) This is a useful shorthand for excluding a
1481broad range of files that you often don't want to transfer between
c575f8ce 1482systems. It uses a similar algorithm to CVS to determine if
f177b7cc
WD
1483a file should be ignored.
1484
c575f8ce
WD
1485The exclude list is initialized to exclude the following items (these
1486initial items are marked as perishable -- see the FILTER RULES section):
f177b7cc 1487
faa82484 1488quote(quote(tt(RCS SCCS CVS CVS.adm RCSLOG cvslog.* tags TAGS .make.state
9520ce4b 1489.nse_depinfo *~ #* .#* ,* _$* *$ *.old *.bak *.BAK *.orig *.rej .del-*
86e90c58 1490*.a *.olb *.o *.obj *.so *.exe *.Z *.elc *.ln core .svn/ .git/ .hg/ .bzr/)))
f177b7cc 1491
c575f8ce 1492then, files listed in a $HOME/.cvsignore are added to the list and any
2a383be0
WD
1493files listed in the CVSIGNORE environment variable (all cvsignore names
1494are delimited by whitespace).
1495
f177b7cc 1496Finally, any file is ignored if it is in the same directory as a
bafa4875
WD
1497.cvsignore file and matches one of the patterns listed therein. Unlike
1498rsync's filter/exclude files, these patterns are split on whitespace.
49f4cfdf 1499See the bf(cvs)(1) manual for more information.
f177b7cc 1500
bafa4875
WD
1501If you're combining bf(-C) with your own bf(--filter) rules, you should
1502note that these CVS excludes are appended at the end of your own rules,
3753975f 1503regardless of where the bf(-C) was placed on the command-line. This makes them
bafa4875
WD
1504a lower priority than any rules you specified explicitly. If you want to
1505control where these CVS excludes get inserted into your filter rules, you
1506should omit the bf(-C) as a command-line option and use a combination of
1507bf(--filter=:C) and bf(--filter=-C) (either on your command-line or by
1508putting the ":C" and "-C" rules into a filter file with your other rules).
1509The first option turns on the per-directory scanning for the .cvsignore
1510file. The second option does a one-time import of the CVS excludes
1511mentioned above.
1512
16e5de84
WD
1513dit(bf(-f, --filter=RULE)) This option allows you to add rules to selectively
1514exclude certain files from the list of files to be transferred. This is
1515most useful in combination with a recursive transfer.
41059f75 1516
faa82484 1517You may use as many bf(--filter) options on the command line as you like
5f0f2e08
WD
1518to build up the list of files to exclude. If the filter contains whitespace,
1519be sure to quote it so that the shell gives the rule to rsync as a single
1520argument. The text below also mentions that you can use an underscore to
1521replace the space that separates a rule from its arg.
41059f75 1522
16e5de84
WD
1523See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this option.
1524
faa82484 1525dit(bf(-F)) The bf(-F) option is a shorthand for adding two bf(--filter) rules to
16e5de84
WD
1526your command. The first time it is used is a shorthand for this rule:
1527
78be8e0f 1528quote(tt( --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'))
16e5de84
WD
1529
1530This tells rsync to look for per-directory .rsync-filter files that have
1531been sprinkled through the hierarchy and use their rules to filter the
faa82484 1532files in the transfer. If bf(-F) is repeated, it is a shorthand for this
16e5de84
WD
1533rule:
1534
78be8e0f 1535quote(tt( --filter='exclude .rsync-filter'))
16e5de84
WD
1536
1537This filters out the .rsync-filter files themselves from the transfer.
1538
1539See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on how these options
1540work.
1541
1542dit(bf(--exclude=PATTERN)) This option is a simplified form of the
faa82484 1543bf(--filter) option that defaults to an exclude rule and does not allow
16e5de84
WD
1544the full rule-parsing syntax of normal filter rules.
1545
1546See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this option.
41059f75 1547
78be8e0f
WD
1548dit(bf(--exclude-from=FILE)) This option is related to the bf(--exclude)
1549option, but it specifies a FILE that contains exclude patterns (one per line).
1550Blank lines in the file and lines starting with ';' or '#' are ignored.
1551If em(FILE) is bf(-), the list will be read from standard input.
f8a94f0d 1552
16e5de84 1553dit(bf(--include=PATTERN)) This option is a simplified form of the
faa82484 1554bf(--filter) option that defaults to an include rule and does not allow
16e5de84 1555the full rule-parsing syntax of normal filter rules.
43bd68e5 1556
16e5de84 1557See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this option.
43bd68e5 1558
78be8e0f
WD
1559dit(bf(--include-from=FILE)) This option is related to the bf(--include)
1560option, but it specifies a FILE that contains include patterns (one per line).
1561Blank lines in the file and lines starting with ';' or '#' are ignored.
1562If em(FILE) is bf(-), the list will be read from standard input.
f8a94f0d 1563
f177b7cc 1564dit(bf(--files-from=FILE)) Using this option allows you to specify the
78be8e0f 1565exact list of files to transfer (as read from the specified FILE or bf(-)
c769702f 1566for standard input). It also tweaks the default behavior of rsync to make
faa82484
WD
1567transferring just the specified files and directories easier:
1568
b8a6dae0 1569quote(itemization(
faa82484
WD
1570 it() The bf(--relative) (bf(-R)) option is implied, which preserves the path
1571 information that is specified for each item in the file (use
f40aa6fb 1572 bf(--no-relative) or bf(--no-R) if you want to turn that off).
faa82484
WD
1573 it() The bf(--dirs) (bf(-d)) option is implied, which will create directories
1574 specified in the list on the destination rather than noisily skipping
f40aa6fb 1575 them (use bf(--no-dirs) or bf(--no-d) if you want to turn that off).
faa82484
WD
1576 it() The bf(--archive) (bf(-a)) option's behavior does not imply bf(--recursive)
1577 (bf(-r)), so specify it explicitly, if you want it.
f40aa6fb
WD
1578 it() These side-effects change the default state of rsync, so the position
1579 of the bf(--files-from) option on the command-line has no bearing on how
1580 other options are parsed (e.g. bf(-a) works the same before or after
1581 bf(--files-from), as does bf(--no-R) and all other options).
faa82484 1582))
f177b7cc 1583
809724d7 1584The filenames that are read from the FILE are all relative to the
f177b7cc
WD
1585source dir -- any leading slashes are removed and no ".." references are
1586allowed to go higher than the source dir. For example, take this
1587command:
1588
faa82484 1589quote(tt( rsync -a --files-from=/tmp/foo /usr remote:/backup))
f177b7cc
WD
1590
1591If /tmp/foo contains the string "bin" (or even "/bin"), the /usr/bin
51cc96e4
WD
1592directory will be created as /backup/bin on the remote host. If it
1593contains "bin/" (note the trailing slash), the immediate contents of
1594the directory would also be sent (without needing to be explicitly
1595mentioned in the file -- this began in version 2.6.4). In both cases,
1596if the bf(-r) option was enabled, that dir's entire hierarchy would
1597also be transferred (keep in mind that bf(-r) needs to be specified
1598explicitly with bf(--files-from), since it is not implied by bf(-a)).
1599Also note
faa82484 1600that the effect of the (enabled by default) bf(--relative) option is to
f177b7cc
WD
1601duplicate only the path info that is read from the file -- it does not
1602force the duplication of the source-spec path (/usr in this case).
1603
faa82484 1604In addition, the bf(--files-from) file can be read from the remote host
f177b7cc
WD
1605instead of the local host if you specify a "host:" in front of the file
1606(the host must match one end of the transfer). As a short-cut, you can
1607specify just a prefix of ":" to mean "use the remote end of the
1608transfer". For example:
1609
faa82484 1610quote(tt( rsync -a --files-from=:/path/file-list src:/ /tmp/copy))
f177b7cc
WD
1611
1612This would copy all the files specified in the /path/file-list file that
1613was located on the remote "src" host.
1614
0dd2310c
WD
1615If the bf(--iconv) and bf(--protect-args) options are specified and the
1616bf(--files-from) filenames are being sent from one host to another, the
1617filenames will be translated from the sending host's charset to the
1618receiving host's charset.
1619
49eb0c4a
WD
1620NOTE: sorting the list of files in the --files-from input helps rsync to be
1621more efficient, as it will avoid re-visiting the path elements that are shared
1622between adjacent entries. If the input is not sorted, some path elements
1623(implied directories) may end up being scanned multiple times, and rsync will
1624eventually unduplicate them after they get turned into file-list elements.
1625
fa92818a 1626dit(bf(-0, --from0)) This tells rsync that the rules/filenames it reads from a
f177b7cc 1627file are terminated by a null ('\0') character, not a NL, CR, or CR+LF.
faa82484
WD
1628This affects bf(--exclude-from), bf(--include-from), bf(--files-from), and any
1629merged files specified in a bf(--filter) rule.
1630It does not affect bf(--cvs-exclude) (since all names read from a .cvsignore
f01b6368 1631file are split on whitespace).
41059f75 1632
0dd2310c 1633dit(bf(-s, --protect-args)) This option sends all filenames and most options to
82f37486
WD
1634the remote rsync without allowing the remote shell to interpret them. This
1635means that spaces are not split in names, and any non-wildcard special
1636characters are not translated (such as ~, $, ;, &, etc.). Wildcards are
1637expanded on the remote host by rsync (instead of the shell doing it).
1638
0dd2310c
WD
1639If you use this option with bf(--iconv), the args related to the remote
1640side will also be translated
0b52f94d 1641from the local to the remote character-set. The translation happens before
82f37486
WD
1642wild-cards are expanded. See also the bf(--files-from) option.
1643
2b2a4738
WD
1644You may also control this option via the RSYNC_PROTECT_ARGS environment
1645variable. If this variable has a non-zero value, this option will be enabled
1646by default, otherwise it will be disabled by default. Either state is
1647overridden by a manually specified positive or negative version of this option
1648(note that bf(--no-s) and bf(--no-protect-args) are the negative versions).
1649Since this option was first introduced in 3.0.0, you'll need to make sure it's
1650disabled if you ever need to interact with a remote rsync that is older than
1651that.
1652
1653Rsync can also be configured (at build time) to have this option enabled by
1654default (with is overridden by both the environment and the command-line).
1655This option will eventually become a new default setting at some
1656as-yet-undetermined point in the future.
1657
b5679335 1658dit(bf(-T, --temp-dir=DIR)) This option instructs rsync to use DIR as a
a9af5d8e
WD
1659scratch directory when creating temporary copies of the files transferred
1660on the receiving side. The default behavior is to create each temporary
1661file in the same directory as the associated destination file.
41059f75 1662
9ec1ef25
WD
1663This option is most often used when the receiving disk partition does not
1664have enough free space to hold a copy of the largest file in the transfer.
d770837e 1665In this case (i.e. when the scratch directory is on a different disk
9ec1ef25
WD
1666partition), rsync will not be able to rename each received temporary file
1667over the top of the associated destination file, but instead must copy it
1668into place. Rsync does this by copying the file over the top of the
1669destination file, which means that the destination file will contain
a9af5d8e
WD
1670truncated data during this copy. If this were not done this way (even if
1671the destination file were first removed, the data locally copied to a
1672temporary file in the destination directory, and then renamed into place)
1673it would be possible for the old file to continue taking up disk space (if
1674someone had it open), and thus there might not be enough room to fit the
1675new version on the disk at the same time.
9ec1ef25
WD
1676
1677If you are using this option for reasons other than a shortage of disk
1678space, you may wish to combine it with the bf(--delay-updates) option,
a0d9819f
WD
1679which will ensure that all copied files get put into subdirectories in the
1680destination hierarchy, awaiting the end of the transfer. If you don't
1681have enough room to duplicate all the arriving files on the destination
1682partition, another way to tell rsync that you aren't overly concerned
1683about disk space is to use the bf(--partial-dir) option with a relative
1684path; because this tells rsync that it is OK to stash off a copy of a
1685single file in a subdir in the destination hierarchy, rsync will use the
1686partial-dir as a staging area to bring over the copied file, and then
1687rename it into place from there. (Specifying a bf(--partial-dir) with
1688an absolute path does not have this side-effect.)
