Applying the preallocate patch.
[rsync/rsync.git] / rsync.yo
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9e3c856a 1mailto(rsync-bugs@samba.org)
db8f3f73 2manpage(rsync)(1)(29 Jun 2008)()()
ddf8c2b0 3manpagename(rsync)(a fast, versatile, remote (and local) file-copying tool)
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4manpagesynopsis()
5
ddf8c2b0 6verb(Local: rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [DEST]
868676dc 7
8f61dfdb 8Access via remote shell:
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9 Pull: rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST:SRC... [DEST]
10 Push: rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST:DEST
41059f75 11
8f61dfdb 12Access via rsync daemon:
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13 Pull: rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST::SRC... [DEST]
14 rsync [OPTION...] rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC... [DEST]
15 Push: rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST::DEST
16 rsync [OPTION...] SRC... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/DEST)
41059f75 17
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18Usages with just one SRC arg and no DEST arg will list the source files
19instead of copying.
039faa86 20
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21manpagedescription()
22
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23Rsync is a fast and extraordinarily versatile file copying tool. It can
24copy locally, to/from another host over any remote shell, or to/from a
25remote rsync daemon. It offers a large number of options that control
26every aspect of its behavior and permit very flexible specification of the
27set of files to be copied. It is famous for its delta-transfer algorithm,
28which reduces the amount of data sent over the network by sending only the
29differences between the source files and the existing files in the
30destination. Rsync is widely used for backups and mirroring and as an
31improved copy command for everyday use.
32
33Rsync finds files that need to be transferred using a "quick check"
34algorithm (by default) that looks for files that have changed in size or
35in last-modified time. Any changes in the other preserved attributes (as
36requested by options) are made on the destination file directly when the
37quick check indicates that the file's data does not need to be updated.
1874f7e2 38
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39Some of the additional features of rsync are:
40
b8a6dae0 41itemization(
b9f592fb 42 it() support for copying links, devices, owners, groups, and permissions
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43 it() exclude and exclude-from options similar to GNU tar
44 it() a CVS exclude mode for ignoring the same files that CVS would ignore
43cd760f 45 it() can use any transparent remote shell, including ssh or rsh
d38772e0 46 it() does not require super-user privileges
41059f75 47 it() pipelining of file transfers to minimize latency costs
5a727522 48 it() support for anonymous or authenticated rsync daemons (ideal for
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49 mirroring)
50)
51
52manpagesection(GENERAL)
53
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54Rsync copies files either to or from a remote host, or locally on the
55current host (it does not support copying files between two remote hosts).
56
57There are two different ways for rsync to contact a remote system: using a
58remote-shell program as the transport (such as ssh or rsh) or contacting an
59rsync daemon directly via TCP. The remote-shell transport is used whenever
60the source or destination path contains a single colon (:) separator after
61a host specification. Contacting an rsync daemon directly happens when the
62source or destination path contains a double colon (::) separator after a
ba3542cf 63host specification, OR when an rsync:// URL is specified (see also the
754a080f 64"USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION" section for
ba3542cf 65an exception to this latter rule).
15997547 66
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67As a special case, if a single source arg is specified without a
68destination, the files are listed in an output format similar to "ls -l".
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69
70As expected, if neither the source or destination path specify a remote
71host, the copy occurs locally (see also the bf(--list-only) option).
72
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73Rsync refers to the local side as the "client" and the remote side as the
74"server". Don't confuse "server" with an rsync daemon -- a daemon is always a
75server, but a server can be either a daemon or a remote-shell spawned process.
76
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77manpagesection(SETUP)
78
79See the file README for installation instructions.
80
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81Once installed, you can use rsync to any machine that you can access via
82a remote shell (as well as some that you can access using the rsync
43cd760f 83daemon-mode protocol). For remote transfers, a modern rsync uses ssh
1bbf83c0 84for its communications, but it may have been configured to use a
43cd760f 85different remote shell by default, such as rsh or remsh.
41059f75 86
faa82484 87You can also specify any remote shell you like, either by using the bf(-e)
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88command line option, or by setting the RSYNC_RSH environment variable.
89
8e987130 90Note that rsync must be installed on both the source and destination
faa82484 91machines.
8e987130 92
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93manpagesection(USAGE)
94
95You use rsync in the same way you use rcp. You must specify a source
96and a destination, one of which may be remote.
97
4d888108 98Perhaps the best way to explain the syntax is with some examples:
41059f75 99
faa82484 100quote(tt(rsync -t *.c foo:src/))
41059f75 101
8a97fc2e 102This would transfer all files matching the pattern *.c from the
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103current directory to the directory src on the machine foo. If any of
104the files already exist on the remote system then the rsync
105remote-update protocol is used to update the file by sending only the
106differences. See the tech report for details.
107
faa82484 108quote(tt(rsync -avz foo:src/bar /data/tmp))
41059f75 109
8a97fc2e 110This would recursively transfer all files from the directory src/bar on the
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111machine foo into the /data/tmp/bar directory on the local machine. The
112files are transferred in "archive" mode, which ensures that symbolic
b5accaba 113links, devices, attributes, permissions, ownerships, etc. are preserved
14d43f1f 114in the transfer. Additionally, compression will be used to reduce the
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115size of data portions of the transfer.
116
faa82484 117quote(tt(rsync -avz foo:src/bar/ /data/tmp))
41059f75 118
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119A trailing slash on the source changes this behavior to avoid creating an
120additional directory level at the destination. You can think of a trailing
121/ on a source as meaning "copy the contents of this directory" as opposed
122to "copy the directory by name", but in both cases the attributes of the
123containing directory are transferred to the containing directory on the
124destination. In other words, each of the following commands copies the
125files in the same way, including their setting of the attributes of
126/dest/foo:
127
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128quote(
129tt(rsync -av /src/foo /dest)nl()
130tt(rsync -av /src/foo/ /dest/foo)nl()
131)
41059f75 132
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133Note also that host and module references don't require a trailing slash to
134copy the contents of the default directory. For example, both of these
135copy the remote directory's contents into "/dest":
136
137quote(
138tt(rsync -av host: /dest)nl()
139tt(rsync -av host::module /dest)nl()
140)
141
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142You can also use rsync in local-only mode, where both the source and
143destination don't have a ':' in the name. In this case it behaves like
144an improved copy command.
145
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146Finally, you can list all the (listable) modules available from a
147particular rsync daemon by leaving off the module name:
148
faa82484 149quote(tt(rsync somehost.mydomain.com::))
14d43f1f 150
bb9bdba4 151See the following section for more details.
14d43f1f 152
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153manpagesection(ADVANCED USAGE)
154
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155The syntax for requesting multiple files from a remote host is done by
156specifying additional remote-host args in the same style as the first,
157or with the hostname omitted. For instance, all these work:
675ef1aa 158
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159quote(tt(rsync -av host:file1 :file2 host:file{3,4} /dest/)nl()
160tt(rsync -av host::modname/file{1,2} host::modname/file3 /dest/)nl()
161tt(rsync -av host::modname/file1 ::modname/file{3,4}))
675ef1aa 162
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163Older versions of rsync required using quoted spaces in the SRC, like these
164examples:
675ef1aa 165
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166quote(tt(rsync -av host:'dir1/file1 dir2/file2' /dest)nl()
167tt(rsync host::'modname/dir1/file1 modname/dir2/file2' /dest))
675ef1aa 168
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169This word-splitting still works (by default) in the latest rsync, but is
170not as easy to use as the first method.
675ef1aa 171
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172If you need to transfer a filename that contains whitespace, you can either
173specify the bf(--protect-args) (bf(-s)) option, or you'll need to escape
174the whitespace in a way that the remote shell will understand. For
175instance:
675ef1aa 176
f92e15ef 177quote(tt(rsync -av host:'file\ name\ with\ spaces' /dest))
675ef1aa 178
5a727522 179manpagesection(CONNECTING TO AN RSYNC DAEMON)
41059f75 180
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181It is also possible to use rsync without a remote shell as the transport.
182In this case you will directly connect to a remote rsync daemon, typically
183using TCP port 873. (This obviously requires the daemon to be running on
184the remote system, so refer to the STARTING AN RSYNC DAEMON TO ACCEPT
185CONNECTIONS section below for information on that.)
4c3b4b25 186
1bbf83c0 187Using rsync in this way is the same as using it with a remote shell except
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188that:
189
b8a6dae0 190itemization(
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191 it() you either use a double colon :: instead of a single colon to
192 separate the hostname from the path, or you use an rsync:// URL.
2c64b258 193 it() the first word of the "path" is actually a module name.
5a727522 194 it() the remote daemon may print a message of the day when you
14d43f1f 195 connect.
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196 it() if you specify no path name on the remote daemon then the
197 list of accessible paths on the daemon will be shown.
f7632fc6 198 it() if you specify no local destination then a listing of the
5a727522 199 specified files on the remote daemon is provided.
2c64b258 200 it() you must not specify the bf(--rsh) (bf(-e)) option.
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201)
202
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203An example that copies all the files in a remote module named "src":
204
205verb( rsync -av host::src /dest)
206
207Some modules on the remote daemon may require authentication. If so,
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208you will receive a password prompt when you connect. You can avoid the
209password prompt by setting the environment variable RSYNC_PASSWORD to
faa82484 210the password you want to use or using the bf(--password-file) option. This
65575e96 211may be useful when scripting rsync.
4c3d16be 212
3bc67f0c 213WARNING: On some systems environment variables are visible to all
faa82484 214users. On those systems using bf(--password-file) is recommended.
3bc67f0c 215
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216You may establish the connection via a web proxy by setting the
217environment variable RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair pointing to
218your web proxy. Note that your web proxy's configuration must support
219proxy connections to port 873.
bef49340 220
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221You may also establish a daemon connection using a program as a proxy by
222setting the environment variable RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG to the commands you
223wish to run in place of making a direct socket connection. The string may
224contain the escape "%H" to represent the hostname specified in the rsync
225command (so use "%%" if you need a single "%" in your string). For
226example:
227
228verb( export RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG='ssh proxyhost nc %H 873'
229 rsync -av targethost1::module/src/ /dest/
230 rsync -av rsync:://targethost2/module/src/ /dest/ )
231
84e1a34e 232The command specified above uses ssh to run nc (netcat) on a proxyhost,
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233which forwards all data to port 873 (the rsync daemon) on the targethost
234(%H).
235
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236manpagesection(USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION)
237
238It is sometimes useful to use various features of an rsync daemon (such as
239named modules) without actually allowing any new socket connections into a
240system (other than what is already required to allow remote-shell access).