9ec1ef25 1689
5b483755
WD
1690dit(bf(-y, --fuzzy)) This option tells rsync that it should look for a
1691basis file for any destination file that is missing. The current algorithm
1692looks in the same directory as the destination file for either a file that
1693has an identical size and modified-time, or a similarly-named file. If
1694found, rsync uses the fuzzy basis file to try to speed up the transfer.
1695
1696Note that the use of the bf(--delete) option might get rid of any potential
1697fuzzy-match files, so either use bf(--delete-after) or specify some
1698filename exclusions if you need to prevent this.
1699
b127c1dc 1700dit(bf(--compare-dest=DIR)) This option instructs rsync to use em(DIR) on
e49f61f5
WD
1701the destination machine as an additional hierarchy to compare destination
1702files against doing transfers (if the files are missing in the destination
1703directory). If a file is found in em(DIR) that is identical to the
1704sender's file, the file will NOT be transferred to the destination
1705directory. This is useful for creating a sparse backup of just files that
1706have changed from an earlier backup.
1707
faa82484 1708Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple bf(--compare-dest) directories may be
99eb41b2
WD
1709provided, which will cause rsync to search the list in the order specified
1710for an exact match.
2f03ce67
WD
1711If a match is found that differs only in attributes, a local copy is made
1712and the attributes updated.
99eb41b2
WD
1713If a match is not found, a basis file from one of the em(DIR)s will be
1714selected to try to speed up the transfer.
e49f61f5
WD
1715
1716If em(DIR) is a relative path, it is relative to the destination directory.
2f03ce67 1717See also bf(--copy-dest) and bf(--link-dest).
b127c1dc 1718
2f03ce67
WD
1719dit(bf(--copy-dest=DIR)) This option behaves like bf(--compare-dest), but
1720rsync will also copy unchanged files found in em(DIR) to the destination
1721directory using a local copy.
1722This is useful for doing transfers to a new destination while leaving
1723existing files intact, and then doing a flash-cutover when all files have
1724been successfully transferred.
1725
1726Multiple bf(--copy-dest) directories may be provided, which will cause
1727rsync to search the list in the order specified for an unchanged file.
1728If a match is not found, a basis file from one of the em(DIR)s will be
1729selected to try to speed up the transfer.
1730
1731If em(DIR) is a relative path, it is relative to the destination directory.
1732See also bf(--compare-dest) and bf(--link-dest).
1733
1734dit(bf(--link-dest=DIR)) This option behaves like bf(--copy-dest), but
e49f61f5
WD
1735unchanged files are hard linked from em(DIR) to the destination directory.
1736The files must be identical in all preserved attributes (e.g. permissions,
1737possibly ownership) in order for the files to be linked together.
8429aa9e
WD
1738An example:
1739
faa82484 1740quote(tt( rsync -av --link-dest=$PWD/prior_dir host:src_dir/ new_dir/))
59c95e42 1741
45c37e73
WD
1742If file's aren't linking, double-check their attributes. Also check if some
1743attributes are getting forced outside of rsync's control, such a mount option
1744that squishes root to a single user, or mounts a removable drive with generic
1745ownership (such as OS X's "Ignore ownership on this volume" option).
1746
99eb41b2
WD
1747Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple bf(--link-dest) directories may be
1748provided, which will cause rsync to search the list in the order specified
1749for an exact match.
2f03ce67
WD
1750If a match is found that differs only in attributes, a local copy is made
1751and the attributes updated.
99eb41b2
WD
1752If a match is not found, a basis file from one of the em(DIR)s will be
1753selected to try to speed up the transfer.
e49f61f5 1754
33689f48
WD
1755This option works best when copying into an empty destination hierarchy, as
1756rsync treats existing files as definitive (so it never looks in the link-dest
1757dirs when a destination file already exists), and as malleable (so it might
1758change the attributes of a destination file, which affects all the hard-linked
1759versions).
1760
d04e95e9
WD
1761Note that if you combine this option with bf(--ignore-times), rsync will not
1762link any files together because it only links identical files together as a
1763substitute for transferring the file, never as an additional check after the
1764file is updated.
1765
e49f61f5 1766If em(DIR) is a relative path, it is relative to the destination directory.
2f03ce67 1767See also bf(--compare-dest) and bf(--copy-dest).
b127c1dc 1768
e0204f56 1769Note that rsync versions prior to 2.6.1 had a bug that could prevent
d38772e0
WD
1770bf(--link-dest) from working properly for a non-super-user when bf(-o) was
1771specified (or implied by bf(-a)). You can work-around this bug by avoiding
1772the bf(-o) option when sending to an old rsync.
e0204f56 1773
32a5edf4
WD
1774dit(bf(-z, --compress)) With this option, rsync compresses the file data
1775as it is sent to the destination machine, which reduces the amount of data
1776being transmitted -- something that is useful over a slow connection.
41059f75 1777
02184920 1778Note that this option typically achieves better compression ratios than can
32a5edf4
WD
1779be achieved by using a compressing remote shell or a compressing transport
1780because it takes advantage of the implicit information in the matching data
1781blocks that are not explicitly sent over the connection.
41059f75 1782
2b967218
WD
1783See the bf(--skip-compress) option for the default list of file suffixes
1784that will not be compressed.
1785
bad01106
WD
1786dit(bf(--compress-level=NUM)) Explicitly set the compression level to use
1787(see bf(--compress)) instead of letting it default. If NUM is non-zero,
1788the bf(--compress) option is implied.
1789
2b967218
WD
1790dit(bf(--skip-compress=LIST)) Override the list of file suffixes that will
1791not be compressed. The bf(LIST) should be one or more file suffixes
1792(without the dot) separated by slashes (/).
1793
1794You may specify an empty string to indicate that no file should be skipped.
1795
1796Simple character-class matching is supported: each must consist of a list
1797of letters inside the square brackets (e.g. no special classes, such as
4b660bae 1798"[:alpha:]", are supported, and '-' has no special meaning).
2b967218
WD
1799
1800The characters asterisk (*) and question-mark (?) have no special meaning.
1801
1802Here's an example that specifies 6 suffixes to skip (since 1 of the 5 rules
1803matches 2 suffixes):
1804
1805verb( --skip-compress=gz/jpg/mp[34]/7z/bz2)
1806
4b660bae
WD
1807The default list of suffixes that will not be compressed is this (in this
1808version of rsync):
1809
1810bf(7z)
1811bf(ace)
1812bf(avi)
1813bf(bz2)
1814bf(deb)
1815bf(gpg)
1816bf(gz)
1817bf(iso)
1818bf(jpeg)
1819bf(jpg)
aff48500 1820bf(lz)
4b660bae
WD
1821bf(lzma)
1822bf(lzo)
1823bf(mov)
1824bf(mp3)
1825bf(mp4)
1826bf(ogg)
aff48500 1827bf(png)
4b660bae
WD
1828bf(rar)
1829bf(rpm)
1830bf(rzip)
1831bf(tbz)
1832bf(tgz)
aff48500
WD
1833bf(tlz)
1834bf(txz)
1835bf(xz)
4b660bae
WD
1836bf(z)
1837bf(zip)
2b967218
WD
1838
1839This list will be replaced by your bf(--skip-compress) list in all but one
1840situation: a copy from a daemon rsync will add your skipped suffixes to
1841its list of non-compressing files (and its list may be configured to a
1842different default).
1843
41059f75 1844dit(bf(--numeric-ids)) With this option rsync will transfer numeric group
4d888108 1845and user IDs rather than using user and group names and mapping them
41059f75
AT
1846at both ends.
1847
4d888108 1848By default rsync will use the username and groupname to determine
41059f75 1849what ownership to give files. The special uid 0 and the special group
faa82484 18500 are never mapped via user/group names even if the bf(--numeric-ids)
41059f75
AT
1851option is not specified.
1852
ec40899b
WD
1853If a user or group has no name on the source system or it has no match
1854on the destination system, then the numeric ID
1855from the source system is used instead. See also the comments on the
a2b0471f
WD
1856"use chroot" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage for information on how
1857the chroot setting affects rsync's ability to look up the names of the
1858users and groups and what you can do about it.
41059f75 1859
2df20057
WD
1860dit(bf(--usermap=STRING, --groupmap=STRING)) These options allow you to
1861specify users and groups that should be mapped to other values by the
1862receiving side. The bf(STRING) is one or more bf(FROM):bf(TO) pairs of
1863values separated by commas. Any matching bf(FROM) value from the sender is
1864replaced with a bf(TO) value from the receiver. You may specify usernames
1865or user IDs for the bf(FROM) and bf(TO) values, and the bf(FROM) value may
1866also be a wild-card string, which will be matched against the sender's
1867names (wild-cards do NOT match against ID numbers, though see below for
1868why a '*' matches everything). You may instead specify a range of ID
1869numbers via an inclusive range: LOW-HIGH. For example:
1870
1871verb( --usermap=0-99:nobody,wayne:admin,*:normal --groupmap=usr:1,1:usr)
1872
1873The first match in the list is the one that is used. You should specify
1874all your user mappings using a single bf(--usermap) option, and/or all
1875your group mappings using a single bf(--groupmap) option.
1876
1877Note that the sender's name for the 0 user and group are not transmitted
1878to the receiver, so you should either match these values using a 0, or use
1879the names in effect on the receiving side (typically "root"). All other
1880bf(FROM) names match those in use on the sending side. All bf(TO) names
1881match those in use on the receiving side.
1882
1883Any IDs that do not have a name on the sending side are treated as having an
1884empty name for the purpose of matching. This allows them to be matched via
1885a "*" or using an empty name. For instance:
1886
1887verb( --usermap=:nobody --groupmap=*:nobody)
1888
1889When the bf(--numeric-ids) option is used, the sender does not send any
1890names, so all the IDs are treated as having an empty name. This means that
1891you will need to specify numeric bf(FROM) values if you want to map these
1892nameless IDs to different values.
1893
1894For the bf(--usermap) option to have any effect, the bf(-o) (bf(--owner))
1895option must be used (or implied), and the receiver will need to be running
1896as a super-user (see also the bf(--fake-super) option). For the bf(--groupmap)
1897option to have any effect, the bf(-g) (bf(--groups)) option must be used
1898(or implied), and the receiver will need to have permissions to set that
1899group.
1900
1901dit(bf(--chown=USER:GROUP)) This option forces all files to be owned by USER
1902with group GROUP. This is a simpler interface than using bf(--usermap) and
1903bf(--groupmap) directly, but it is implemented using those options internally,
1904so you cannot mix them. If either the USER or GROUP is empty, no mapping for
1905the omitted user/group will occur. If GROUP is empty, the trailing colon may
1906be omitted, but if USER is empty, a leading colon must be supplied.
1907
1908If you specify "--chown=foo:bar, this is exactly the same as specifying
1909"--usermap=*:foo --groupmap=*:bar", only easier.
1910
b5accaba 1911dit(bf(--timeout=TIMEOUT)) This option allows you to set a maximum I/O
de2fd20e
AT
1912timeout in seconds. If no data is transferred for the specified time
1913then rsync will exit. The default is 0, which means no timeout.
41059f75 1914
ba22c9e2
WD
1915dit(bf(--contimeout)) This option allows you to set the amount of time
1916that rsync will wait for its connection to an rsync daemon to succeed.
1917If the timeout is reached, rsync exits with an error.
1918
3ae5367f
WD
1919dit(bf(--address)) By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when
1920connecting to an rsync daemon. The bf(--address) option allows you to
1921specify a specific IP address (or hostname) to bind to. See also this
1922option in the bf(--daemon) mode section.
1923
c259892c
WD
1924dit(bf(--port=PORT)) This specifies an alternate TCP port number to use
1925rather than the default of 873. This is only needed if you are using the
1926double-colon (::) syntax to connect with an rsync daemon (since the URL
1927syntax has a way to specify the port as a part of the URL). See also this
faa82484 1928option in the bf(--daemon) mode section.
c259892c 1929
04f48837
WD
1930dit(bf(--sockopts)) This option can provide endless fun for people
1931who like to tune their systems to the utmost degree. You can set all
1932sorts of socket options which may make transfers faster (or
49f4cfdf 1933slower!). Read the man page for the code(setsockopt()) system call for
04f48837
WD
1934details on some of the options you may be able to set. By default no
1935special socket options are set. This only affects direct socket
1936connections to a remote rsync daemon. This option also exists in the
1937bf(--daemon) mode section.