241Rsync supports connecting to a host using a remote shell and then spawning
242a single-use "daemon" server that expects to read its config file in the
243home dir of the remote user. This can be useful if you want to encrypt a
244daemon-style transfer's data, but since the daemon is started up fresh by
245the remote user, you may not be able to use features such as chroot or
246change the uid used by the daemon. (For another way to encrypt a daemon
247transfer, consider using ssh to tunnel a local port to a remote machine and
248configure a normal rsync daemon on that remote host to only allow
249connections from "localhost".)
250
251From the user's perspective, a daemon transfer via a remote-shell
252connection uses nearly the same command-line syntax as a normal
253rsync-daemon transfer, with the only exception being that you must
254explicitly set the remote shell program on the command-line with the
255bf(--rsh=COMMAND) option. (Setting the RSYNC_RSH in the environment
256will not turn on this functionality.) For example:
257
258verb( rsync -av --rsh=ssh host::module /dest)
259
260If you need to specify a different remote-shell user, keep in mind that the
261user@ prefix in front of the host is specifying the rsync-user value (for a
262module that requires user-based authentication). This means that you must
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263give the '-l user' option to ssh when specifying the remote-shell, as in
264this example that uses the short version of the bf(--rsh) option:
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265
266verb( rsync -av -e "ssh -l ssh-user" rsync-user@host::module /dest)
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267
268The "ssh-user" will be used at the ssh level; the "rsync-user" will be
754a080f 269used to log-in to the "module".
bef49340 270
754a080f 271manpagesection(STARTING AN RSYNC DAEMON TO ACCEPT CONNECTIONS)
bef49340 272
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273In order to connect to an rsync daemon, the remote system needs to have a
274daemon already running (or it needs to have configured something like inetd
275to spawn an rsync daemon for incoming connections on a particular port).
276For full information on how to start a daemon that will handling incoming
49f4cfdf 277socket connections, see the bf(rsyncd.conf)(5) man page -- that is the config
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278file for the daemon, and it contains the full details for how to run the
279daemon (including stand-alone and inetd configurations).
bef49340 280
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281If you're using one of the remote-shell transports for the transfer, there is
282no need to manually start an rsync daemon.
bef49340 283
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284manpagesection(EXAMPLES)
285
286Here are some examples of how I use rsync.
287
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288To backup my wife's home directory, which consists of large MS Word
289files and mail folders, I use a cron job that runs
41059f75 290
faa82484 291quote(tt(rsync -Cavz . arvidsjaur:backup))
41059f75 292
f39281ae 293each night over a PPP connection to a duplicate directory on my machine
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294"arvidsjaur".
295
296To synchronize my samba source trees I use the following Makefile
297targets:
298
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299verb( get:
300 rsync -avuzb --exclude '*~' samba:samba/ .
301 put:
302 rsync -Cavuzb . samba:samba/
303 sync: get put)
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304
305this allows me to sync with a CVS directory at the other end of the
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306connection. I then do CVS operations on the remote machine, which saves a
307lot of time as the remote CVS protocol isn't very efficient.
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308
309I mirror a directory between my "old" and "new" ftp sites with the
faa82484 310command:
41059f75 311
faa82484 312tt(rsync -az -e ssh --delete ~ftp/pub/samba nimbus:"~ftp/pub/tridge")
41059f75 313
faa82484 314This is launched from cron every few hours.
41059f75 315
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316manpagesection(OPTIONS SUMMARY)
317
14d43f1f 318Here is a short summary of the options available in rsync. Please refer
faa82484 319to the detailed description below for a complete description. verb(
c95da96a 320 -v, --verbose increase verbosity
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321 --info=FLAGS fine-grained informational verbosity
322 --debug=FLAGS fine-grained debug verbosity
44d98d61 323 -q, --quiet suppress non-error messages
1de02c27 324 --no-motd suppress daemon-mode MOTD (see caveat)
44d98d61 325 -c, --checksum skip based on checksum, not mod-time & size
16edf865 326 -a, --archive archive mode; equals -rlptgoD (no -H,-A,-X)
f40aa6fb 327 --no-OPTION turn off an implied OPTION (e.g. --no-D)
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328 -r, --recursive recurse into directories
329 -R, --relative use relative path names
f40aa6fb 330 --no-implied-dirs don't send implied dirs with --relative
915dd207 331 -b, --backup make backups (see --suffix & --backup-dir)
44d98d61 332 --backup-dir=DIR make backups into hierarchy based in DIR
915dd207 333 --suffix=SUFFIX backup suffix (default ~ w/o --backup-dir)
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334 -u, --update skip files that are newer on the receiver
335 --inplace update destination files in-place
94f20a9f 336 --append append data onto shorter files
84e1a34e 337 --append-verify --append w/old data in file checksum
09ed3099 338 -d, --dirs transfer directories without recursing
eb06fa95 339 -l, --links copy symlinks as symlinks
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340 -L, --copy-links transform symlink into referent file/dir
341 --copy-unsafe-links only "unsafe" symlinks are transformed
342 --safe-links ignore symlinks that point outside the tree
41adbcec 343 --munge-links munge symlinks to make them safer
f2ebbebe 344 -k, --copy-dirlinks transform symlink to dir into referent dir
09ed3099 345 -K, --keep-dirlinks treat symlinked dir on receiver as dir
f2ebbebe 346 -H, --hard-links preserve hard links
c95da96a 347 -p, --perms preserve permissions
2d5279ac 348 -E, --executability preserve executability
dfe1ed5e 349 --chmod=CHMOD affect file and/or directory permissions
1c3344a1 350 -A, --acls preserve ACLs (implies -p)
eb7e7b24 351 -X, --xattrs preserve extended attributes
d38772e0 352 -o, --owner preserve owner (super-user only)
c95da96a 353 -g, --group preserve group
d38772e0 354 --devices preserve device files (super-user only)
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355 --specials preserve special files
356 -D same as --devices --specials
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357 -t, --times preserve modification times
358 -O, --omit-dir-times omit directories from --times
2624e005 359 -J, --omit-link-times omit symlinks from --times
d38772e0 360 --super receiver attempts super-user activities
9439c0cb 361 --fake-super store/recover privileged attrs using xattrs
c95da96a 362 -S, --sparse handle sparse files efficiently
28b519c9 363 --preallocate allocate dest files before writing
d100e733 364 -n, --dry-run perform a trial run with no changes made
f7a2ac07 365 -W, --whole-file copy files whole (w/o delta-xfer algorithm)
c95da96a 366 -x, --one-file-system don't cross filesystem boundaries
3ed8eb3f 367 -B, --block-size=SIZE force a fixed checksum block-size
44d98d61 368 -e, --rsh=COMMAND specify the remote shell to use
68e169ab 369 --rsync-path=PROGRAM specify the rsync to run on remote machine
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370 --existing skip creating new files on receiver
371 --ignore-existing skip updating files that exist on receiver
47c11975 372 --remove-source-files sender removes synchronized files (non-dir)
ae76a740 373 --del an alias for --delete-during
8517e9c1 374 --delete delete extraneous files from dest dirs
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375 --delete-before receiver deletes before xfer, not during
376 --delete-during receiver deletes during transfer (default)
fd0a130c 377 --delete-delay find deletions during, delete after
ae76a740 378 --delete-after receiver deletes after transfer, not before
8517e9c1 379 --delete-excluded also delete excluded files from dest dirs
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380 --ignore-missing-args ignore missing source args without error
381 --delete-missing-args delete missing source args from destination
b5accaba 382 --ignore-errors delete even if there are I/O errors
866925bf 383 --force force deletion of dirs even if not empty
0b73ca12 384 --max-delete=NUM don't delete more than NUM files
3610c458 385 --max-size=SIZE don't transfer any file larger than SIZE
59dd6786 386 --min-size=SIZE don't transfer any file smaller than SIZE
c95da96a 387 --partial keep partially transferred files
44cad59f 388 --partial-dir=DIR put a partially transferred file into DIR
44d98d61 389 --delay-updates put all updated files into place at end
a272ff8c 390 -m, --prune-empty-dirs prune empty directory chains from file-list
c95da96a 391 --numeric-ids don't map uid/gid values by user/group name
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392 --usermap=STRING custom username mapping
393 --groupmap=STRING custom groupname mapping
394 --chown=USER:GROUP simple username/groupname mapping
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395 --timeout=SECONDS set I/O timeout in seconds
396 --contimeout=SECONDS set daemon connection timeout in seconds
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397 -I, --ignore-times don't skip files that match size and time
398 --size-only skip files that match in size
399 --modify-window=NUM compare mod-times with reduced accuracy
abce74bb 400 -T, --temp-dir=DIR create temporary files in directory DIR
5b483755 401 -y, --fuzzy find similar file for basis if no dest file
915dd207 402 --compare-dest=DIR also compare received files relative to DIR
2f03ce67 403 --copy-dest=DIR ... and include copies of unchanged files
b127c1dc 404 --link-dest=DIR hardlink to files in DIR when unchanged
32a5edf4 405 -z, --compress compress file data during the transfer
bad01106 406 --compress-level=NUM explicitly set compression level
2b967218 407 --skip-compress=LIST skip compressing files with suffix in LIST
44d98d61 408 -C, --cvs-exclude auto-ignore files in the same way CVS does
16e5de84 409 -f, --filter=RULE add a file-filtering RULE
8a6f3fea 410 -F same as --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'
16e5de84 411 repeated: --filter='- .rsync-filter'
2acf81eb 412 --exclude=PATTERN exclude files matching PATTERN
44d98d61 413 --exclude-from=FILE read exclude patterns from FILE
2acf81eb 414 --include=PATTERN don't exclude files matching PATTERN
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415 --include-from=FILE read include patterns from FILE
416 --files-from=FILE read list of source-file names from FILE
fa92818a 417 -0, --from0 all *from/filter files are delimited by 0s
82f37486 418 -s, --protect-args no space-splitting; wildcard chars only
3ae5367f 419 --address=ADDRESS bind address for outgoing socket to daemon
c259892c 420 --port=PORT specify double-colon alternate port number
04f48837 421 --sockopts=OPTIONS specify custom TCP options
b5accaba 422 --blocking-io use blocking I/O for the remote shell
44d98d61 423 --stats give some file-transfer stats
a6a27602 424 -8, --8-bit-output leave high-bit chars unescaped in output
955c3145 425 -h, --human-readable output numbers in a human-readable format
eb86d661 426 --progress show progress during transfer
44d98d61 427 -P same as --partial --progress
b78296cb 428 -i, --itemize-changes output a change-summary for all updates
7a2eca41 429 -M, --remote-option=OPTION send OPTION to the remote side only
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430 --out-format=FORMAT output updates using the specified FORMAT
431 --log-file=FILE log what we're doing to the specified FILE
432 --log-file-format=FMT log updates using the specified FMT
09a54c39 433 --password-file=FILE read daemon-access password from FILE
09ed3099 434 --list-only list the files instead of copying them
ce795fcd 435 --bwlimit=RATE limit socket I/O bandwidth
faa82484 436 --write-batch=FILE write a batched update to FILE
326bb56e 437 --only-write-batch=FILE like --write-batch but w/o updating dest
44d98d61 438 --read-batch=FILE read a batched update from FILE
0b941479 439 --protocol=NUM force an older protocol version to be used
84e1a34e 440 --iconv=CONVERT_SPEC request charset conversion of filenames
44d98d61 441 --checksum-seed=NUM set block/file checksum seed (advanced)
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442 -4, --ipv4 prefer IPv4
443 -6, --ipv6 prefer IPv6
81c453b1 444 --version print version number
b8a6dae0 445(-h) --help show this help (see below for -h comment))
6902ed17 446
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447Rsync can also be run as a daemon, in which case the following options are
448accepted: verb(
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449 --daemon run as an rsync daemon
450 --address=ADDRESS bind to the specified address
ce795fcd 451 --bwlimit=RATE limit socket I/O bandwidth
bdf278f7 452 --config=FILE specify alternate rsyncd.conf file
2206abf8 453 -M, --dparam=OVERRIDE override global daemon config parameter
bdf278f7 454 --no-detach do not detach from the parent
c259892c 455 --port=PORT listen on alternate port number
a2ed5801 456 --log-file=FILE override the "log file" setting
4b90820d 457 --log-file-format=FMT override the "log format" setting
04f48837 458 --sockopts=OPTIONS specify custom TCP options
24b0922b 459 -v, --verbose increase verbosity
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460 -4, --ipv4 prefer IPv4
461 -6, --ipv6 prefer IPv6
b8a6dae0 462 -h, --help show this help (if used after --daemon))
c95da96a 463
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464manpageoptions()
465
466rsync uses the GNU long options package. Many of the command line
467options have two variants, one short and one long. These are shown
14d43f1f 468below, separated by commas. Some options only have a long variant.