1938
b5accaba 1939dit(bf(--blocking-io)) This tells rsync to use blocking I/O when launching
314a74d7
WD
1940a remote shell transport. If the remote shell is either rsh or remsh,
1941rsync defaults to using
b5accaba
WD
1942blocking I/O, otherwise it defaults to using non-blocking I/O. (Note that
1943ssh prefers non-blocking I/O.)
64c704f0 1944
0cfdf226 1945dit(bf(-i, --itemize-changes)) Requests a simple itemized list of the
4f90eb43 1946changes that are being made to each file, including attribute changes.
4b90820d 1947This is exactly the same as specifying bf(--out-format='%i %n%L').
14cbb645
WD
1948If you repeat the option, unchanged files will also be output, but only
1949if the receiving rsync is at least version 2.6.7 (you can use bf(-vv)
1950with older versions of rsync, but that also turns on the output of other
1951verbose messages).
ea67c715 1952
1c3344a1
WD
1953The "%i" escape has a cryptic output that is 11 letters long. The general
1954format is like the string bf(YXcstpoguax), where bf(Y) is replaced by the
4f417448 1955type of update being done, bf(X) is replaced by the file-type, and the
a314f7c1 1956other letters represent attributes that may be output if they are being
ee171c6d 1957modified.
ea67c715 1958
2d5279ac 1959The update types that replace the bf(Y) are as follows:
ea67c715 1960
b8a6dae0 1961quote(itemization(
cc3e0770 1962 it() A bf(<) means that a file is being transferred to the remote host
a314f7c1 1963 (sent).
cc3e0770
WD
1964 it() A bf(>) means that a file is being transferred to the local host
1965 (received).
c48cff9f 1966 it() A bf(c) means that a local change/creation is occurring for the item
ee171c6d 1967 (such as the creation of a directory or the changing of a symlink, etc.).
02184920 1968 it() A bf(h) means that the item is a hard link to another item (requires
b4875de4 1969 bf(--hard-links)).
ee171c6d
WD
1970 it() A bf(.) means that the item is not being updated (though it might
1971 have attributes that are being modified).
59658acf
WD
1972 it() A bf(*) means that the rest of the itemized-output area contains
1973 a message (e.g. "deleting").
a314f7c1 1974))
ea67c715 1975
a314f7c1 1976The file-types that replace the bf(X) are: bf(f) for a file, a bf(d) for a
4e7d07c8
WD
1977directory, an bf(L) for a symlink, a bf(D) for a device, and a bf(S) for a
1978special file (e.g. named sockets and fifos).
ea67c715 1979
a314f7c1 1980The other letters in the string above are the actual letters that
ea67c715
WD
1981will be output if the associated attribute for the item is being updated or
1982a "." for no change. Three exceptions to this are: (1) a newly created
b9f0ca72
WD
1983item replaces each letter with a "+", (2) an identical item replaces the
1984dots with spaces, and (3) an unknown attribute replaces each letter with
81c453b1 1985a "?" (this can happen when talking to an older rsync).
ea67c715
WD
1986
1987The attribute that is associated with each letter is as follows:
1988
b8a6dae0 1989quote(itemization(
1ed9018e
WD
1990 it() A bf(c) means either that a regular file has a different checksum
1991 (requires bf(--checksum)) or that a symlink, device, or special file has
1992 a changed value.
600b56b3 1993 Note that if you are sending files to an rsync prior to 3.0.1, this
11faa893
WD
1994 change flag will be present only for checksum-differing regular files.
1995 it() A bf(s) means the size of a regular file is different and will be updated
ea67c715
WD
1996 by the file transfer.
1997 it() A bf(t) means the modification time is different and is being updated
5a727522 1998 to the sender's value (requires bf(--times)). An alternate value of bf(T)
42b06481 1999 means that the modification time will be set to the transfer time, which happens
1ed56a05
WD
2000 when a file/symlink/device is updated without bf(--times) and when a
2001 symlink is changed and the receiver can't set its time.
1ed9018e
WD
2002 (Note: when using an rsync 3.0.0 client, you might see the bf(s) flag combined
2003 with bf(t) instead of the proper bf(T) flag for this time-setting failure.)
ea67c715 2004 it() A bf(p) means the permissions are different and are being updated to
5a727522 2005 the sender's value (requires bf(--perms)).
4dc67d5e 2006 it() An bf(o) means the owner is different and is being updated to the
d38772e0 2007 sender's value (requires bf(--owner) and super-user privileges).
4dc67d5e 2008 it() A bf(g) means the group is different and is being updated to the
5a727522 2009 sender's value (requires bf(--group) and the authority to set the group).
7869953b 2010 it() The bf(u) slot is reserved for future use.
1c3344a1 2011 it() The bf(a) means that the ACL information changed.
7869953b 2012 it() The bf(x) means that the extended attribute information changed.
ea67c715
WD
2013))
2014
2015One other output is possible: when deleting files, the "%i" will output
ee171c6d 2016the string "*deleting" for each item that is being removed (assuming that
ea67c715
WD
2017you are talking to a recent enough rsync that it logs deletions instead of
2018outputting them as a verbose message).
dc0f2497 2019
4b90820d 2020dit(bf(--out-format=FORMAT)) This allows you to specify exactly what the
951e826b
WD
2021rsync client outputs to the user on a per-update basis. The format is a
2022text string containing embedded single-character escape sequences prefixed
2023with a percent (%) character. A default format of "%n%L" is assumed if
2024either bf(--info=name) or bf(-v) is specified (this tells you just the name
2025of the file and, if the item is a link, where it points). For a full list
2026of the possible escape characters, see the "log format" setting in the
2027rsyncd.conf manpage.
2028
2029Specifying the bf(--out-format) option implies the bf(--info=name) option,
2030which will mention each file, dir, etc. that gets updated in a significant
2031way (a transferred file, a recreated symlink/device, or a touched
2032directory). In addition, if the itemize-changes escape (%i) is included in
2033the string (e.g. if the bf(--itemize-changes) option was used), the logging
2034of names increases to mention any item that is changed in any way (as long
2035as the receiving side is at least 2.6.4). See the bf(--itemize-changes)
2036option for a description of the output of "%i".
ea67c715 2037
4b90820d 2038Rsync will output the out-format string prior to a file's transfer unless
ea67c715
WD
2039one of the transfer-statistic escapes is requested, in which case the
2040logging is done at the end of the file's transfer. When this late logging
2041is in effect and bf(--progress) is also specified, rsync will also output
2042the name of the file being transferred prior to its progress information
4b90820d
WD
2043(followed, of course, by the out-format output).
2044
2045dit(bf(--log-file=FILE)) This option causes rsync to log what it is doing
2046to a file. This is similar to the logging that a daemon does, but can be
2047requested for the client side and/or the server side of a non-daemon
2048transfer. If specified as a client option, transfer logging will be
2049enabled with a default format of "%i %n%L". See the bf(--log-file-format)
2050option if you wish to override this.
2051
2052Here's a example command that requests the remote side to log what is
2053happening:
2054
7a2eca41 2055verb( rsync -av --remote-option=--log-file=/tmp/rlog src/ dest/)
4b90820d
WD
2056
2057This is very useful if you need to debug why a connection is closing
2058unexpectedly.
2059
2060dit(bf(--log-file-format=FORMAT)) This allows you to specify exactly what
2061per-update logging is put into the file specified by the bf(--log-file) option
2062(which must also be specified for this option to have any effect). If you
2063specify an empty string, updated files will not be mentioned in the log file.
2064For a list of the possible escape characters, see the "log format" setting
2065in the rsyncd.conf manpage.
b6062654 2066
e129500c
WD
2067The default FORMAT used if bf(--log-file) is specified and this option is not
2068is '%i %n%L'.
2069
b72f24c7 2070dit(bf(--stats)) This tells rsync to print a verbose set of statistics
adc4ebdd 2071on the file transfer, allowing you to tell how effective rsync's delta-transfer
951e826b
WD
2072algorithm is for your data. This option is equivalent to bf(--info=stats2)
2073if combined with 0 or 1 bf(-v) options, or bf(--info=stats3) if combined
2074with 2 or more bf(-v) options.
b72f24c7 2075
b8a6dae0 2076The current statistics are as follows: quote(itemization(
7b13ff97 2077 it() bf(Number of files) is the count of all "files" (in the generic
b320b7d6
WD
2078 sense), which includes directories, symlinks, etc. The total count will
2079 be followed by a list of counts by filetype (if the total is non-zero).
2080 For example: "(reg: 5, dir: 3, link: 2, dev: 1, special: 1)" lists the
2081 totals for regular files, directories, symlinks, devices, and special
2082 files. If any of value is 0, it is completely omitted from the list.
2083 it() bf(Number of created files) is the count of how many "files" (generic
2084 sense) were created (as opposed to updated). The total count will be
2085 followed by a list of counts by filetype (if the total is non-zero).
2086 it() bf(Number of deleted files) is the count of how many "files" (generic
2087 sense) were created (as opposed to updated). The total count will be
2088 followed by a list of counts by filetype (if the total is non-zero).
2089 Note that this line is only output if deletions are in effect, and only
2090 if protocol 31 is being used (the default for rsync 3.1.x).
2091 it() bf(Number of regular files transferred) is the count of normal files
2092 that were updated via rsync's delta-transfer algorithm, which does not
2093 include dirs, symlinks, etc. Note that rsync 3.1.0 added the word
2094 "regular" into this heading.
7b13ff97
WD
2095 it() bf(Total file size) is the total sum of all file sizes in the transfer.
2096 This does not count any size for directories or special files, but does
2097 include the size of symlinks.
2098 it() bf(Total transferred file size) is the total sum of all files sizes
2099 for just the transferred files.
2100 it() bf(Literal data) is how much unmatched file-update data we had to
2101 send to the receiver for it to recreate the updated files.
2102 it() bf(Matched data) is how much data the receiver got locally when
2103 recreating the updated files.
2104 it() bf(File list size) is how big the file-list data was when the sender
2105 sent it to the receiver. This is smaller than the in-memory size for the
2106 file list due to some compressing of duplicated data when rsync sends the
2107 list.
2108 it() bf(File list generation time) is the number of seconds that the
2109 sender spent creating the file list. This requires a modern rsync on the
2110 sending side for this to be present.
2111 it() bf(File list transfer time) is the number of seconds that the sender
2112 spent sending the file list to the receiver.
2113 it() bf(Total bytes sent) is the count of all the bytes that rsync sent
2114 from the client side to the server side.
2115 it() bf(Total bytes received) is the count of all non-message bytes that
2116 rsync received by the client side from the server side. "Non-message"
2117 bytes means that we don't count the bytes for a verbose message that the
2118 server sent to us, which makes the stats more consistent.
38a4b9c2 2119))
7b13ff97 2120
a6a27602 2121dit(bf(-8, --8-bit-output)) This tells rsync to leave all high-bit characters
d0022dd9
WD
2122unescaped in the output instead of trying to test them to see if they're
2123valid in the current locale and escaping the invalid ones. All control
2124characters (but never tabs) are always escaped, regardless of this option's
2125setting.
2126
2127The escape idiom that started in 2.6.7 is to output a literal backslash (\)
2128and a hash (#), followed by exactly 3 octal digits. For example, a newline
2129would output as "\#012". A literal backslash that is in a filename is not
2130escaped unless it is followed by a hash and 3 digits (0-9).
2131
955c3145 2132dit(bf(-h, --human-readable)) Output numbers in a more human-readable format.
adc2476f
WD
2133There are 3 possible levels: (1) output numbers with a separator between each
2134set of 3 digits (either a comma or a period, depending on if the decimal point
2135is represented by a period or a comma); (2) output numbers in units of 1000
2136(with a character suffix for larger units -- see below); (3) output numbers in
2137units of 1024.
2138
2139The default is human-readable level 1. Each bf(-h) option increases the level
2140by one. You can take the level down to 0 (to output numbers as pure digits) by
2141specifing the bf(--no-human-readable) (bf(--no-h)) option.
2142
2143The unit letters that are appended in levels 2 and 3 are: K (kilo), M (mega),
2144G (giga), or T (tera). For example, a 1234567-byte file would output as 1.23M
2145in level-2 (assuming that a period is your local decimal point).