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469The '=' for options that take a parameter is optional; whitespace
470can be used instead.
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471
472startdit()
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473dit(bf(--help)) Print a short help page describing the options
474available in rsync and exit. For backward-compatibility with older
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475versions of rsync, the help will also be output if you use the bf(-h)
476option without any other args.
41059f75 477
bdf278f7 478dit(bf(--version)) print the rsync version number and exit.
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479
480dit(bf(-v, --verbose)) This option increases the amount of information you
14d43f1f 481are given during the transfer. By default, rsync works silently. A
faa82484 482single bf(-v) will give you information about what files are being
951e826b 483transferred and a brief summary at the end. Two bf(-v) options will give you
41059f75 484information on what files are being skipped and slightly more
951e826b 485information at the end. More than two bf(-v) options should only be used if
14d43f1f 486you are debugging rsync.
41059f75 487
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488In a modern rsync, the bf(-v) option is equivalent to the setting of groups
489of bf(--info) and bf(--debug) options. You can choose to use these newer
490options in addition to, or in place of using bf(--verbose), as any
491fine-grained settings override the implied settings of bf(-v). Both
492bf(--info) and bf(--debug) have a way to ask for help that tells you
493exactly what flags are set for each increase in verbosity.
494
495dit(bf(--info=FLAGS))
496This option lets you have fine-grained control over the
497information
498output you want to see. An individual flag name may be followed by a level
499number, with 0 meaning to silence that output, 1 being the default output
500level, and higher numbers increasing the output of that flag (for those
501that support higher levels). Use
502bf(--info=help)
503to see all the available flag names, what they output, and what flag names
504are added for each increase in the verbose level. Some examples:
505
506verb( rsync -a --info=progress2 src/ dest/
507 rsync -avv --info=stats2,misc1,flist0 src/ dest/ )
508
509Note that bf(--info=name)'s output is affected by the bf(--out-format) and
510bf(--itemize-changes) (bf(-i)) options. See those options for more
511information on what is output and when.
512
513This option was added to 3.1.0, so an older rsync on the server side might
514reject your attempts at fine-grained control (if one or more flags needed
515to be send to the server and the server was too old to understand them).
516
517dit(bf(--debug=FLAGS))
518This option lets you have fine-grained control over the
519debug
520output you want to see. An individual flag name may be followed by a level
521number, with 0 meaning to silence that output, 1 being the default output
522level, and higher numbers increasing the output of that flag (for those
523that support higher levels). Use
524bf(--debug=help)
525to see all the available flag names, what they output, and what flag names
526are added for each increase in the verbose level. Some examples:
527
528verb( rsync -avvv --debug=none src/ dest/
529 rsync -avA --del --debug=del2,acl src/ dest/ )
530
531This option was added to 3.1.0, so an older rsync on the server side might
532reject your attempts at fine-grained control (if one or more flags needed
533to be send to the server and the server was too old to understand them).
4f90eb43 534
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535dit(bf(-q, --quiet)) This option decreases the amount of information you
536are given during the transfer, notably suppressing information messages
951e826b 537from the remote server. This option name is useful when invoking rsync from
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538cron.
539
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540dit(bf(--no-motd)) This option affects the information that is output
541by the client at the start of a daemon transfer. This suppresses the
542message-of-the-day (MOTD) text, but it also affects the list of modules
543that the daemon sends in response to the "rsync host::" request (due to
544a limitation in the rsync protocol), so omit this option if you want to
c5b6e57a 545request the list of modules from the daemon.
1de02c27 546
41059f75 547dit(bf(-I, --ignore-times)) Normally rsync will skip any files that are
1874f7e2 548already the same size and have the same modification timestamp.
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549This option turns off this "quick check" behavior, causing all files to
550be updated.
41059f75 551
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552dit(bf(--size-only)) This modifies rsync's "quick check" algorithm for
553finding files that need to be transferred, changing it from the default of
554transferring files with either a changed size or a changed last-modified
d15f2ff0 555time to just looking for files that have changed in size. This is useful
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556when starting to use rsync after using another mirroring system which may
557not preserve timestamps exactly.
f83f0548 558
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559dit(bf(--modify-window)) When comparing two timestamps, rsync treats the
560timestamps as being equal if they differ by no more than the modify-window
561value. This is normally 0 (for an exact match), but you may find it useful
562to set this to a larger value in some situations. In particular, when
563transferring to or from an MS Windows FAT filesystem (which represents
564times with a 2-second resolution), bf(--modify-window=1) is useful
565(allowing times to differ by up to 1 second).
5b56cc19 566
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567dit(bf(-c, --checksum)) This changes the way rsync checks if the files have
568been changed and are in need of a transfer. Without this option, rsync
569uses a "quick check" that (by default) checks if each file's size and time
570of last modification match between the sender and receiver. This option
e129500c 571changes this to compare a 128-bit checksum for each file that has a
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572matching size. Generating the checksums means that both sides will expend
573a lot of disk I/O reading all the data in the files in the transfer (and
574this is prior to any reading that will be done to transfer changed files),
575so this can slow things down significantly.
576
577The sending side generates its checksums while it is doing the file-system
578scan that builds the list of the available files. The receiver generates
579its checksums when it is scanning for changed files, and will checksum any
580file that has the same size as the corresponding sender's file: files with
581either a changed size or a changed checksum are selected for transfer.
582
583Note that rsync always verifies that each em(transferred) file was
584correctly reconstructed on the receiving side by checking a whole-file
f96bac84 585checksum that is generated as the file is transferred, but that
c64ff141 586automatic after-the-transfer verification has nothing to do with this
2a24b4bd 587option's before-the-transfer "Does this file need to be updated?" check.
41059f75 588
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589For protocol 30 and beyond (first supported in 3.0.0), the checksum used is
590MD5. For older protocols, the checksum used is MD4.
591
faa82484 592dit(bf(-a, --archive)) This is equivalent to bf(-rlptgoD). It is a quick
e7bf3e5e 593way of saying you want recursion and want to preserve almost
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594everything (with -H being a notable omission).
595The only exception to the above equivalence is when bf(--files-from) is
5dd97ab9 596specified, in which case bf(-r) is not implied.
e7bf3e5e 597
faa82484 598Note that bf(-a) bf(does not preserve hardlinks), because
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599finding multiply-linked files is expensive. You must separately
600specify bf(-H).
41059f75 601
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602dit(--no-OPTION) You may turn off one or more implied options by prefixing
603the option name with "no-". Not all options may be prefixed with a "no-":
604only options that are implied by other options (e.g. bf(--no-D),
605bf(--no-perms)) or have different defaults in various circumstances
606(e.g. bf(--no-whole-file), bf(--no-blocking-io), bf(--no-dirs)). You may
607specify either the short or the long option name after the "no-" prefix
608(e.g. bf(--no-R) is the same as bf(--no-relative)).
609
610For example: if you want to use bf(-a) (bf(--archive)) but don't want
611bf(-o) (bf(--owner)), instead of converting bf(-a) into bf(-rlptgD), you
612could specify bf(-a --no-o) (or bf(-a --no-owner)).
613
614The order of the options is important: if you specify bf(--no-r -a), the
615bf(-r) option would end up being turned on, the opposite of bf(-a --no-r).
616Note also that the side-effects of the bf(--files-from) option are NOT
a9af5d8e 617positional, as it affects the default state of several options and slightly
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WD
618changes the meaning of bf(-a) (see the bf(--files-from) option for more
619details).
620
24986abd 621dit(bf(-r, --recursive)) This tells rsync to copy directories
faa82484 622recursively. See also bf(--dirs) (bf(-d)).
41059f75 623
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624Beginning with rsync 3.0.0, the recursive algorithm used is now an
625incremental scan that uses much less memory than before and begins the
626transfer after the scanning of the first few directories have been
627completed. This incremental scan only affects our recursion algorithm, and
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628does not change a non-recursive transfer. It is also only possible when
629both ends of the transfer are at least version 3.0.0.
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630
631Some options require rsync to know the full file list, so these options
1e05b590 632disable the incremental recursion mode. These include: bf(--delete-before),
ba2d43d7 633bf(--delete-after), bf(--prune-empty-dirs), and bf(--delay-updates).
d9f46544 634Because of this, the default delete mode when you specify bf(--delete) is now
1e05b590
WD
635bf(--delete-during) when both ends of the connection are at least 3.0.0
636(use bf(--del) or bf(--delete-during) to request this improved deletion mode
d9f46544
WD
637explicitly). See also the bf(--delete-delay) option that is a better choice
638than using bf(--delete-after).
639
ba2d43d7 640Incremental recursion can be disabled using the bf(--no-inc-recursive)
27999aba 641option or its shorter bf(--no-i-r) alias.
ba2d43d7 642
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AT
643dit(bf(-R, --relative)) Use relative paths. This means that the full path
644names specified on the command line are sent to the server rather than
645just the last parts of the filenames. This is particularly useful when
14d43f1f 646you want to send several different directories at the same time. For
1dc42d12 647example, if you used this command:
41059f75 648
1dc42d12 649quote(tt( rsync -av /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/))
41059f75 650
58718881 651... this would create a file named baz.c in /tmp/ on the remote
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AT
652machine. If instead you used
653
1dc42d12 654quote(tt( rsync -avR /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/))
41059f75 655
58718881 656then a file named /tmp/foo/bar/baz.c would be created on the remote
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WD
657machine, preserving its full path. These extra path elements are called
658"implied directories" (i.e. the "foo" and the "foo/bar" directories in the
659above example).
660
661Beginning with rsync 3.0.0, rsync always sends these implied directories as
662real directories in the file list, even if a path element is really a
663symlink on the sending side. This prevents some really unexpected
664behaviors when copying the full path of a file that you didn't realize had
665a symlink in its path. If you want to duplicate a server-side symlink,
666include both the symlink via its path, and referent directory via its real
667path. If you're dealing with an older rsync on the sending side, you may
668need to use the bf(--no-implied-dirs) option.
669
670It is also possible to limit the amount of path information that is sent as
671implied directories for each path you specify. With a modern rsync on the
672sending side (beginning with 2.6.7), you can insert a dot and a slash into
673the source path, like this:
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WD
674
675quote(tt( rsync -avR /foo/./bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/))
676
677That would create /tmp/bar/baz.c on the remote machine. (Note that the
f2ebbebe 678dot must be followed by a slash, so "/foo/." would not be abbreviated.)
6f098b0f 679For older rsync versions, you would need to use a chdir to limit the
1dc42d12
WD
680source path. For example, when pushing files:
681
53cf0b8b 682quote(tt( (cd /foo; rsync -avR bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/) ))
1dc42d12 683
53cf0b8b
WD
684(Note that the parens put the two commands into a sub-shell, so that the
685"cd" command doesn't remain in effect for future commands.)
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WD
686If you're pulling files from an older rsync, use this idiom (but only
687for a non-daemon transfer):
9bef934c 688
faa82484 689quote(
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WD
690tt( rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /foo; rsync" \ )nl()
691tt( remote:bar/baz.c /tmp/)
faa82484 692)
9bef934c 693
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WD
694dit(bf(--no-implied-dirs)) This option affects the default behavior of the
695bf(--relative) option. When it is specified, the attributes of the implied
696directories from the source names are not included in the transfer. This
697means that the corresponding path elements on the destination system are
698left unchanged if they exist, and any missing implied directories are
699created with default attributes. This even allows these implied path
700elements to have big differences, such as being a symlink to a directory on
0758b2db 701the receiving side.
f2ebbebe
WD
702
703For instance, if a command-line arg or a files-from entry told rsync to
704transfer the file "path/foo/file", the directories "path" and "path/foo"
705are implied when bf(--relative) is used. If "path/foo" is a symlink to
706"bar" on the destination system, the receiving rsync would ordinarily
707delete "path/foo", recreate it as a directory, and receive the file into
708the new directory. With bf(--no-implied-dirs), the receiving rsync updates
709"path/foo/file" using the existing path elements, which means that the file
710ends up being created in "path/bar". Another way to accomplish this link
711preservation is to use the bf(--keep-dirlinks) option (which will also
712affect symlinks to directories in the rest of the transfer).
713
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WD
714When pulling files from an rsync older than 3.0.0, you may need to use this
715option if the sending side has a symlink in the path you request and you
716wish the implied directories to be transferred as normal directories.
41059f75 717
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WD
718dit(bf(-b, --backup)) With this option, preexisting destination files are
719renamed as each file is transferred or deleted. You can control where the
720backup file goes and what (if any) suffix gets appended using the
faa82484 721bf(--backup-dir) and bf(--suffix) options.
4c72f27d
WD
722
723Note that if you don't specify bf(--backup-dir), (1) the
724bf(--omit-dir-times) option will be implied, and (2) if bf(--delete) is
2d5279ac 725also in effect (without bf(--delete-excluded)), rsync will add a "protect"
4c72f27d 726filter-rule for the backup suffix to the end of all your existing excludes
89cb4721 727(e.g. bf(-f "P *~")). This will prevent previously backed-up files from being
4c72f27d
WD
728deleted. Note that if you are supplying your own filter rules, you may
729need to manually insert your own exclude/protect rule somewhere higher up
730in the list so that it has a high enough priority to be effective (e.g., if
731your rules specify a trailing inclusion/exclusion of '*', the auto-added
732rule would never be reached).
41059f75 733
faa82484 734dit(bf(--backup-dir=DIR)) In combination with the bf(--backup) option, this
ad75d18d
WD
735tells rsync to store all backups in the specified directory on the receiving
736side. This can be used for incremental backups. You can additionally
faa82484 737specify a backup suffix using the bf(--suffix) option
759ac870
DD
738(otherwise the files backed up in the specified directory
739will keep their original filenames).
66203a98 740
cf0f454b
WD
741Note that if you specify a relative path, the backup directory will be
742relative to the destination directory, so you probably want to specify
743either an absolute path or a path that starts with "../". If an rsync
744daemon is the receiver, the backup dir cannot go outside the module's path
745hierarchy, so take extra care not to delete it or copy into it.
746
b5679335 747dit(bf(--suffix=SUFFIX)) This option allows you to override the default
faa82484
WD
748backup suffix used with the bf(--backup) (bf(-b)) option. The default suffix is a ~
749if no -bf(-backup-dir) was specified, otherwise it is an empty string.
9ef53907 750
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WD
751dit(bf(-u, --update)) This forces rsync to skip any files which exist on
752the destination and have a modified time that is newer than the source
42b06481 753file. (If an existing destination file has a modification time equal to the
4539c0d7 754source file's, it will be updated if the sizes are different.)
41059f75 755
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WD
756Note that this does not affect the copying of symlinks or other special
757files. Also, a difference of file format between the sender and receiver
758is always considered to be important enough for an update, no matter what
759date is on the objects. In other words, if the source has a directory
760where the destination has a file, the transfer would occur regardless of
761the timestamps.
adddd075 762
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WD
763This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't affect the
764data that goes into the file-lists, and thus it doesn't affect deletions.
765It just limits the files that the receiver requests to be transferred.
766
6f098b0f
WD
767dit(bf(--inplace)) This option changes how rsync transfers a file when
768its data needs to be updated: instead of the default method of creating
adc4ebdd
WD
769a new copy of the file and moving it into place when it is complete, rsync
770instead writes the updated data directly to the destination file.
771
58a79f4b
MM
772This has several effects:
773
774quote(itemization(
775 it() Hard links are not broken. This means the new data will be visible
776 through other hard links to the destination file. Moreover, attempts to
777 copy differing source files onto a multiply-linked destination file will
778 result in a "tug of war" with the destination data changing back and forth.
779 it() In-use binaries cannot be updated (either the OS will prevent this from
780 happening, or binaries that attempt to swap-in their data will misbehave or
781 crash).
782 it() The file's data will be in an inconsistent state during the transfer
783 and will be left that way if the transfer is interrupted or if an update
784 fails.
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WD
785 it() A file that rsync cannot write to cannot be updated. While a super user
786 can update any file, a normal user needs to be granted write permission for
787 the open of the file for writing to be successful.
58a79f4b
MM
788 it() The efficiency of rsync's delta-transfer algorithm may be reduced if
789 some data in the destination file is overwritten before it can be copied to
790 a position later in the file. This does not apply if you use bf(--backup),
791 since rsync is smart enough to use the backup file as the basis file for the
792 transfer.
793))
adc4ebdd
WD
794
795WARNING: you should not use this option to update files that are being
796accessed by others, so be careful when choosing to use this for a copy.
a3221d2a 797
6f098b0f 798This option is useful for transferring large files with block-based changes
183150b7 799or appended data, and also on systems that are disk bound, not network
e630fd11
WD
800bound. It can also help keep a copy-on-write filesystem snapshot from
801diverging the entire contents of a file that only has minor changes.
183150b7 802
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WD
803The option implies bf(--partial) (since an interrupted transfer does not delete
804the file), but conflicts with bf(--partial-dir) and bf(--delay-updates).
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WD
805Prior to rsync 2.6.4 bf(--inplace) was also incompatible with bf(--compare-dest)
806and bf(--link-dest).
a3221d2a 807
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WD
808dit(bf(--append)) This causes rsync to update a file by appending data onto
809the end of the file, which presumes that the data that already exists on
810the receiving side is identical with the start of the file on the sending
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WD
811side. If a file needs to be transferred and its size on the receiver is
812the same or longer than the size on the sender, the file is skipped. This
813does not interfere with the updating of a file's non-content attributes
814(e.g. permissions, ownership, etc.) when the file does not need to be
815transferred, nor does it affect the updating of any non-regular files.
816Implies bf(--inplace),
07bbf870
WD
817but does not conflict with bf(--sparse) (since it is always extending a
818file's length).
819
820dit(bf(--append-verify)) This works just like the bf(--append) option, but
821the existing data on the receiving side is included in the full-file
822checksum verification step, which will cause a file to be resent if the
823final verification step fails (rsync uses a normal, non-appending
824bf(--inplace) transfer for the resend).
825
826Note: prior to rsync 3.0.0, the bf(--append) option worked like
827bf(--append-verify), so if you are interacting with an older rsync (or the
828transfer is using a protocol prior to 30), specifying either append option
829will initiate an bf(--append-verify) transfer.
94f20a9f 830
09ed3099 831dit(bf(-d, --dirs)) Tell the sending side to include any directories that
faa82484 832are encountered. Unlike bf(--recursive), a directory's contents are not copied
57b66a24
WD
833unless the directory name specified is "." or ends with a trailing slash
834(e.g. ".", "dir/.", "dir/", etc.). Without this option or the
faa82484 835bf(--recursive) option, rsync will skip all directories it encounters (and
f40aa6fb 836output a message to that effect for each one). If you specify both
6e6cc163 837bf(--dirs) and bf(--recursive), bf(--recursive) takes precedence.
09ed3099 838
73cb6738
WD
839The bf(--dirs) option is implied by the bf(--files-from) option
840or the bf(--list-only) option (including an implied
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WD
841bf(--list-only) usage) if bf(--recursive) wasn't specified (so that
842directories are seen in the listing). Specify bf(--no-dirs) (or bf(--no-d))
73cb6738
WD
843if you want to turn this off.