2146
2147Backward compatibility note: versions of rsync prior to 3.1.0 do not support
2148human-readable level 1, and they default to level 0. Thus, specifying one or
b320b7d6
WD
2149two bf(-h) options will behave in a comparable manner in old and new versions
2150as long as you didn't specify a bf(--no-h) option prior to one or more bf(-h)
2151options. See the bf(--list-only) option for one difference.
3b4ecc6b 2152
d9fcc198
AT
2153dit(bf(--partial)) By default, rsync will delete any partially
2154transferred file if the transfer is interrupted. In some circumstances
2155it is more desirable to keep partially transferred files. Using the
faa82484 2156bf(--partial) option tells rsync to keep the partial file which should
d9fcc198
AT
2157make a subsequent transfer of the rest of the file much faster.
2158
c2582307
WD
2159dit(bf(--partial-dir=DIR)) A better way to keep partial files than the
2160bf(--partial) option is to specify a em(DIR) that will be used to hold the
2161partial data (instead of writing it out to the destination file).
2162On the next transfer, rsync will use a file found in this
9ec1ef25 2163dir as data to speed up the resumption of the transfer and then delete it
c2582307 2164after it has served its purpose.
9ec1ef25 2165
c2582307
WD
2166Note that if bf(--whole-file) is specified (or implied), any partial-dir
2167file that is found for a file that is being updated will simply be removed
2168(since
adc4ebdd 2169rsync is sending files without using rsync's delta-transfer algorithm).
44cad59f 2170
c2582307
WD
2171Rsync will create the em(DIR) if it is missing (just the last dir -- not
2172the whole path). This makes it easy to use a relative path (such as
2173"bf(--partial-dir=.rsync-partial)") to have rsync create the
2174partial-directory in the destination file's directory when needed, and then
2175remove it again when the partial file is deleted.
44cad59f 2176
ee554411
WD
2177If the partial-dir value is not an absolute path, rsync will add an exclude
2178rule at the end of all your existing excludes. This will prevent the
2179sending of any partial-dir files that may exist on the sending side, and
2180will also prevent the untimely deletion of partial-dir items on the
2181receiving side. An example: the above bf(--partial-dir) option would add
f49c8376 2182the equivalent of "bf(-f '-p .rsync-partial/')" at the end of any other
ee554411
WD
2183filter rules.
2184
2185If you are supplying your own exclude rules, you may need to add your own
2186exclude/hide/protect rule for the partial-dir because (1) the auto-added
2187rule may be ineffective at the end of your other rules, or (2) you may wish
2188to override rsync's exclude choice. For instance, if you want to make
2189rsync clean-up any left-over partial-dirs that may be lying around, you
2190should specify bf(--delete-after) and add a "risk" filter rule, e.g.
2191bf(-f 'R .rsync-partial/'). (Avoid using bf(--delete-before) or
2192bf(--delete-during) unless you don't need rsync to use any of the
2193left-over partial-dir data during the current run.)
44cad59f 2194
faa82484 2195IMPORTANT: the bf(--partial-dir) should not be writable by other users or it
b4d1e854
WD
2196is a security risk. E.g. AVOID "/tmp".
2197
2198You can also set the partial-dir value the RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR environment
faa82484 2199variable. Setting this in the environment does not force bf(--partial) to be
02184920 2200enabled, but rather it affects where partial files go when bf(--partial) is
faa82484
WD
2201specified. For instance, instead of using bf(--partial-dir=.rsync-tmp)
2202along with bf(--progress), you could set RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR=.rsync-tmp in your
2203environment and then just use the bf(-P) option to turn on the use of the
9ec1ef25
WD
2204.rsync-tmp dir for partial transfers. The only times that the bf(--partial)
2205option does not look for this environment value are (1) when bf(--inplace) was
2206specified (since bf(--inplace) conflicts with bf(--partial-dir)), and (2) when
faa82484 2207bf(--delay-updates) was specified (see below).
01b835c2 2208
5a727522 2209For the purposes of the daemon-config's "refuse options" setting,
c2582307
WD
2210bf(--partial-dir) does em(not) imply bf(--partial). This is so that a
2211refusal of the bf(--partial) option can be used to disallow the overwriting
2212of destination files with a partial transfer, while still allowing the
2213safer idiom provided by bf(--partial-dir).
2214
01b835c2 2215dit(bf(--delay-updates)) This option puts the temporary file from each
c2582307 2216updated file into a holding directory until the end of the
01b835c2
WD
2217transfer, at which time all the files are renamed into place in rapid
2218succession. This attempts to make the updating of the files a little more
c2582307 2219atomic. By default the files are placed into a directory named ".~tmp~" in
64318670 2220each file's destination directory, but if you've specified the
ee554411
WD
2221bf(--partial-dir) option, that directory will be used instead. See the
2222comments in the bf(--partial-dir) section for a discussion of how this
2223".~tmp~" dir will be excluded from the transfer, and what you can do if
c5b6e57a 2224you want rsync to cleanup old ".~tmp~" dirs that might be lying around.
64318670 2225Conflicts with bf(--inplace) and bf(--append).
01b835c2
WD
2226
2227This option uses more memory on the receiving side (one bit per file
2228transferred) and also requires enough free disk space on the receiving
2229side to hold an additional copy of all the updated files. Note also that
5efbddba
WD
2230you should not use an absolute path to bf(--partial-dir) unless (1)
2231there is no
01b835c2
WD
2232chance of any of the files in the transfer having the same name (since all
2233the updated files will be put into a single directory if the path is
5efbddba
WD
2234absolute)
2235and (2) there are no mount points in the hierarchy (since the
2236delayed updates will fail if they can't be renamed into place).
01b835c2
WD
2237
2238See also the "atomic-rsync" perl script in the "support" subdir for an
faa82484 2239update algorithm that is even more atomic (it uses bf(--link-dest) and a
01b835c2 2240parallel hierarchy of files).
44cad59f 2241
a272ff8c 2242dit(bf(-m, --prune-empty-dirs)) This option tells the receiving rsync to get
fb72aaba
WD
2243rid of empty directories from the file-list, including nested directories
2244that have no non-directory children. This is useful for avoiding the
2245creation of a bunch of useless directories when the sending rsync is
2246recursively scanning a hierarchy of files using include/exclude/filter
a272ff8c
WD
2247rules.
2248
fd2b6046
WD
2249Note that the use of transfer rules, such as the bf(--min-size) option, does
2250not affect what goes into the file list, and thus does not leave directories
2251empty, even if none of the files in a directory match the transfer rule.
2252
a272ff8c
WD
2253Because the file-list is actually being pruned, this option also affects
2254what directories get deleted when a delete is active. However, keep in
2255mind that excluded files and directories can prevent existing items from
fd2b6046
WD
2256being deleted due to an exclude both hiding source files and protecting
2257destination files. See the perishable filter-rule option for how to avoid
2258this.
a272ff8c
WD
2259
2260You can prevent the pruning of certain empty directories from the file-list
2261by using a global "protect" filter. For instance, this option would ensure
2262that the directory "emptydir" was kept in the file-list:
2263
2264quote( --filter 'protect emptydir/')
fb72aaba
WD
2265
2266Here's an example that copies all .pdf files in a hierarchy, only creating
2267the necessary destination directories to hold the .pdf files, and ensures
2268that any superfluous files and directories in the destination are removed
a272ff8c
WD
2269(note the hide filter of non-directories being used instead of an exclude):
2270
58718881 2271quote( rsync -avm --del --include='*.pdf' -f 'hide,! */' src/ dest)
fb72aaba 2272
a272ff8c 2273If you didn't want to remove superfluous destination files, the more
4743f0f4 2274time-honored options of "bf(--include='*/' --exclude='*')" would work fine
a272ff8c 2275in place of the hide-filter (if that is more natural to you).
fb72aaba 2276
eb86d661
AT
2277dit(bf(--progress)) This option tells rsync to print information
2278showing the progress of the transfer. This gives a bored user
2279something to watch.
951e826b
WD
2280With a modern rsync this is the same as specifying
2281bf(--info=flist2,name,progress), but any user-supplied settings for those
2282info flags takes precedence (e.g. "--info=flist0 --progress").
7b10f91d 2283
5e1f082d
WD
2284While rsync is transferring a regular file, it updates a progress line that
2285looks like this:
68f9910d 2286
faa82484 2287verb( 782448 63% 110.64kB/s 0:00:04)
68f9910d 2288
5e1f082d
WD
2289In this example, the receiver has reconstructed 782448 bytes or 63% of the
2290sender's file, which is being reconstructed at a rate of 110.64 kilobytes
2291per second, and the transfer will finish in 4 seconds if the current rate
2292is maintained until the end.
2293
adc4ebdd 2294These statistics can be misleading if rsync's delta-transfer algorithm is
5e1f082d
WD
2295in use. For example, if the sender's file consists of the basis file
2296followed by additional data, the reported rate will probably drop
2297dramatically when the receiver gets to the literal data, and the transfer
2298will probably take much longer to finish than the receiver estimated as it
2299was finishing the matched part of the file.
2300
2301When the file transfer finishes, rsync replaces the progress line with a
2302summary line that looks like this:
2303
8d10cbfc 2304verb( 1,238,099 100% 146.38kB/s 0:00:08 (xfr#5, to-chk=169/396))
5e1f082d 2305
8d10cbfc 2306In this example, the file was 1,238,099 bytes long in total, the average rate
5e1f082d
WD
2307of transfer for the whole file was 146.38 kilobytes per second over the 8
2308seconds that it took to complete, it was the 5th transfer of a regular file
2309during the current rsync session, and there are 169 more files for the
2310receiver to check (to see if they are up-to-date or not) remaining out of
2311the 396 total files in the file-list.
68f9910d 2312
8d10cbfc
WD
2313In an incremental recursion scan, rsync won't know the total number of files
2314in the file-list until it reaches the ends of the scan, but since it starts to
2315transfer files during the scan, it will display a line with the text "ir-chk"
2316(for incremental recursion check) instead of "to-chk" until the point that it
2317knows the full size of the list, at which point it will switch to using
2318"to-chk". Thus, seeing "ir-chk" lets you know that the total count of files
2319in the file list is still going to increase (and each time it does, the count
2320of files left to check will increase by the number of the files added to the
2321list).
2322
faa82484 2323dit(bf(-P)) The bf(-P) option is equivalent to bf(--partial) bf(--progress). Its
183150b7
WD
2324purpose is to make it much easier to specify these two options for a long
2325transfer that may be interrupted.
d9fcc198 2326
951e826b
WD
2327There is also a bf(--info=progress2) option that outputs statistics based
2328on the whole transfer, rather than individual files. Use this flag without
2329outputting a filename (e.g. avoid bf(-v) or specify bf(--info=name0) if you
2330want to see how the transfer is doing without scrolling the screen with a
2331lot of names. (You don't need to specify the bf(--progress) option in
2332order to use bf(--info=progress2).)
2333
9586e593
WD
2334dit(bf(--password-file)) This option allows you to provide a password in a
2335file for accessing an rsync daemon. The file must not be world readable.
6437b817
WD
2336It should contain just the password as the first line of the file (all
2337other lines are ignored).
9586e593 2338
b2057d38
WD
2339This option does not supply a password to a remote shell transport such as
2340ssh; to learn how to do that, consult the remote shell's documentation.
9586e593
WD
2341When accessing an rsync daemon using a remote shell as the transport, this
2342option only comes into effect after the remote shell finishes its
2343authentication (i.e. if you have also specified a password in the daemon's
2344config file).
65575e96 2345
09ed3099 2346dit(bf(--list-only)) This option will cause the source files to be listed
b4c7c1ca
WD
2347instead of transferred. This option is inferred if there is a single source
2348arg and no destination specified, so its main uses are: (1) to turn a copy
2349command that includes a
32b9011a
WD
2350destination arg into a file-listing command, or (2) to be able to specify
2351more than one source arg (note: be sure to include the destination).
2352Caution: keep in mind that a source arg with a wild-card is expanded by the
2353shell into multiple args, so it is never safe to try to list such an arg
b4c7c1ca
WD
2354without using this option. For example:
2355
2356verb( rsync -av --list-only foo* dest/)
09ed3099 2357
b320b7d6
WD
2358Starting with rsync 3.1.0, the sizes output by bf(--list-only) are affected
2359by the bf(--human-readable) option. By default they will contain digit
2360separators, but higher levels of readability will output the sizes with
2361unit suffixes. Note also that the column width for the size output has
2362increased from 11 to 14 characters for all human-readable levels. Use
2363bf(--no-h) if you want just digits in the sizes, and the old column width
2364of 11 characters.