844
845There is also a backward-compatibility helper option, bf(--old-dirs) (or
846bf(--old-d)) that tells rsync to use a hack of "-r --exclude='/*/*'" to get
847an older rsync to list a single directory without recursing.
32b9011a 848
eb06fa95
MP
849dit(bf(-l, --links)) When symlinks are encountered, recreate the
850symlink on the destination.
41059f75 851
f2ebbebe 852dit(bf(-L, --copy-links)) When symlinks are encountered, the item that
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WD
853they point to (the referent) is copied, rather than the symlink. In older
854versions of rsync, this option also had the side-effect of telling the
855receiving side to follow symlinks, such as symlinks to directories. In a
faa82484 856modern rsync such as this one, you'll need to specify bf(--keep-dirlinks) (bf(-K))
ef855d19 857to get this extra behavior. The only exception is when sending files to
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WD
858an rsync that is too old to understand bf(-K) -- in that case, the bf(-L) option
859will still have the side-effect of bf(-K) on that older receiving rsync.
b5313607 860
eb06fa95 861dit(bf(--copy-unsafe-links)) This tells rsync to copy the referent of
7af4227a 862symbolic links that point outside the copied tree. Absolute symlinks
eb06fa95 863are also treated like ordinary files, and so are any symlinks in the
f2ebbebe
WD
864source path itself when bf(--relative) is used. This option has no
865additional effect if bf(--copy-links) was also specified.
41059f75 866
d310a212 867dit(bf(--safe-links)) This tells rsync to ignore any symbolic links
7af4227a 868which point outside the copied tree. All absolute symlinks are
faa82484
WD
869also ignored. Using this option in conjunction with bf(--relative) may
870give unexpected results.
d310a212 871
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WD
872dit(bf(--munge-links)) This option tells rsync to (1) modify all symlinks on
873the receiving side in a way that makes them unusable but recoverable (see
874below), or (2) to unmunge symlinks on the sending side that had been stored in
875a munged state. This is useful if you don't quite trust the source of the data
876to not try to slip in a symlink to a unexpected place.
877
878The way rsync disables the use of symlinks is to prefix each one with the
879string "/rsyncd-munged/". This prevents the links from being used as long as
880that directory does not exist. When this option is enabled, rsync will refuse
881to run if that path is a directory or a symlink to a directory.
882
883The option only affects the client side of the transfer, so if you need it to
884affect the server, specify it via bf(--remote-option). (Note that in a local
885transfer, the client side is the sender.)
886
887This option has no affect on a daemon, since the daemon configures whether it
888wants munged symlinks via its "munge symlinks" parameter. See also the
889"munge-symlinks" perl script in the support directory of the source code.
890
1a515b49 891dit(bf(-k, --copy-dirlinks)) This option causes the sending side to treat
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892a symlink to a directory as though it were a real directory. This is
893useful if you don't want symlinks to non-directories to be affected, as
894they would be using bf(--copy-links).
41059f75 895
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896Without this option, if the sending side has replaced a directory with a
897symlink to a directory, the receiving side will delete anything that is in
898the way of the new symlink, including a directory hierarchy (as long as
899bf(--force) or bf(--delete) is in effect).
41059f75 900
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WD
901See also bf(--keep-dirlinks) for an analogous option for the receiving
902side.
41059f75 903
ae03e0e0
MM
904bf(--copy-dirlinks) applies to all symlinks to directories in the source. If
905you want to follow only a few specified symlinks, a trick you can use is to
906pass them as additional source args with a trailing slash, using bf(--relative)
907to make the paths match up right. For example:
908
909quote(tt(rsync -r --relative src/./ src/./follow-me/ dest/))
910
911This works because rsync calls bf(lstat)(2) on the source arg as given, and the
912trailing slash makes bf(lstat)(2) follow the symlink, giving rise to a directory
913in the file-list which overrides the symlink found during the scan of "src/./".
914
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915dit(bf(-K, --keep-dirlinks)) This option causes the receiving side to treat
916a symlink to a directory as though it were a real directory, but only if it
917matches a real directory from the sender. Without this option, the
918receiver's symlink would be deleted and replaced with a real directory.
09ed3099 919
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920For example, suppose you transfer a directory "foo" that contains a file
921"file", but "foo" is a symlink to directory "bar" on the receiver. Without
922bf(--keep-dirlinks), the receiver deletes symlink "foo", recreates it as a
923directory, and receives the file into the new directory. With
924bf(--keep-dirlinks), the receiver keeps the symlink and "file" ends up in
925"bar".
926
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927One note of caution: if you use bf(--keep-dirlinks), you must trust all
928the symlinks in the copy! If it is possible for an untrusted user to
929create their own symlink to any directory, the user could then (on a
930subsequent copy) replace the symlink with a real directory and affect the
931content of whatever directory the symlink references. For backup copies,
932you are better off using something like a bind mount instead of a symlink
933to modify your receiving hierarchy.
934
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WD
935See also bf(--copy-dirlinks) for an analogous option for the sending side.
936
937dit(bf(-H, --hard-links)) This tells rsync to look for hard-linked files in
58a79f4b
MM
938the source and link together the corresponding files on the destination.
939Without this option, hard-linked files in the source are treated
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940as though they were separate files.
941
58a79f4b
MM
942This option does NOT necessarily ensure that the pattern of hard links on the
943destination exactly matches that on the source. Cases in which the
944destination may end up with extra hard links include the following:
945
946quote(itemization(
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947 it() If the destination contains extraneous hard-links (more linking than
948 what is present in the source file list), the copying algorithm will not
3bd9f519
WD
949 break them explicitly. However, if one or more of the paths have content
950 differences, the normal file-update process will break those extra links
951 (unless you are using the bf(--inplace) option).
58a79f4b 952 it() If you specify a bf(--link-dest) directory that contains hard links,
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953 the linking of the destination files against the bf(--link-dest) files can
954 cause some paths in the destination to become linked together due to the
955 bf(--link-dest) associations.
58a79f4b 956))
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WD
957
958Note that rsync can only detect hard links between files that are inside
959the transfer set. If rsync updates a file that has extra hard-link
960connections to files outside the transfer, that linkage will be broken. If
961you are tempted to use the bf(--inplace) option to avoid this breakage, be
962very careful that you know how your files are being updated so that you are
963certain that no unintended changes happen due to lingering hard links (and
964see the bf(--inplace) option for more caveats).
41059f75 965
ba2d43d7 966If incremental recursion is active (see bf(--recursive)), rsync may transfer
5f0f2e08 967a missing hard-linked file before it finds that another link for that contents
968061bb 968exists elsewhere in the hierarchy. This does not affect the accuracy of
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969the transfer (i.e. which files are hard-linked together), just its efficiency
970(i.e. copying the data for a new, early copy of a hard-linked file that could
971have been found later in the transfer in another member of the hard-linked
972set of files). One way to avoid this inefficiency is to disable
27999aba 973incremental recursion using the bf(--no-inc-recursive) option.
ba2d43d7 974
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975dit(bf(-p, --perms)) This option causes the receiving rsync to set the
976destination permissions to be the same as the source permissions. (See
977also the bf(--chmod) option for a way to modify what rsync considers to
978be the source permissions.)
8dc74608 979
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WD
980When this option is em(off), permissions are set as follows:
981
b8a6dae0 982quote(itemization(
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WD
983 it() Existing files (including updated files) retain their existing
984 permissions, though the bf(--executability) option might change just
985 the execute permission for the file.
77ed253c 986 it() New files get their "normal" permission bits set to the source
1c3344a1
WD
987 file's permissions masked with the receiving directory's default
988 permissions (either the receiving process's umask, or the permissions
989 specified via the destination directory's default ACL), and
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WD
990 their special permission bits disabled except in the case where a new
991 directory inherits a setgid bit from its parent directory.
2d5279ac 992))
77ed253c 993
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WD
994Thus, when bf(--perms) and bf(--executability) are both disabled,
995rsync's behavior is the same as that of other file-copy utilities,
996such as bf(cp)(1) and bf(tar)(1).
997
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WD
998In summary: to give destination files (both old and new) the source
999permissions, use bf(--perms). To give new files the destination-default
1f77038e 1000permissions (while leaving existing files unchanged), make sure that the
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WD
1001bf(--perms) option is off and use bf(--chmod=ugo=rwX) (which ensures that
1002all non-masked bits get enabled). If you'd care to make this latter
1003behavior easier to type, you could define a popt alias for it, such as
58b7b3d6 1004putting this line in the file ~/.popt (the following defines the bf(-Z) option,
662127e6 1005and includes --no-g to use the default group of the destination dir):
77ed253c 1006
58b7b3d6 1007quote(tt( rsync alias -Z --no-p --no-g --chmod=ugo=rwX))
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WD
1008
1009You could then use this new option in a command such as this one:
1010
58b7b3d6 1011quote(tt( rsync -avZ src/ dest/))
77ed253c 1012
58b7b3d6
WD
1013(Caveat: make sure that bf(-a) does not follow bf(-Z), or it will re-enable
1014the two "--no-*" options mentioned above.)
662127e6 1015
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WD
1016The preservation of the destination's setgid bit on newly-created
1017directories when bf(--perms) is off was added in rsync 2.6.7. Older rsync
1018versions erroneously preserved the three special permission bits for
1019newly-created files when bf(--perms) was off, while overriding the
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WD
1020destination's setgid bit setting on a newly-created directory. Default ACL
1021observance was added to the ACL patch for rsync 2.6.7, so older (or
1022non-ACL-enabled) rsyncs use the umask even if default ACLs are present.
1023(Keep in mind that it is the version of the receiving rsync that affects
1024these behaviors.)
77ed253c 1025
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WD
1026dit(bf(-E, --executability)) This option causes rsync to preserve the
1027executability (or non-executability) of regular files when bf(--perms) is
1028not enabled. A regular file is considered to be executable if at least one
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WD
1029'x' is turned on in its permissions. When an existing destination file's
1030executability differs from that of the corresponding source file, rsync
1031modifies the destination file's permissions as follows:
2d5279ac 1032
b8a6dae0 1033quote(itemization(
2d5279ac
WD
1034 it() To make a file non-executable, rsync turns off all its 'x'
1035 permissions.
1036 it() To make a file executable, rsync turns on each 'x' permission that
1037 has a corresponding 'r' permission enabled.
1038))
1039
1040If bf(--perms) is enabled, this option is ignored.
41059f75 1041
1c3344a1 1042dit(bf(-A, --acls)) This option causes rsync to update the destination
0f6b4909
WD
1043ACLs to be the same as the source ACLs.
1044The option also implies bf(--perms).
1045
1046The source and destination systems must have compatible ACL entries for this
1047option to work properly. See the bf(--fake-super) option for a way to backup
1048and restore ACLs that are not compatible.
1c3344a1 1049
5deb19e4
MM
1050dit(bf(-X, --xattrs)) This option causes rsync to update the destination
1051extended attributes to be the same as the source ones.
0f6b4909
WD
1052
1053For systems that support extended-attribute namespaces, a copy being done by a
1054super-user copies all namespaces except system.*. A normal user only copies
1055the user.* namespace. To be able to backup and restore non-user namespaces as
1056a normal user, see the bf(--fake-super) option.
16edf865 1057
0d78a278
WD
1058Note that this option does not copy rsyncs special xattr values (e.g. those
1059used by bf(--fake-super)) unless you repeat the option (e.g. -XX). This
1060"copy all xattrs" mode cannot be used with bf(--fake-super).
1061
9f822556 1062dit(bf(--chmod)) This option tells rsync to apply one or more
aef2b8ce 1063comma-separated "chmod" modes to the permission of the files in the
6f098b0f 1064transfer. The resulting value is treated as though it were the permissions
9f822556
WD
1065that the sending side supplied for the file, which means that this option
1066can seem to have no effect on existing files if bf(--perms) is not enabled.
1067
1068In addition to the normal parsing rules specified in the bf(chmod)(1)
1069manpage, you can specify an item that should only apply to a directory by
1070prefixing it with a 'D', or specify an item that should only apply to a
aef2b8ce
WD
1071file by prefixing it with a 'F'. For example, the following will ensure
1072that all directories get marked set-gid, that no files are other-writable,
1073that both are user-writable and group-writable, and that both have
1074consistent executability across all bits:
9f822556
WD
1075
1076quote(--chmod=Dg+s,ug+w,Fo-w,+X)
1077
aef2b8ce
WD
1078Using octal mode numbers is also allowed:
1079
1080quote(--chmod=D2775,F664)
1081
9f822556
WD
1082It is also legal to specify multiple bf(--chmod) options, as each
1083additional option is just appended to the list of changes to make.
1084
1085See the bf(--perms) and bf(--executability) options for how the resulting
1086permission value can be applied to the files in the transfer.
1087
eb06fa95 1088dit(bf(-o, --owner)) This option causes rsync to set the owner of the
8641d287
WD
1089destination file to be the same as the source file, but only if the
1090receiving rsync is being run as the super-user (see also the bf(--super)
9439c0cb 1091and bf(--fake-super) options).
0f6b4909
WD
1092Without this option, the owner of new and/or transferred files are set to
1093the invoking user on the receiving side.
8641d287
WD
1094
1095The preservation of ownership will associate matching names by default, but
1096may fall back to using the ID number in some circumstances (see also the
1097bf(--numeric-ids) option for a full discussion).
41059f75 1098
eb06fa95
MP
1099dit(bf(-g, --group)) This option causes rsync to set the group of the
1100destination file to be the same as the source file. If the receiving
8641d287
WD
1101program is not running as the super-user (or if bf(--no-super) was
1102specified), only groups that the invoking user on the receiving side
1103is a member of will be preserved.
1104Without this option, the group is set to the default group of the invoking
1105user on the receiving side.
1106
1107The preservation of group information will associate matching names by
1108default, but may fall back to using the ID number in some circumstances
1109(see also the bf(--numeric-ids) option for a full discussion).
41059f75 1110
4e7d07c8 1111dit(bf(--devices)) This option causes rsync to transfer character and
d38772e0
WD
1112block device files to the remote system to recreate these devices.
1113This option has no effect if the receiving rsync is not run as the
9439c0cb 1114super-user (see also the bf(--super) and bf(--fake-super) options).
41059f75 1115
4e7d07c8
WD
1116dit(bf(--specials)) This option causes rsync to transfer special files
1117such as named sockets and fifos.
1118
1119dit(bf(-D)) The bf(-D) option is equivalent to bf(--devices) bf(--specials).
1120
41059f75 1121dit(bf(-t, --times)) This tells rsync to transfer modification times along
baf3e504
DD
1122with the files and update them on the remote system. Note that if this
1123option is not used, the optimization that excludes files that have not been
faa82484
WD
1124modified cannot be effective; in other words, a missing bf(-t) or bf(-a) will
1125cause the next transfer to behave as if it used bf(-I), causing all files to be
adc4ebdd 1126updated (though rsync's delta-transfer algorithm will make the update fairly efficient
faa82484 1127if the files haven't actually changed, you're much better off using bf(-t)).
41059f75 1128
54e66f1d 1129dit(bf(-O, --omit-dir-times)) This tells rsync to omit directories when
faa82484
WD
1130it is preserving modification times (see bf(--times)). If NFS is sharing
1131the directories on the receiving side, it is a good idea to use bf(-O).
fbe5eeb8 1132This option is inferred if you use bf(--backup) without bf(--backup-dir).
54e66f1d 1133
2624e005
WD
1134dit(bf(-J, --omit-link-times)) This tells rsync to omit symlinks when
1135it is preserving modification times (see bf(--times)).
1136
d38772e0
WD
1137dit(bf(--super)) This tells the receiving side to attempt super-user
1138activities even if the receiving rsync wasn't run by the super-user. These
1139activities include: preserving users via the bf(--owner) option, preserving
1140all groups (not just the current user's groups) via the bf(--groups)
1141option, and copying devices via the bf(--devices) option. This is useful
1142for systems that allow such activities without being the super-user, and
1143also for ensuring that you will get errors if the receiving side isn't
0cdb547f 1144being run as the super-user. To turn off super-user activities, the
d38772e0
WD
1145super-user can use bf(--no-super).
1146
9439c0cb 1147dit(bf(--fake-super)) When this option is enabled, rsync simulates
0f6b4909
WD
1148super-user activities by saving/restoring the privileged attributes via
1149special extended attributes that are attached to each file (as needed). This
9439c0cb
WD
1150includes the file's owner and group (if it is not the default), the file's
1151device info (device & special files are created as empty text files), and
1152any permission bits that we won't allow to be set on the real file (e.g.
1153the real file gets u-s,g-s,o-t for safety) or that would limit the owner's
809724d7
WD
1154access (since the real super-user can always access/change a file, the
1155files we create can always be accessed/changed by the creating user).
0f6b4909
WD
1156This option also handles ACLs (if bf(--acls) was specified) and non-user
1157extended attributes (if bf(--xattrs) was specified).
1158
84e1a34e 1159This is a good way to backup data without using a super-user, and to store
0f6b4909 1160ACLs from incompatible systems.
9439c0cb
WD
1161
1162The bf(--fake-super) option only affects the side where the option is used.
7a2eca41
WD
1163To affect the remote side of a remote-shell connection, use the
1164bf(--remote-option) (bf(-M)) option:
9439c0cb 1165
7a2eca41 1166quote(tt( rsync -av -M--fake-super /src/ host:/dest/))
9439c0cb 1167
7a2eca41
WD
1168For a local copy, this option affects both the source and the destination.
1169If you wish a local copy to enable this option just for the destination
1170files, specify bf(-M--fake-super). If you wish a local copy to enable
1171this option just for the source files, combine bf(--fake-super) with
1172bf(-M--super).
9439c0cb
WD
1173
1174This option is overridden by both bf(--super) and bf(--no-super).
1175
1176See also the "fake super" setting in the daemon's rsyncd.conf file.
1177
41059f75 1178dit(bf(-S, --sparse)) Try to handle sparse files efficiently so they take
a8cbb57c
WD
1179up less space on the destination. Conflicts with bf(--inplace) because it's
1180not possible to overwrite data in a sparse fashion.
41059f75 1181
28b519c9
WD
1182dit(bf(--preallocate)) This tells the receiver to allocate each destination
1183file to its eventual size before writing data to the file. Rsync will only use
1184the real filesystem-level preallocation support provided by Linux's
1185bf(fallocate)(2) system call or Cygwin's bf(posix_fallocate)(3), not the slow
1186glibc implementation that writes a zero byte into each block.
1187
1188Without this option, larger files may not be entirely contiguous on the
1189filesystem, but with this option rsync will probably copy more slowly. If the
1190destination is not an extent-supporting filesystem (such as ext4, xfs, NTFS,
1191etc.), this option may have no positive effect at all.
1192
d100e733
WD
1193dit(bf(-n, --dry-run)) This makes rsync perform a trial run that doesn't
1194make any changes (and produces mostly the same output as a real run). It
1195is most commonly used in combination with the bf(-v, --verbose) and/or
1196bf(-i, --itemize-changes) options to see what an rsync command is going
1197to do before one actually runs it.
1198
1199The output of bf(--itemize-changes) is supposed to be exactly the same on a
1200dry run and a subsequent real run (barring intentional trickery and system
6f098b0f
WD
1201call failures); if it isn't, that's a bug. Other output should be mostly
1202unchanged, but may differ in some areas. Notably, a dry run does not
d100e733
WD
1203send the actual data for file transfers, so bf(--progress) has no effect,
1204the "bytes sent", "bytes received", "literal data", and "matched data"
1205statistics are too small, and the "speedup" value is equivalent to a run
6f098b0f 1206where no file transfers were needed.
f2ebbebe 1207
adc4ebdd 1208dit(bf(-W, --whole-file)) With this option rsync's delta-transfer algorithm
f2ebbebe
WD
1209is not used and the whole file is sent as-is instead. The transfer may be
1210faster if this option is used when the bandwidth between the source and
1211destination machines is higher than the bandwidth to disk (especially when the
1212"disk" is actually a networked filesystem). This is the default when both
63070274
WD
1213the source and destination are specified as local paths, but only if no
1214batch-writing option is in effect.
f2ebbebe 1215
4e5baafe
WD
1216dit(bf(-x, --one-file-system)) This tells rsync to avoid crossing a
1217filesystem boundary when recursing. This does not limit the user's ability
1218to specify items to copy from multiple filesystems, just rsync's recursion
1219through the hierarchy of each directory that the user specified, and also
1220the analogous recursion on the receiving side during deletion. Also keep
1221in mind that rsync treats a "bind" mount to the same device as being on the
77ed253c 1222same filesystem.
4e5baafe
WD
1223
1224If this option is repeated, rsync omits all mount-point directories from
1225the copy. Otherwise, it includes an empty directory at each mount-point it
1226encounters (using the attributes of the mounted directory because those of
1227the underlying mount-point directory are inaccessible).