2365
32b9011a
WD
2366Compatibility note: when requesting a remote listing of files from an rsync
2367that is version 2.6.3 or older, you may encounter an error if you ask for a
2368non-recursive listing. This is because a file listing implies the bf(--dirs)
2369option w/o bf(--recursive), and older rsyncs don't have that option. To
2370avoid this problem, either specify the bf(--no-dirs) option (if you don't
2371need to expand a directory's content), or turn on recursion and exclude
2372the content of subdirectories: bf(-r --exclude='/*/*').
2373
ce795fcd
WD
2374dit(bf(--bwlimit=RATE)) This option allows you to specify the maximum transfer
2375rate for the data sent over the socket, specified in units per second. The
2376RATE value can be suffixed with a string to indicate a size multiplier, and may
2377be a fractional value (e.g. "bf(--bwlimit=1.5m)"). If no suffix is specified,
2378the value will be assumed to be in units of 1024 bytes (as if "K" or "KiB" had
2379been appended). See the bf(--max-size) option for a description of all the
2380available suffixes. A value of zero specifies no limit.
2381
2382For backward-compatibility reasons, the rate limit will be rounded to the
2383nearest KiB unit, so no rate smaller than 1024 bytes per second is possible.
2384
2385Rsync writes data over the socket in blocks, and this option both limits the
2386size of the blocks that rsync writes, and tries to keep the average transfer
2387rate at the requested limit. Some "burstiness" may be seen where rsync writes
2388out a block of data and then sleeps to bring the average rate into compliance.
2389
2390Due to the internal buffering of data, the bf(--progress) option may not be an
2391accurate reflection on how fast the data is being sent. This is because some
2392files can show up as being rapidly sent when the data is quickly buffered,
2393while other can show up as very slow when the flushing of the output buffer
2394occurs. This may be fixed in a future version.
ef5d23eb 2395
b9f592fb 2396dit(bf(--write-batch=FILE)) Record a file that can later be applied to
faa82484 2397another identical destination with bf(--read-batch). See the "BATCH MODE"
32c7f91a 2398section for details, and also the bf(--only-write-batch) option.
6902ed17 2399
326bb56e
WD
2400dit(bf(--only-write-batch=FILE)) Works like bf(--write-batch), except that
2401no updates are made on the destination system when creating the batch.
2402This lets you transport the changes to the destination system via some
32c7f91a
WD
2403other means and then apply the changes via bf(--read-batch).
2404
2405Note that you can feel free to write the batch directly to some portable
2406media: if this media fills to capacity before the end of the transfer, you
2407can just apply that partial transfer to the destination and repeat the
2408whole process to get the rest of the changes (as long as you don't mind a
2409partially updated destination system while the multi-update cycle is
2410happening).
2411
2412Also note that you only save bandwidth when pushing changes to a remote
2413system because this allows the batched data to be diverted from the sender
2414into the batch file without having to flow over the wire to the receiver
2415(when pulling, the sender is remote, and thus can't write the batch).
326bb56e 2416
b9f592fb 2417dit(bf(--read-batch=FILE)) Apply all of the changes stored in FILE, a
faa82484 2418file previously generated by bf(--write-batch).
78be8e0f 2419If em(FILE) is bf(-), the batch data will be read from standard input.
c769702f 2420See the "BATCH MODE" section for details.
6902ed17 2421
0b941479
WD
2422dit(bf(--protocol=NUM)) Force an older protocol version to be used. This
2423is useful for creating a batch file that is compatible with an older
2424version of rsync. For instance, if rsync 2.6.4 is being used with the
2425bf(--write-batch) option, but rsync 2.6.3 is what will be used to run the
81c453b1
WD
2426bf(--read-batch) option, you should use "--protocol=28" when creating the
2427batch file to force the older protocol version to be used in the batch
2428file (assuming you can't upgrade the rsync on the reading system).
0b941479 2429
332cf6df
WD
2430dit(bf(--iconv=CONVERT_SPEC)) Rsync can convert filenames between character
2431sets using this option. Using a CONVERT_SPEC of "." tells rsync to look up
2432the default character-set via the locale setting. Alternately, you can
2433fully specify what conversion to do by giving a local and a remote charset
0b52f94d
WD
2434separated by a comma in the order bf(--iconv=LOCAL,REMOTE), e.g.
2435bf(--iconv=utf8,iso88591). This order ensures that the option
2436will stay the same whether you're pushing or pulling files.
2437Finally, you can specify either bf(--no-iconv) or a CONVERT_SPEC of "-"
2438to turn off any conversion.
332cf6df
WD
2439The default setting of this option is site-specific, and can also be
2440affected via the RSYNC_ICONV environment variable.
2441
0b52f94d
WD
2442For a list of what charset names your local iconv library supports, you can
2443run "iconv --list".
2444
82f37486
WD
2445If you specify the bf(--protect-args) option (bf(-s)), rsync will translate
2446the filenames you specify on the command-line that are being sent to the
2447remote host. See also the bf(--files-from) option.
2448
332cf6df 2449Note that rsync does not do any conversion of names in filter files
82f37486
WD
2450(including include/exclude files). It is up to you to ensure that you're
2451specifying matching rules that can match on both sides of the transfer.
2452For instance, you can specify extra include/exclude rules if there are
2453filename differences on the two sides that need to be accounted for.
332cf6df 2454
0b52f94d
WD
2455When you pass an bf(--iconv) option to an rsync daemon that allows it, the
2456daemon uses the charset specified in its "charset" configuration parameter
2457regardless of the remote charset you actually pass. Thus, you may feel free to
2458specify just the local charset for a daemon transfer (e.g. bf(--iconv=utf8)).
2459
e40a46de
WD
2460dit(bf(-4, --ipv4) or bf(-6, --ipv6)) Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6
2461when creating sockets. This only affects sockets that rsync has direct
2462control over, such as the outgoing socket when directly contacting an
faa82484 2463rsync daemon. See also these options in the bf(--daemon) mode section.
e40a46de 2464
24d677fc
WD
2465If rsync was complied without support for IPv6, the bf(--ipv6) option
2466will have no effect. The bf(--version) output will tell you if this
2467is the case.
2468
e129500c 2469dit(bf(--checksum-seed=NUM)) Set the checksum seed to the integer
c8d895de 2470NUM. This 4 byte checksum seed is included in each block and file
e129500c 2471checksum calculation. By default the checksum seed is generated
49f4cfdf 2472by the server and defaults to the current code(time()). This option
c8d895de
WD
2473is used to set a specific checksum seed, which is useful for
2474applications that want repeatable block and file checksums, or
2475in the case where the user wants a more random checksum seed.
886df221 2476Setting NUM to 0 causes rsync to use the default of code(time())
b9f592fb 2477for checksum seed.
41059f75
AT
2478enddit()
2479
faa82484
WD
2480manpagesection(DAEMON OPTIONS)
2481
bdf278f7
WD
2482The options allowed when starting an rsync daemon are as follows:
2483
2484startdit()
bdf278f7 2485dit(bf(--daemon)) This tells rsync that it is to run as a daemon. The
62f27e3c
WD
2486daemon you start running may be accessed using an rsync client using
2487the bf(host::module) or bf(rsync://host/module/) syntax.
bdf278f7
WD
2488
2489If standard input is a socket then rsync will assume that it is being
2490run via inetd, otherwise it will detach from the current terminal and
2491become a background daemon. The daemon will read the config file
2492(rsyncd.conf) on each connect made by a client and respond to
49f4cfdf 2493requests accordingly. See the bf(rsyncd.conf)(5) man page for more
bdf278f7
WD
2494details.
2495
3ae5367f
WD
2496dit(bf(--address)) By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when
2497run as a daemon with the bf(--daemon) option. The bf(--address) option
2498allows you to specify a specific IP address (or hostname) to bind to. This
2499makes virtual hosting possible in conjunction with the bf(--config) option.
2500See also the "address" global option in the rsyncd.conf manpage.
bdf278f7 2501
ce795fcd
WD
2502dit(bf(--bwlimit=RATE)) This option allows you to specify the maximum transfer
2503rate for the data the daemon sends over the socket. The client can still
2504specify a smaller bf(--bwlimit) value, but no larger value will be allowed.
2505See the client version of this option (above) for some extra details.
1f69bec4 2506
bdf278f7 2507dit(bf(--config=FILE)) This specifies an alternate config file than
faa82484 2508the default. This is only relevant when bf(--daemon) is specified.
bdf278f7 2509The default is /etc/rsyncd.conf unless the daemon is running over
d38772e0 2510a remote shell program and the remote user is not the super-user; in that case
bdf278f7
WD
2511the default is rsyncd.conf in the current directory (typically $HOME).
2512
2206abf8
WD
2513dit(bf(-M, --dparam=OVERRIDE)) This option can be used to set a daemon-config
2514parameter when starting up rsync in daemon mode. It is equivalent to adding
2515the parameter at the end of the global settings prior to the first module's
2516definition. The parameter names can be specified without spaces, if you so
2517desire. For instance:
2518
2519verb( rsync --daemon -M pidfile=/path/rsync.pid )
2520
bdf278f7
WD
2521dit(bf(--no-detach)) When running as a daemon, this option instructs
2522rsync to not detach itself and become a background process. This
2523option is required when running as a service on Cygwin, and may also
2524be useful when rsync is supervised by a program such as
2525bf(daemontools) or AIX's bf(System Resource Controller).
2526bf(--no-detach) is also recommended when rsync is run under a
2527debugger. This option has no effect if rsync is run from inetd or
2528sshd.
2529
c259892c
WD
2530dit(bf(--port=PORT)) This specifies an alternate TCP port number for the
2531daemon to listen on rather than the default of 873. See also the "port"
2532global option in the rsyncd.conf manpage.
bdf278f7 2533
a2ed5801
WD
2534dit(bf(--log-file=FILE)) This option tells the rsync daemon to use the
2535given log-file name instead of using the "log file" setting in the config
2536file.
2537
4b90820d
WD
2538dit(bf(--log-file-format=FORMAT)) This option tells the rsync daemon to use the
2539given FORMAT string instead of using the "log format" setting in the config
2540file. It also enables "transfer logging" unless the string is empty, in which
2541case transfer logging is turned off.
2542
04f48837
WD
2543dit(bf(--sockopts)) This overrides the bf(socket options) setting in the
2544rsyncd.conf file and has the same syntax.
2545
24b0922b
WD
2546dit(bf(-v, --verbose)) This option increases the amount of information the
2547daemon logs during its startup phase. After the client connects, the
2548daemon's verbosity level will be controlled by the options that the client
2549used and the "max verbosity" setting in the module's config section.
2550
bdf278f7
WD
2551dit(bf(-4, --ipv4) or bf(-6, --ipv6)) Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6
2552when creating the incoming sockets that the rsync daemon will use to
2553listen for connections. One of these options may be required in older
2554versions of Linux to work around an IPv6 bug in the kernel (if you see
2555an "address already in use" error when nothing else is using the port,
faa82484 2556try specifying bf(--ipv6) or bf(--ipv4) when starting the daemon).
bdf278f7 2557
24d677fc
WD
2558If rsync was complied without support for IPv6, the bf(--ipv6) option
2559will have no effect. The bf(--version) output will tell you if this
2560is the case.
2561
faa82484 2562dit(bf(-h, --help)) When specified after bf(--daemon), print a short help
bdf278f7 2563page describing the options available for starting an rsync daemon.
bdf278f7
WD
2564enddit()
2565
16e5de84 2566manpagesection(FILTER RULES)
43bd68e5 2567
16e5de84
WD
2568The filter rules allow for flexible selection of which files to transfer
2569(include) and which files to skip (exclude). The rules either directly
2570specify include/exclude patterns or they specify a way to acquire more
2571include/exclude patterns (e.g. to read them from a file).
43bd68e5 2572
16e5de84
WD
2573As the list of files/directories to transfer is built, rsync checks each
2574name to be transferred against the list of include/exclude patterns in
2575turn, and the first matching pattern is acted on: if it is an exclude
2576pattern, then that file is skipped; if it is an include pattern then that
2577filename is not skipped; if no matching pattern is found, then the
43bd68e5
AT
2578filename is not skipped.
2579
16e5de84
WD
2580Rsync builds an ordered list of filter rules as specified on the
2581command-line. Filter rules have the following syntax:
2582
faa82484 2583quote(
d91de046
WD
2584tt(RULE [PATTERN_OR_FILENAME])nl()
2585tt(RULE,MODIFIERS [PATTERN_OR_FILENAME])nl()
16e5de84
WD
2586)
2587
d91de046
WD
2588You have your choice of using either short or long RULE names, as described
2589below. If you use a short-named rule, the ',' separating the RULE from the
2590MODIFIERS is optional. The PATTERN or FILENAME that follows (when present)
2591must come after either a single space or an underscore (_).
2592Here are the available rule prefixes:
16e5de84 2593
faa82484 2594quote(
d91de046
WD
2595bf(exclude, -) specifies an exclude pattern. nl()
2596bf(include, +) specifies an include pattern. nl()
2597bf(merge, .) specifies a merge-file to read for more rules. nl()
2598bf(dir-merge, :) specifies a per-directory merge-file. nl()
0dfffb88
WD
2599bf(hide, H) specifies a pattern for hiding files from the transfer. nl()
2600bf(show, S) files that match the pattern are not hidden. nl()
2601bf(protect, P) specifies a pattern for protecting files from deletion. nl()
2602bf(risk, R) files that match the pattern are not protected. nl()
d91de046 2603bf(clear, !) clears the current include/exclude list (takes no arg) nl()
16e5de84
WD
2604)
2605
d91de046
WD
2606When rules are being read from a file, empty lines are ignored, as are
2607comment lines that start with a "#".
2608
faa82484 2609Note that the bf(--include)/bf(--exclude) command-line options do not allow the
16e5de84 2610full range of rule parsing as described above -- they only allow the
d91de046
WD
2611specification of include/exclude patterns plus a "!" token to clear the
2612list (and the normal comment parsing when rules are read from a file).
2613If a pattern
16e5de84
WD
2614does not begin with "- " (dash, space) or "+ " (plus, space), then the
2615rule will be interpreted as if "+ " (for an include option) or "- " (for
faa82484 2616an exclude option) were prefixed to the string. A bf(--filter) option, on
d91de046
WD
2617the other hand, must always contain either a short or long rule name at the
2618start of the rule.
16e5de84 2619
faa82484 2620Note also that the bf(--filter), bf(--include), and bf(--exclude) options take one
16e5de84 2621rule/pattern each. To add multiple ones, you can repeat the options on
faa82484
WD
2622the command-line, use the merge-file syntax of the bf(--filter) option, or
2623the bf(--include-from)/bf(--exclude-from) options.
16e5de84 2624
16e5de84
WD
2625manpagesection(INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERN RULES)
2626
0dfffb88
WD
2627You can include and exclude files by specifying patterns using the "+",
2628"-", etc. filter rules (as introduced in the FILTER RULES section above).
bb5f4e72
WD
2629The include/exclude rules each specify a pattern that is matched against
2630the names of the files that are going to be transferred. These patterns
2631can take several forms:
16e5de84 2632
b8a6dae0 2633itemization(
16e5de84
WD
2634 it() if the pattern starts with a / then it is anchored to a
2635 particular spot in the hierarchy of files, otherwise it is matched
2636 against the end of the pathname. This is similar to a leading ^ in
2637 regular expressions.
809724d7 2638 Thus "/foo" would match a name of "foo" at either the "root of the
16e5de84
WD
2639 transfer" (for a global rule) or in the merge-file's directory (for a
2640 per-directory rule).
809724d7
WD
2641 An unqualified "foo" would match a name of "foo" anywhere in the
2642 tree because the algorithm is applied recursively from the
16e5de84 2643 top down; it behaves as if each path component gets a turn at being the
809724d7 2644 end of the filename. Even the unanchored "sub/foo" would match at
16e5de84
WD
2645 any point in the hierarchy where a "foo" was found within a directory
2646 named "sub". See the section on ANCHORING INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS for
2647 a full discussion of how to specify a pattern that matches at the root
2648 of the transfer.
16e5de84 2649 it() if the pattern ends with a / then it will only match a
809724d7 2650 directory, not a regular file, symlink, or device.
9639c718
WD
2651 it() rsync chooses between doing a simple string match and wildcard
2652 matching by checking if the pattern contains one of these three wildcard
2653 characters: '*', '?', and '[' .
7fdb3bda 2654 it() a '*' matches any path component, but it stops at slashes.
9639c718
WD
2655 it() use '**' to match anything, including slashes.
2656 it() a '?' matches any character except a slash (/).
2657 it() a '[' introduces a character class, such as [a-z] or [[:alpha:]].
2658 it() in a wildcard pattern, a backslash can be used to escape a wildcard
2659 character, but it is matched literally when no wildcards are present.
2660 it() if the pattern contains a / (not counting a trailing /) or a "**",
16e5de84
WD
2661 then it is matched against the full pathname, including any leading
2662 directories. If the pattern doesn't contain a / or a "**", then it is
2663 matched only against the final component of the filename.
2664 (Remember that the algorithm is applied recursively so "full filename"
ae283632 2665 can actually be any portion of a path from the starting directory on
16e5de84 2666 down.)
d3db3eef 2667 it() a trailing "dir_name/***" will match both the directory (as if
809724d7 2668 "dir_name/" had been specified) and everything in the directory
c575f8ce
WD
2669 (as if "dir_name/**" had been specified). This behavior was added in
2670 version 2.6.7.
16e5de84
WD
2671)
2672
faa82484
WD
2673Note that, when using the bf(--recursive) (bf(-r)) option (which is implied by
2674bf(-a)), every subcomponent of every path is visited from the top down, so
16e5de84
WD
2675include/exclude patterns get applied recursively to each subcomponent's
2676full name (e.g. to include "/foo/bar/baz" the subcomponents "/foo" and
2677"/foo/bar" must not be excluded).
2678The exclude patterns actually short-circuit the directory traversal stage
2679when rsync finds the files to send. If a pattern excludes a particular
2680parent directory, it can render a deeper include pattern ineffectual
2681because rsync did not descend through that excluded section of the
2682hierarchy. This is particularly important when using a trailing '*' rule.
2683For instance, this won't work:
2684
faa82484
WD
2685quote(
2686tt(+ /some/path/this-file-will-not-be-found)nl()
2687tt(+ /file-is-included)nl()
2688tt(- *)nl()
16e5de84
WD
2689)
2690
2691This fails because the parent directory "some" is excluded by the '*'
2692rule, so rsync never visits any of the files in the "some" or "some/path"
2693directories. One solution is to ask for all directories in the hierarchy
a5a26484 2694to be included by using a single rule: "+ */" (put it somewhere before the
58718881
WD
2695"- *" rule), and perhaps use the bf(--prune-empty-dirs) option. Another
2696solution is to add specific include rules for all
16e5de84
WD
2697the parent dirs that need to be visited. For instance, this set of rules
2698works fine:
2699
faa82484
WD
2700quote(
2701tt(+ /some/)nl()
2702tt(+ /some/path/)nl()
2703tt(+ /some/path/this-file-is-found)nl()
2704tt(+ /file-also-included)nl()
2705tt(- *)nl()
16e5de84
WD
2706)
2707
2708Here are some examples of exclude/include matching:
2709
b8a6dae0 2710itemization(
809724d7 2711 it() "- *.o" would exclude all names matching *.o
58718881
WD
2712 it() "- /foo" would exclude a file (or directory) named foo in the
2713 transfer-root directory
2714 it() "- foo/" would exclude any directory named foo
2715 it() "- /foo/*/bar" would exclude any file named bar which is at two
2716 levels below a directory named foo in the transfer-root directory
2717 it() "- /foo/**/bar" would exclude any file named bar two
2718 or more levels below a directory named foo in the transfer-root directory
faa82484 2719 it() The combination of "+ */", "+ *.c", and "- *" would include all
58718881
WD
2720 directories and C source files but nothing else (see also the
2721 bf(--prune-empty-dirs) option)
16e5de84
WD
2722 it() The combination of "+ foo/", "+ foo/bar.c", and "- *" would include
2723 only the foo directory and foo/bar.c (the foo directory must be
2724 explicitly included or it would be excluded by the "*")
2725)
2726
d960af72
MM
2727The following modifiers are accepted after a "+" or "-":
2728
2729itemization(
2730 it() A bf(/) specifies that the include/exclude rule should be matched
2731 against the absolute pathname of the current item. For example,
2732 "-/ /etc/passwd" would exclude the passwd file any time the transfer
2733 was sending files from the "/etc" directory, and "-/ subdir/foo"
2734 would always exclude "foo" when it is in a dir named "subdir", even
2735 if "foo" is at the root of the current transfer.
2736 it() A bf(!) specifies that the include/exclude should take effect if
2737 the pattern fails to match. For instance, "-! */" would exclude all
2738 non-directories.
2739 it() A bf(C) is used to indicate that all the global CVS-exclude rules
2740 should be inserted as excludes in place of the "-C". No arg should
2741 follow.
2742 it() An bf(s) is used to indicate that the rule applies to the sending
2743 side. When a rule affects the sending side, it prevents files from
2744 being transferred. The default is for a rule to affect both sides
2745 unless bf(--delete-excluded) was specified, in which case default rules
2746 become sender-side only. See also the hide (H) and show (S) rules,
2747 which are an alternate way to specify sending-side includes/excludes.
2748 it() An bf(r) is used to indicate that the rule applies to the receiving
2749 side. When a rule affects the receiving side, it prevents files from
2750 being deleted. See the bf(s) modifier for more info. See also the
2751 protect (P) and risk (R) rules, which are an alternate way to
2752 specify receiver-side includes/excludes.
2753 it() A bf(p) indicates that a rule is perishable, meaning that it is
2754 ignored in directories that are being deleted. For instance, the bf(-C)
2755 option's default rules that exclude things like "CVS" and "*.o" are
2756 marked as perishable, and will not prevent a directory that was removed
2757 on the source from being deleted on the destination.
2758)
2759
16e5de84
WD
2760manpagesection(MERGE-FILE FILTER RULES)
2761
2762You can merge whole files into your filter rules by specifying either a
d91de046
WD
2763merge (.) or a dir-merge (:) filter rule (as introduced in the FILTER RULES
2764section above).
16e5de84
WD
2765
2766There are two kinds of merged files -- single-instance ('.') and
2767per-directory (':'). A single-instance merge file is read one time, and
2768its rules are incorporated into the filter list in the place of the "."
2769rule. For per-directory merge files, rsync will scan every directory that
2770it traverses for the named file, merging its contents when the file exists
2771into the current list of inherited rules. These per-directory rule files
2772must be created on the sending side because it is the sending side that is
2773being scanned for the available files to transfer. These rule files may
2774also need to be transferred to the receiving side if you want them to
2775affect what files don't get deleted (see PER-DIRECTORY RULES AND DELETE
2776below).
2777
2778Some examples:
2779
faa82484 2780quote(
d91de046 2781tt(merge /etc/rsync/default.rules)nl()
faa82484 2782tt(. /etc/rsync/default.rules)nl()
d91de046
WD
2783tt(dir-merge .per-dir-filter)nl()
2784tt(dir-merge,n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes)nl()
faa82484 2785tt(:n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes)nl()
16e5de84
WD
2786)
2787
d91de046 2788The following modifiers are accepted after a merge or dir-merge rule:
16e5de84 2789
b8a6dae0 2790itemization(
62bf783f 2791 it() A bf(-) specifies that the file should consist of only exclude
d91de046 2792 patterns, with no other rule-parsing except for in-file comments.
62bf783f 2793 it() A bf(+) specifies that the file should consist of only include
d91de046
WD
2794 patterns, with no other rule-parsing except for in-file comments.
2795 it() A bf(C) is a way to specify that the file should be read in a
2796 CVS-compatible manner. This turns on 'n', 'w', and '-', but also
2797 allows the list-clearing token (!) to be specified. If no filename is
2798 provided, ".cvsignore" is assumed.
2799 it() A bf(e) will exclude the merge-file name from the transfer; e.g.
a5a26484 2800 "dir-merge,e .rules" is like "dir-merge .rules" and "- .rules".
62bf783f
WD
2801 it() An bf(n) specifies that the rules are not inherited by subdirectories.