1228
1229If rsync has been told to collapse symlinks (via bf(--copy-links) or
1230bf(--copy-unsafe-links)), a symlink to a directory on another device is
49140b27
WD
1231treated like a mount-point. Symlinks to non-directories are unaffected
1232by this option.
6d8c6bdb 1233
9639c718 1234dit(bf(--existing, --ignore-non-existing)) This tells rsync to skip
58a06312
WD
1235creating files (including directories) that do not exist
1236yet on the destination. If this option is
9639c718 1237combined with the bf(--ignore-existing) option, no files will be updated
8e3b627d 1238(which can be useful if all you want to do is delete extraneous files).
9639c718 1239
fd2b6046
WD
1240This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't affect the
1241data that goes into the file-lists, and thus it doesn't affect deletions.
1242It just limits the files that the receiver requests to be transferred.
1243
58a06312
WD
1244dit(bf(--ignore-existing)) This tells rsync to skip updating files that
1245already exist on the destination (this does em(not) ignore existing
c5b6e57a 1246directories, or nothing would get done). See also bf(--existing).
1347d512 1247
fd2b6046
WD
1248This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't affect the
1249data that goes into the file-lists, and thus it doesn't affect deletions.
1250It just limits the files that the receiver requests to be transferred.
1251
8e3b627d
WD
1252This option can be useful for those doing backups using the bf(--link-dest)
1253option when they need to continue a backup run that got interrupted. Since
1254a bf(--link-dest) run is copied into a new directory hierarchy (when it is
1255used properly), using bf(--ignore existing) will ensure that the
1256already-handled files don't get tweaked (which avoids a change in
1257permissions on the hard-linked files). This does mean that this option
1258is only looking at the existing files in the destination hierarchy itself.
1259
47c11975 1260dit(bf(--remove-source-files)) This tells rsync to remove from the sending
fb41a3c6
WD
1261side the files (meaning non-directories) that are a part of the transfer
1262and have been successfully duplicated on the receiving side.
96110304 1263
2c0fa6c5 1264dit(bf(--delete)) This tells rsync to delete extraneous files from the
e8b155a3
WD
1265receiving side (ones that aren't on the sending side), but only for the
1266directories that are being synchronized. You must have asked rsync to
1267send the whole directory (e.g. "dir" or "dir/") without using a wildcard
1268for the directory's contents (e.g. "dir/*") since the wildcard is expanded
ae76a740 1269by the shell and rsync thus gets a request to transfer individual files, not
d252e47d 1270the files' parent directory. Files that are excluded from the transfer are
0dfffb88
WD
1271also excluded from being deleted unless you use the bf(--delete-excluded)
1272option or mark the rules as only matching on the sending side (see the
1273include/exclude modifiers in the FILTER RULES section).
41059f75 1274
505ada14 1275Prior to rsync 2.6.7, this option would have no effect unless bf(--recursive)
d9f46544
WD
1276was enabled. Beginning with 2.6.7, deletions will also occur when bf(--dirs)
1277(bf(-d)) is enabled, but only for directories whose contents are being copied.
24986abd 1278
32b9011a
WD
1279This option can be dangerous if used incorrectly! It is a very good idea to
1280first try a run using the bf(--dry-run) option (bf(-n)) to see what files are
1281going to be deleted.
41059f75 1282
e8b155a3 1283If the sending side detects any I/O errors, then the deletion of any
3e578a19
AT
1284files at the destination will be automatically disabled. This is to
1285prevent temporary filesystem failures (such as NFS errors) on the
6f098b0f 1286sending side from causing a massive deletion of files on the
faa82484 1287destination. You can override this with the bf(--ignore-errors) option.
41059f75 1288
faa82484
WD
1289The bf(--delete) option may be combined with one of the --delete-WHEN options
1290without conflict, as well as bf(--delete-excluded). However, if none of the
d9f46544 1291--delete-WHEN options are specified, rsync will choose the
d252e47d 1292bf(--delete-during) algorithm when talking to rsync 3.0.0 or newer, and
d9f46544
WD
1293the bf(--delete-before) algorithm when talking to an older rsync. See also
1294bf(--delete-delay) and bf(--delete-after).
2c0fa6c5
WD
1295
1296dit(bf(--delete-before)) Request that the file-deletions on the receiving
d9f46544 1297side be done before the transfer starts.
faa82484 1298See bf(--delete) (which is implied) for more details on file-deletion.
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1299
1300Deleting before the transfer is helpful if the filesystem is tight for space
aaca3daa 1301and removing extraneous files would help to make the transfer possible.
ae76a740 1302However, it does introduce a delay before the start of the transfer,
faa82484 1303and this delay might cause the transfer to timeout (if bf(--timeout) was
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1304specified). It also forces rsync to use the old, non-incremental recursion
1305algorithm that requires rsync to scan all the files in the transfer into
1306memory at once (see bf(--recursive)).
ae76a740 1307
2c0fa6c5 1308dit(bf(--delete-during, --del)) Request that the file-deletions on the
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1309receiving side be done incrementally as the transfer happens. The
1310per-directory delete scan is done right before each directory is checked
1311for updates, so it behaves like a more efficient bf(--delete-before),
1312including doing the deletions prior to any per-directory filter files
1313being updated. This option was first added in rsync version 2.6.4.
faa82484 1314See bf(--delete) (which is implied) for more details on file-deletion.
aaca3daa 1315
fd0a130c 1316dit(bf(--delete-delay)) Request that the file-deletions on the receiving
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1317side be computed during the transfer (like bf(--delete-during)), and then
1318removed after the transfer completes. This is useful when combined with
1319bf(--delay-updates) and/or bf(--fuzzy), and is more efficient than using
1320bf(--delete-after) (but can behave differently, since bf(--delete-after)
1321computes the deletions in a separate pass after all updates are done).
1322If the number of removed files overflows an internal buffer, a
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1323temporary file will be created on the receiving side to hold the names (it
1324is removed while open, so you shouldn't see it during the transfer). If
1325the creation of the temporary file fails, rsync will try to fall back to
1326using bf(--delete-after) (which it cannot do if bf(--recursive) is doing an
1327incremental scan).
d252e47d 1328See bf(--delete) (which is implied) for more details on file-deletion.
fd0a130c 1329
2c0fa6c5 1330dit(bf(--delete-after)) Request that the file-deletions on the receiving
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1331side be done after the transfer has completed. This is useful if you
1332are sending new per-directory merge files as a part of the transfer and
1333you want their exclusions to take effect for the delete phase of the
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1334current transfer. It also forces rsync to use the old, non-incremental
1335recursion algorithm that requires rsync to scan all the files in the
1336transfer into memory at once (see bf(--recursive)).
faa82484 1337See bf(--delete) (which is implied) for more details on file-deletion.
e8b155a3 1338
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1339dit(bf(--delete-excluded)) In addition to deleting the files on the
1340receiving side that are not on the sending side, this tells rsync to also
faa82484 1341delete any files on the receiving side that are excluded (see bf(--exclude)).
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WD
1342See the FILTER RULES section for a way to make individual exclusions behave
1343this way on the receiver, and for a way to protect files from
1344bf(--delete-excluded).
faa82484 1345See bf(--delete) (which is implied) for more details on file-deletion.
866925bf 1346
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1347dit(bf(--ignore-missing-args)) When rsync is first processing the explicitly
1348requested source files (e.g. command-line arguments or bf(--files-from)
1349entries), it is normally an error if the file cannot be found. This option
1350suppresses that error, and does not try to transfer the file. This does not
1351affect subsequent vanished-file errors if a file was initially found to be
1352present and later is no longer there.
1353
1354dit(bf(--delete-missing-args)) This option takes the behavior of (the implied)
1355bf(--ignore-missing-args) option a step farther: each missing arg will become
1356a deletion request of the corresponding destination file on the receiving side
1357(should it exist). If the destination file is a non-empty directory, it will
1358only be successfully deleted if --force or --delete are in effect. Other than
1359that, this option is independent of any other type of delete processing.
1360
1361The missing source files are represented by special file-list entries which
1362display as a "*missing" entry in the bf(--list-only) output.
ce66f417 1363
faa82484 1364dit(bf(--ignore-errors)) Tells bf(--delete) to go ahead and delete files
b5accaba 1365even when there are I/O errors.
2c5548d2 1366
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1367dit(bf(--force)) This option tells rsync to delete a non-empty directory
1368when it is to be replaced by a non-directory. This is only relevant if
1369deletions are not active (see bf(--delete) for details).
1370
1371Note for older rsync versions: bf(--force) used to still be required when
1372using bf(--delete-after), and it used to be non-functional unless the
1373bf(--recursive) option was also enabled.
41059f75 1374
e2124620 1375dit(bf(--max-delete=NUM)) This tells rsync not to delete more than NUM
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1376files or directories. If that limit is exceeded, a warning is output
1377and rsync exits with an error code of 25 (new for 3.0.0).
1378
1379Also new for version 3.0.0, you may specify bf(--max-delete=0) to be warned
1380about any extraneous files in the destination without removing any of them.
1381Older clients interpreted this as "unlimited", so if you don't know what
1382version the client is, you can use the less obvious bf(--max-delete=-1) as
1383a backward-compatible way to specify that no deletions be allowed (though
1384older versions didn't warn when the limit was exceeded).
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1385
1386dit(bf(--max-size=SIZE)) This tells rsync to avoid transferring any
1387file that is larger than the specified SIZE. The SIZE value can be
926d86d1 1388suffixed with a string to indicate a size multiplier, and
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1389may be a fractional value (e.g. "bf(--max-size=1.5m)").
1390
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1391This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't affect the
1392data that goes into the file-lists, and thus it doesn't affect deletions.
1393It just limits the files that the receiver requests to be transferred.
1394
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1395The suffixes are as follows: "K" (or "KiB") is a kibibyte (1024),
1396"M" (or "MiB") is a mebibyte (1024*1024), and "G" (or "GiB") is a
1397gibibyte (1024*1024*1024).
1398If you want the multiplier to be 1000 instead of 1024, use "KB",
1399"MB", or "GB". (Note: lower-case is also accepted for all values.)
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WD
1400Finally, if the suffix ends in either "+1" or "-1", the value will
1401be offset by one byte in the indicated direction.
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1402
1403Examples: --max-size=1.5mb-1 is 1499999 bytes, and --max-size=2g+1 is
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14042147483649 bytes.
1405
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1406dit(bf(--min-size=SIZE)) This tells rsync to avoid transferring any
1407file that is smaller than the specified SIZE, which can help in not
1408transferring small, junk files.
fd2b6046 1409See the bf(--max-size) option for a description of SIZE and other information.