2802 it() A bf(w) specifies that the rules are word-split on whitespace instead
16e5de84
WD
2803 of the normal line-splitting. This also turns off comments. Note: the
2804 space that separates the prefix from the rule is treated specially, so
d91de046
WD
2805 "- foo + bar" is parsed as two rules (assuming that prefix-parsing wasn't
2806 also disabled).
2807 it() You may also specify any of the modifiers for the "+" or "-" rules
d960af72 2808 (above) in order to have the rules that are read in from the file
c8fa85b2
MM
2809 default to having that modifier set (except for the bf(!) modifier, which
2810 would not be useful). For instance, "merge,-/ .excl" would
0dfffb88
WD
2811 treat the contents of .excl as absolute-path excludes,
2812 while "dir-merge,s .filt" and ":sC" would each make all their
c8fa85b2
MM
2813 per-directory rules apply only on the sending side. If the merge rule
2814 specifies sides to affect (via the bf(s) or bf(r) modifier or both),
2815 then the rules in the file must not specify sides (via a modifier or
2816 a rule prefix such as bf(hide)).
16e5de84
WD
2817)
2818
2819Per-directory rules are inherited in all subdirectories of the directory
2820where the merge-file was found unless the 'n' modifier was used. Each
2821subdirectory's rules are prefixed to the inherited per-directory rules
2822from its parents, which gives the newest rules a higher priority than the
d91de046 2823inherited rules. The entire set of dir-merge rules are grouped together in
16e5de84 2824the spot where the merge-file was specified, so it is possible to override
d91de046 2825dir-merge rules via a rule that got specified earlier in the list of global
16e5de84
WD
2826rules. When the list-clearing rule ("!") is read from a per-directory
2827file, it only clears the inherited rules for the current merge file.
2828
d91de046 2829Another way to prevent a single rule from a dir-merge file from being inherited is to
16e5de84
WD
2830anchor it with a leading slash. Anchored rules in a per-directory
2831merge-file are relative to the merge-file's directory, so a pattern "/foo"
d91de046 2832would only match the file "foo" in the directory where the dir-merge filter
16e5de84
WD
2833file was found.
2834
faa82484 2835Here's an example filter file which you'd specify via bf(--filter=". file":)
16e5de84 2836
faa82484 2837quote(
d91de046 2838tt(merge /home/user/.global-filter)nl()
faa82484 2839tt(- *.gz)nl()
d91de046 2840tt(dir-merge .rules)nl()
faa82484
WD
2841tt(+ *.[ch])nl()
2842tt(- *.o)nl()
16e5de84
WD
2843)
2844
2845This will merge the contents of the /home/user/.global-filter file at the
2846start of the list and also turns the ".rules" filename into a per-directory
467688dc 2847filter file. All rules read in prior to the start of the directory scan
16e5de84
WD
2848follow the global anchoring rules (i.e. a leading slash matches at the root
2849of the transfer).
2850
2851If a per-directory merge-file is specified with a path that is a parent
2852directory of the first transfer directory, rsync will scan all the parent
2853dirs from that starting point to the transfer directory for the indicated
faa82484 2854per-directory file. For instance, here is a common filter (see bf(-F)):
16e5de84 2855
faa82484 2856quote(tt(--filter=': /.rsync-filter'))
16e5de84
WD
2857
2858That rule tells rsync to scan for the file .rsync-filter in all
2859directories from the root down through the parent directory of the
2860transfer prior to the start of the normal directory scan of the file in
2861the directories that are sent as a part of the transfer. (Note: for an
2862rsync daemon, the root is always the same as the module's "path".)
2863
2864Some examples of this pre-scanning for per-directory files:
2865
faa82484
WD
2866quote(
2867tt(rsync -avF /src/path/ /dest/dir)nl()
2868tt(rsync -av --filter=': ../../.rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir)nl()
2869tt(rsync -av --filter=': .rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir)nl()
16e5de84
WD
2870)
2871
2872The first two commands above will look for ".rsync-filter" in "/" and
2873"/src" before the normal scan begins looking for the file in "/src/path"
2874and its subdirectories. The last command avoids the parent-dir scan
2875and only looks for the ".rsync-filter" files in each directory that is
2876a part of the transfer.
2877
2878If you want to include the contents of a ".cvsignore" in your patterns,
d91de046
WD
2879you should use the rule ":C", which creates a dir-merge of the .cvsignore
2880file, but parsed in a CVS-compatible manner. You can
faa82484 2881use this to affect where the bf(--cvs-exclude) (bf(-C)) option's inclusion of the
d91de046 2882per-directory .cvsignore file gets placed into your rules by putting the
16e5de84 2883":C" wherever you like in your filter rules. Without this, rsync would
d91de046 2884add the dir-merge rule for the .cvsignore file at the end of all your other
16e5de84
WD
2885rules (giving it a lower priority than your command-line rules). For
2886example:
2887
faa82484
WD
2888quote(
2889tt(cat <<EOT | rsync -avC --filter='. -' a/ b)nl()
2890tt(+ foo.o)nl()
2891tt(:C)nl()
2892tt(- *.old)nl()
2893tt(EOT)nl()
2894tt(rsync -avC --include=foo.o -f :C --exclude='*.old' a/ b)nl()
16e5de84
WD
2895)
2896
2897Both of the above rsync commands are identical. Each one will merge all
2898the per-directory .cvsignore rules in the middle of the list rather than
2899at the end. This allows their dir-specific rules to supersede the rules
bafa4875
WD
2900that follow the :C instead of being subservient to all your rules. To
2901affect the other CVS exclude rules (i.e. the default list of exclusions,
2902the contents of $HOME/.cvsignore, and the value of $CVSIGNORE) you should
2903omit the bf(-C) command-line option and instead insert a "-C" rule into
4743f0f4 2904your filter rules; e.g. "bf(--filter=-C)".
16e5de84
WD
2905
2906manpagesection(LIST-CLEARING FILTER RULE)
2907
2908You can clear the current include/exclude list by using the "!" filter
2909rule (as introduced in the FILTER RULES section above). The "current"
2910list is either the global list of rules (if the rule is encountered while
2911parsing the filter options) or a set of per-directory rules (which are
2912inherited in their own sub-list, so a subdirectory can use this to clear
2913out the parent's rules).
2914
2915manpagesection(ANCHORING INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS)
2916
2917As mentioned earlier, global include/exclude patterns are anchored at the
2918"root of the transfer" (as opposed to per-directory patterns, which are
2919anchored at the merge-file's directory). If you think of the transfer as
2920a subtree of names that are being sent from sender to receiver, the
2921transfer-root is where the tree starts to be duplicated in the destination
2922directory. This root governs where patterns that start with a / match.
a4b6f305
WD
2923
2924Because the matching is relative to the transfer-root, changing the
faa82484 2925trailing slash on a source path or changing your use of the bf(--relative)
a4b6f305
WD
2926option affects the path you need to use in your matching (in addition to
2927changing how much of the file tree is duplicated on the destination
16e5de84 2928host). The following examples demonstrate this.
a4b6f305 2929
b5ebe6d9
WD
2930Let's say that we want to match two source files, one with an absolute
2931path of "/home/me/foo/bar", and one with a path of "/home/you/bar/baz".
2932Here is how the various command choices differ for a 2-source transfer:
a4b6f305 2933
faa82484
WD
2934quote(
2935 Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me /home/you /dest nl()
2936 +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar nl()
2937 +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz nl()
2938 Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar nl()
2939 Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz nl()
2940)
2941
2942quote(
2943 Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me/ /home/you/ /dest nl()
2944 +/- pattern: /foo/bar (note missing "me") nl()
2945 +/- pattern: /bar/baz (note missing "you") nl()
2946 Target file: /dest/foo/bar nl()
2947 Target file: /dest/bar/baz nl()
2948)
2949
2950quote(
2951 Example cmd: rsync -a --relative /home/me/ /home/you /dest nl()
2952 +/- pattern: /home/me/foo/bar (note full path) nl()
2953 +/- pattern: /home/you/bar/baz (ditto) nl()
2954 Target file: /dest/home/me/foo/bar nl()
2955 Target file: /dest/home/you/bar/baz nl()
2956)
2957
2958quote(
2959 Example cmd: cd /home; rsync -a --relative me/foo you/ /dest nl()
2960 +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar (starts at specified path) nl()
2961 +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz (ditto) nl()
2962 Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar nl()
2963 Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz nl()
a4b6f305
WD
2964)
2965
16e5de84 2966The easiest way to see what name you should filter is to just
faa82484
WD
2967look at the output when using bf(--verbose) and put a / in front of the name
2968(use the bf(--dry-run) option if you're not yet ready to copy any files).
d1cce1dd 2969
16e5de84 2970manpagesection(PER-DIRECTORY RULES AND DELETE)
43bd68e5 2971
16e5de84
WD
2972Without a delete option, per-directory rules are only relevant on the
2973sending side, so you can feel free to exclude the merge files themselves
2974without affecting the transfer. To make this easy, the 'e' modifier adds
2975this exclude for you, as seen in these two equivalent commands:
27b9a19b 2976
faa82484
WD
2977quote(
2978tt(rsync -av --filter=': .excl' --exclude=.excl host:src/dir /dest)nl()
2979tt(rsync -av --filter=':e .excl' host:src/dir /dest)nl()
43bd68e5
AT
2980)
2981
16e5de84
WD
2982However, if you want to do a delete on the receiving side AND you want some
2983files to be excluded from being deleted, you'll need to be sure that the
2984receiving side knows what files to exclude. The easiest way is to include
faa82484 2985the per-directory merge files in the transfer and use bf(--delete-after),
16e5de84
WD
2986because this ensures that the receiving side gets all the same exclude
2987rules as the sending side before it tries to delete anything:
43bd68e5 2988
faa82484 2989quote(tt(rsync -avF --delete-after host:src/dir /dest))
20af605e 2990
16e5de84
WD
2991However, if the merge files are not a part of the transfer, you'll need to
2992either specify some global exclude rules (i.e. specified on the command
2993line), or you'll need to maintain your own per-directory merge files on
2994the receiving side. An example of the first is this (assume that the
2995remote .rules files exclude themselves):
20af605e 2996
faa82484
WD
2997verb(rsync -av --filter=': .rules' --filter='. /my/extra.rules'
2998 --delete host:src/dir /dest)
20af605e 2999
16e5de84
WD
3000In the above example the extra.rules file can affect both sides of the
3001transfer, but (on the sending side) the rules are subservient to the rules
3002merged from the .rules files because they were specified after the
3003per-directory merge rule.
43bd68e5 3004
16e5de84
WD
3005In one final example, the remote side is excluding the .rsync-filter
3006files from the transfer, but we want to use our own .rsync-filter files
3007to control what gets deleted on the receiving side. To do this we must
3008specifically exclude the per-directory merge files (so that they don't get
3009deleted) and then put rules into the local files to control what else
3010should not get deleted. Like one of these commands:
3011
faa82484
WD
3012verb( rsync -av --filter=':e /.rsync-filter' --delete \
3013 host:src/dir /dest
3014 rsync -avFF --delete host:src/dir /dest)
43bd68e5 3015
6902ed17
MP
3016manpagesection(BATCH MODE)
3017
088aac85
DD
3018Batch mode can be used to apply the same set of updates to many
3019identical systems. Suppose one has a tree which is replicated on a
3020number of hosts. Now suppose some changes have been made to this
3021source tree and those changes need to be propagated to the other
3022hosts. In order to do this using batch mode, rsync is run with the
3023write-batch option to apply the changes made to the source tree to one
3024of the destination trees. The write-batch option causes the rsync
b9f592fb
WD
3025client to store in a "batch file" all the information needed to repeat
3026this operation against other, identical destination trees.
3027
b9f592fb
WD
3028Generating the batch file once saves having to perform the file
3029status, checksum, and data block generation more than once when
088aac85 3030updating multiple destination trees. Multicast transport protocols can
b9f592fb
WD
3031be used to transfer the batch update files in parallel to many hosts
3032at once, instead of sending the same data to every host individually.
088aac85 3033
7f2591ea
WD
3034To apply the recorded changes to another destination tree, run rsync
3035with the read-batch option, specifying the name of the same batch
3036file, and the destination tree. Rsync updates the destination tree
3037using the information stored in the batch file.
3038
3039For your convenience, a script file is also created when the write-batch
3040option is used: it will be named the same as the batch file with ".sh"
3041appended. This script file contains a command-line suitable for updating a
3042destination tree using the associated batch file. It can be executed using
3043a Bourne (or Bourne-like) shell, optionally passing in an alternate
3044destination tree pathname which is then used instead of the original
3045destination path. This is useful when the destination tree path on the
3046current host differs from the one used to create the batch file.
3047
4602eafa 3048Examples:
088aac85 3049
faa82484
WD
3050quote(
3051tt($ rsync --write-batch=foo -a host:/source/dir/ /adest/dir/)nl()
3052tt($ scp foo* remote:)nl()
3053tt($ ssh remote ./foo.sh /bdest/dir/)nl()
4602eafa
WD
3054)
3055
faa82484
WD
3056quote(
3057tt($ rsync --write-batch=foo -a /source/dir/ /adest/dir/)nl()
3058tt($ ssh remote rsync --read-batch=- -a /bdest/dir/ <foo)nl()
4602eafa
WD
3059)
3060
98f51bfb
WD
3061In these examples, rsync is used to update /adest/dir/ from /source/dir/
3062and the information to repeat this operation is stored in "foo" and
3063"foo.sh". The host "remote" is then updated with the batched data going
3064into the directory /bdest/dir. The differences between the two examples
3065reveals some of the flexibility you have in how you deal with batches:
3066
b8a6dae0 3067itemization(
98f51bfb
WD
3068 it() The first example shows that the initial copy doesn't have to be
3069 local -- you can push or pull data to/from a remote host using either the
3070 remote-shell syntax or rsync daemon syntax, as desired.
98f51bfb
WD
3071 it() The first example uses the created "foo.sh" file to get the right
3072 rsync options when running the read-batch command on the remote host.
98f51bfb
WD
3073 it() The second example reads the batch data via standard input so that
3074 the batch file doesn't need to be copied to the remote machine first.
3075 This example avoids the foo.sh script because it needed to use a modified
faa82484 3076 bf(--read-batch) option, but you could edit the script file if you wished to
98f51bfb 3077 make use of it (just be sure that no other option is trying to use
faa82484 3078 standard input, such as the "bf(--exclude-from=-)" option).
98f51bfb 3079)
088aac85
DD
3080
3081Caveats:
3082
98f51bfb 3083The read-batch option expects the destination tree that it is updating
088aac85
DD
3084to be identical to the destination tree that was used to create the
3085batch update fileset. When a difference between the destination trees
0b941479 3086is encountered the update might be discarded with a warning (if the file
7432ccf4
WD
3087appears to be up-to-date already) or the file-update may be attempted
3088and then, if the file fails to verify, the update discarded with an
3089error. This means that it should be safe to re-run a read-batch operation
59d73bf3 3090if the command got interrupted. If you wish to force the batched-update to
faa82484 3091always be attempted regardless of the file's size and date, use the bf(-I)
59d73bf3
WD
3092option (when reading the batch).
3093If an error occurs, the destination tree will probably be in a
7432ccf4 3094partially updated state. In that case, rsync can
088aac85
DD
3095be used in its regular (non-batch) mode of operation to fix up the
3096destination tree.
3097
b9f592fb 3098The rsync version used on all destinations must be at least as new as the
59d73bf3
WD
3099one used to generate the batch file. Rsync will die with an error if the
3100protocol version in the batch file is too new for the batch-reading rsync
0b941479
WD
3101to handle. See also the bf(--protocol) option for a way to have the
3102creating rsync generate a batch file that an older rsync can understand.
3103(Note that batch files changed format in version 2.6.3, so mixing versions
3104older than that with newer versions will not work.)
088aac85 3105
7432ccf4
WD
3106When reading a batch file, rsync will force the value of certain options
3107to match the data in the batch file if you didn't set them to the same
3108as the batch-writing command. Other options can (and should) be changed.
bb5f4e72
WD
3109For instance bf(--write-batch) changes to bf(--read-batch),
3110bf(--files-from) is dropped, and the
3111bf(--filter)/bf(--include)/bf(--exclude) options are not needed unless
3112one of the bf(--delete) options is specified.
b9f592fb 3113
faa82484 3114The code that creates the BATCH.sh file transforms any filter/include/exclude
98f51bfb
WD
3115options into a single list that is appended as a "here" document to the
3116shell script file. An advanced user can use this to modify the exclude
faa82484 3117list if a change in what gets deleted by bf(--delete) is desired. A normal
98f51bfb 3118user can ignore this detail and just use the shell script as an easy way
faa82484 3119to run the appropriate bf(--read-batch) command for the batched data.
98f51bfb 3120
59d73bf3
WD
3121The original batch mode in rsync was based on "rsync+", but the latest
3122version uses a new implementation.
6902ed17 3123
eb06fa95
MP
3124manpagesection(SYMBOLIC LINKS)
3125
f28bd833 3126Three basic behaviors are possible when rsync encounters a symbolic
eb06fa95
MP
3127link in the source directory.
3128
3129By default, symbolic links are not transferred at all. A message
3130"skipping non-regular" file is emitted for any symlinks that exist.
3131
3132If bf(--links) is specified, then symlinks are recreated with the same
3133target on the destination. Note that bf(--archive) implies
3134bf(--links).
3135
3136If bf(--copy-links) is specified, then symlinks are "collapsed" by
3137copying their referent, rather than the symlink.
3138
6f098b0f
WD
3139Rsync can also distinguish "safe" and "unsafe" symbolic links. An
3140example where this might be used is a web site mirror that wishes to
3141ensure that the rsync module that is copied does not include symbolic links to
eb06fa95
MP
3142bf(/etc/passwd) in the public section of the site. Using
3143bf(--copy-unsafe-links) will cause any links to be copied as the file
3144they point to on the destination. Using bf(--safe-links) will cause
6efe9416
WD
3145unsafe links to be omitted altogether. (Note that you must specify
3146bf(--links) for bf(--safe-links) to have any effect.)
eb06fa95 3147
7bd0cf5b 3148Symbolic links are considered unsafe if they are absolute symlinks
4743f0f4 3149(start with bf(/)), empty, or if they contain enough ".."
7bd0cf5b
MP
3150components to ascend from the directory being copied.
3151
6efe9416
WD
3152Here's a summary of how the symlink options are interpreted. The list is
3153in order of precedence, so if your combination of options isn't mentioned,
3154use the first line that is a complete subset of your options:
3155
3156dit(bf(--copy-links)) Turn all symlinks into normal files (leaving no
3157symlinks for any other options to affect).
3158
3159dit(bf(--links --copy-unsafe-links)) Turn all unsafe symlinks into files
3160and duplicate all safe symlinks.
3161
3162dit(bf(--copy-unsafe-links)) Turn all unsafe symlinks into files, noisily
3163skip all safe symlinks.
3164
02184920 3165dit(bf(--links --safe-links)) Duplicate safe symlinks and skip unsafe
6efe9416
WD
3166ones.
3167
3168dit(bf(--links)) Duplicate all symlinks.
3169
faa82484 3170manpagediagnostics()
d310a212 3171
14d43f1f 3172rsync occasionally produces error messages that may seem a little
d310a212 3173cryptic. The one that seems to cause the most confusion is "protocol
faa82484 3174version mismatch -- is your shell clean?".
d310a212
AT
3175
3176This message is usually caused by your startup scripts or remote shell
3177facility producing unwanted garbage on the stream that rsync is using
14d43f1f 3178for its transport. The way to diagnose this problem is to run your
d310a212
AT
3179remote shell like this:
3180
faa82484
WD
3181quote(tt(ssh remotehost /bin/true > out.dat))
3182
d310a212 3183then look at out.dat. If everything is working correctly then out.dat
2cfeab21 3184should be a zero length file. If you are getting the above error from
d310a212
AT
3185rsync then you will probably find that out.dat contains some text or
3186data. Look at the contents and try to work out what is producing
14d43f1f 3187it. The most common cause is incorrectly configured shell startup
d310a212
AT
3188scripts (such as .cshrc or .profile) that contain output statements
3189for non-interactive logins.
3190
16e5de84 3191If you are having trouble debugging filter patterns, then
faa82484 3192try specifying the bf(-vv) option. At this level of verbosity rsync will
e6c64e79
MP
3193show why each individual file is included or excluded.
3194
55b64e4b
MP
3195manpagesection(EXIT VALUES)
3196
3197startdit()
a73de5f3 3198dit(bf(0)) Success
faa82484
WD
3199dit(bf(1)) Syntax or usage error
3200dit(bf(2)) Protocol incompatibility
a73de5f3
WD
3201dit(bf(3)) Errors selecting input/output files, dirs
3202dit(bf(4)) Requested action not supported: an attempt
8212336a 3203was made to manipulate 64-bit files on a platform that cannot support
f28bd833 3204them; or an option was specified that is supported by the client and
8212336a 3205not by the server.
a73de5f3 3206dit(bf(5)) Error starting client-server protocol
124f349e 3207dit(bf(6)) Daemon unable to append to log-file
faa82484
WD
3208dit(bf(10)) Error in socket I/O
3209dit(bf(11)) Error in file I/O
3210dit(bf(12)) Error in rsync protocol data stream
3211dit(bf(13)) Errors with program diagnostics
3212dit(bf(14)) Error in IPC code
3213dit(bf(20)) Received SIGUSR1 or SIGINT
49f4cfdf 3214dit(bf(21)) Some error returned by code(waitpid())
faa82484 3215dit(bf(22)) Error allocating core memory buffers
3c1e2ad9
WD
3216dit(bf(23)) Partial transfer due to error
3217dit(bf(24)) Partial transfer due to vanished source files
124f349e 3218dit(bf(25)) The --max-delete limit stopped deletions
faa82484 3219dit(bf(30)) Timeout in data send/receive
ba22c9e2 3220dit(bf(35)) Timeout waiting for daemon connection
55b64e4b
MP
3221enddit()
3222
de2fd20e
AT
3223manpagesection(ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES)
3224
3225startdit()
de2fd20e 3226dit(bf(CVSIGNORE)) The CVSIGNORE environment variable supplements any
faa82484 3227ignore patterns in .cvsignore files. See the bf(--cvs-exclude) option for
de2fd20e 3228more details.
332cf6df 3229dit(bf(RSYNC_ICONV)) Specify a default bf(--iconv) setting using this
2b2a4738
WD
3230environment variable. (First supported in 3.0.0.)
3231dit(bf(RSYNC_PROTECT_ARGS)) Specify a non-zero numeric value if you want the
3232bf(--protect-args) option to be enabled by default, or a zero value to make
3233sure that it is disabled by default. (First supported in 3.1.0.)
de2fd20e 3234dit(bf(RSYNC_RSH)) The RSYNC_RSH environment variable allows you to
ea7f8108 3235override the default shell used as the transport for rsync. Command line
faa82484 3236options are permitted after the command name, just as in the bf(-e) option.
4c3b4b25
AT
3237dit(bf(RSYNC_PROXY)) The RSYNC_PROXY environment variable allows you to
3238redirect your rsync client to use a web proxy when connecting to a
3239rsync daemon. You should set RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair.
de2fd20e 3240dit(bf(RSYNC_PASSWORD)) Setting RSYNC_PASSWORD to the required
bb18e755 3241password allows you to run authenticated rsync connections to an rsync
de2fd20e 3242daemon without user intervention. Note that this does not supply a
b2057d38
WD
3243password to a remote shell transport such as ssh; to learn how to do that,
3244consult the remote shell's documentation.
de2fd20e 3245dit(bf(USER) or bf(LOGNAME)) The USER or LOGNAME environment variables
5a727522 3246are used to determine the default username sent to an rsync daemon.
4b2f6a7c 3247If neither is set, the username defaults to "nobody".
14d43f1f 3248dit(bf(HOME)) The HOME environment variable is used to find the user's
de2fd20e 3249default .cvsignore file.
de2fd20e
AT
3250enddit()
3251
41059f75
AT
3252manpagefiles()
3253
30e8c8e1 3254/etc/rsyncd.conf or rsyncd.conf
41059f75
AT
3255
3256manpageseealso()
3257
49f4cfdf 3258bf(rsyncd.conf)(5)
41059f75 3259
41059f75
AT
3260manpagebugs()
3261
02184920 3262times are transferred as *nix time_t values
41059f75 3263
f28bd833