59dd6786 1410
3ed8eb3f 1411dit(bf(-B, --block-size=BLOCKSIZE)) This forces the block size used in
adc4ebdd 1412rsync's delta-transfer algorithm to a fixed value. It is normally selected based on
3ed8eb3f 1413the size of each file being updated. See the technical report for details.
41059f75 1414
b5679335 1415dit(bf(-e, --rsh=COMMAND)) This option allows you to choose an alternative
41059f75 1416remote shell program to use for communication between the local and
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1417remote copies of rsync. Typically, rsync is configured to use ssh by
1418default, but you may prefer to use rsh on a local network.
41059f75 1419
bef49340 1420If this option is used with bf([user@]host::module/path), then the
5a727522 1421remote shell em(COMMAND) will be used to run an rsync daemon on the
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1422remote host, and all data will be transmitted through that remote
1423shell connection, rather than through a direct socket connection to a
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1424running rsync daemon on the remote host. See the section "USING
1425RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION" above.
bef49340 1426
ea7f8108 1427Command-line arguments are permitted in COMMAND provided that COMMAND is
5d9530fe
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1428presented to rsync as a single argument. You must use spaces (not tabs
1429or other whitespace) to separate the command and args from each other,
1430and you can use single- and/or double-quotes to preserve spaces in an
1431argument (but not backslashes). Note that doubling a single-quote
1432inside a single-quoted string gives you a single-quote; likewise for
1433double-quotes (though you need to pay attention to which quotes your
1434shell is parsing and which quotes rsync is parsing). Some examples:
98393ae2 1435
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1436quote(
1437tt( -e 'ssh -p 2234')nl()
1438tt( -e 'ssh -o "ProxyCommand nohup ssh firewall nc -w1 %h %p"')nl()
1439)
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WD
1440
1441(Note that ssh users can alternately customize site-specific connect
1442options in their .ssh/config file.)
1443
41059f75 1444You can also choose the remote shell program using the RSYNC_RSH
faa82484 1445environment variable, which accepts the same range of values as bf(-e).
41059f75 1446
faa82484 1447See also the bf(--blocking-io) option which is affected by this option.
735a816e 1448
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1449dit(bf(--rsync-path=PROGRAM)) Use this to specify what program is to be run
1450on the remote machine to start-up rsync. Often used when rsync is not in
1451the default remote-shell's path (e.g. --rsync-path=/usr/local/bin/rsync).
1452Note that PROGRAM is run with the help of a shell, so it can be any
1453program, script, or command sequence you'd care to run, so long as it does
1454not corrupt the standard-in & standard-out that rsync is using to
1455communicate.
1456
1457One tricky example is to set a different default directory on the remote
1458machine for use with the bf(--relative) option. For instance:
1459
c5b6e57a 1460quote(tt( rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /a/b && rsync" host:c/d /e/))
41059f75 1461
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WD
1462dit(bf(-M, --remote-option=OPTION)) This option is used for more advanced
1463situations where you want certain effects to be limited to one side of the
1464transfer only. For instance, if you want to pass bf(--log-file=FILE) and
1465bf(--fake-super) to the remote system, specify it like this:
1466
1467quote(tt( rsync -av -M --log-file=foo -M--fake-super src/ dest/))
1468
1469If you want to have an option affect only the local side of a transfer when
1470it normally affects both sides, send its negation to the remote side. Like
1471this:
1472
1473quote(tt( rsync -av -x -M--no-x src/ dest/))
1474
1475Be cautious using this, as it is possible to toggle an option that will cause
1476rsync to have a different idea about what data to expect next over the socket,
1477and that will make it fail in a cryptic fashion.
1478
1479Note that it is best to use a separate bf(--remote-option) for each option you
1480want to pass. This makes your useage compatible with the bf(--protect-args)
1481option. If that option is off, any spaces in your remote options will be split
1482by the remote shell unless you take steps to protect them.
1483
1484When performing a local transfer, the "local" side is the sender and the
1485"remote" side is the receiver.
1486
1487Note some versions of the popt option-parsing library have a bug in them that
1488prevents you from using an adjacent arg with an equal in it next to a short
1489option letter (e.g. tt(-M--log-file=/tmp/foo). If this bug affects your
1490version of popt, you can use the version of popt that is included with rsync.
1491
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1492dit(bf(-C, --cvs-exclude)) This is a useful shorthand for excluding a
1493broad range of files that you often don't want to transfer between
c575f8ce 1494systems. It uses a similar algorithm to CVS to determine if
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1495a file should be ignored.
1496
c575f8ce
WD
1497The exclude list is initialized to exclude the following items (these
1498initial items are marked as perishable -- see the FILTER RULES section):
f177b7cc 1499
faa82484 1500quote(quote(tt(RCS SCCS CVS CVS.adm RCSLOG cvslog.* tags TAGS .make.state
9520ce4b 1501.nse_depinfo *~ #* .#* ,* _$* *$ *.old *.bak *.BAK *.orig *.rej .del-*
86e90c58 1502*.a *.olb *.o *.obj *.so *.exe *.Z *.elc *.ln core .svn/ .git/ .hg/ .bzr/)))
f177b7cc 1503
c575f8ce 1504then, files listed in a $HOME/.cvsignore are added to the list and any
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1505files listed in the CVSIGNORE environment variable (all cvsignore names
1506are delimited by whitespace).
1507
f177b7cc 1508Finally, any file is ignored if it is in the same directory as a
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1509.cvsignore file and matches one of the patterns listed therein. Unlike
1510rsync's filter/exclude files, these patterns are split on whitespace.
49f4cfdf 1511See the bf(cvs)(1) manual for more information.
f177b7cc 1512
bafa4875
WD
1513If you're combining bf(-C) with your own bf(--filter) rules, you should
1514note that these CVS excludes are appended at the end of your own rules,
3753975f 1515regardless of where the bf(-C) was placed on the command-line. This makes them
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1516a lower priority than any rules you specified explicitly. If you want to
1517control where these CVS excludes get inserted into your filter rules, you
1518should omit the bf(-C) as a command-line option and use a combination of
1519bf(--filter=:C) and bf(--filter=-C) (either on your command-line or by
1520putting the ":C" and "-C" rules into a filter file with your other rules).
1521The first option turns on the per-directory scanning for the .cvsignore
1522file. The second option does a one-time import of the CVS excludes
1523mentioned above.
1524
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WD
1525dit(bf(-f, --filter=RULE)) This option allows you to add rules to selectively
1526exclude certain files from the list of files to be transferred. This is
1527most useful in combination with a recursive transfer.
41059f75 1528
faa82484 1529You may use as many bf(--filter) options on the command line as you like
5f0f2e08
WD
1530to build up the list of files to exclude. If the filter contains whitespace,
1531be sure to quote it so that the shell gives the rule to rsync as a single
1532argument. The text below also mentions that you can use an underscore to
1533replace the space that separates a rule from its arg.
41059f75 1534
16e5de84
WD
1535See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this option.
1536
faa82484 1537dit(bf(-F)) The bf(-F) option is a shorthand for adding two bf(--filter) rules to
16e5de84
WD
1538your command. The first time it is used is a shorthand for this rule:
1539
78be8e0f 1540quote(tt( --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'))
16e5de84
WD
1541
1542This tells rsync to look for per-directory .rsync-filter files that have
1543been sprinkled through the hierarchy and use their rules to filter the
faa82484 1544files in the transfer. If bf(-F) is repeated, it is a shorthand for this
16e5de84
WD
1545rule:
1546
78be8e0f 1547quote(tt( --filter='exclude .rsync-filter'))
16e5de84
WD
1548
1549This filters out the .rsync-filter files themselves from the transfer.
1550
1551See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on how these options
1552work.
1553
1554dit(bf(--exclude=PATTERN)) This option is a simplified form of the
faa82484 1555bf(--filter) option that defaults to an exclude rule and does not allow
16e5de84
WD
1556the full rule-parsing syntax of normal filter rules.
1557
1558See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this option.
41059f75 1559
78be8e0f
WD
1560dit(bf(--exclude-from=FILE)) This option is related to the bf(--exclude)
1561option, but it specifies a FILE that contains exclude patterns (one per line).
1562Blank lines in the file and lines starting with ';' or '#' are ignored.
1563If em(FILE) is bf(-), the list will be read from standard input.
f8a94f0d 1564
16e5de84 1565dit(bf(--include=PATTERN)) This option is a simplified form of the
faa82484 1566bf(--filter) option that defaults to an include rule and does not allow
16e5de84 1567the full rule-parsing syntax of normal filter rules.
43bd68e5 1568
16e5de84 1569See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this option.
43bd68e5 1570
78be8e0f
WD
1571dit(bf(--include-from=FILE)) This option is related to the bf(--include)
1572option, but it specifies a FILE that contains include patterns (one per line).
1573Blank lines in the file and lines starting with ';' or '#' are ignored.
1574If em(FILE) is bf(-), the list will be read from standard input.
f8a94f0d 1575
f177b7cc 1576dit(bf(--files-from=FILE)) Using this option allows you to specify the
78be8e0f 1577exact list of files to transfer (as read from the specified FILE or bf(-)
c769702f 1578for standard input). It also tweaks the default behavior of rsync to make
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WD
1579transferring just the specified files and directories easier:
1580
b8a6dae0 1581quote(itemization(
faa82484
WD
1582 it() The bf(--relative) (bf(-R)) option is implied, which preserves the path
1583 information that is specified for each item in the file (use
f40aa6fb 1584 bf(--no-relative) or bf(--no-R) if you want to turn that off).
faa82484
WD
1585 it() The bf(--dirs) (bf(-d)) option is implied, which will create directories
1586 specified in the list on the destination rather than noisily skipping
f40aa6fb 1587 them (use bf(--no-dirs) or bf(--no-d) if you want to turn that off).
faa82484
WD
1588 it() The bf(--archive) (bf(-a)) option's behavior does not imply bf(--recursive)
1589 (bf(-r)), so specify it explicitly, if you want it.
f40aa6fb
WD
1590 it() These side-effects change the default state of rsync, so the position
1591 of the bf(--files-from) option on the command-line has no bearing on how
1592 other options are parsed (e.g. bf(-a) works the same before or after
1593 bf(--files-from), as does bf(--no-R) and all other options).
faa82484 1594))
f177b7cc 1595
809724d7 1596The filenames that are read from the FILE are all relative to the
f177b7cc
WD
1597source dir -- any leading slashes are removed and no ".." references are
1598allowed to go higher than the source dir. For example, take this
1599command:
1600
faa82484 1601quote(tt( rsync -a --files-from=/tmp/foo /usr remote:/backup))
f177b7cc
WD
1602
1603If /tmp/foo contains the string "bin" (or even "/bin"), the /usr/bin
51cc96e4
WD
1604directory will be created as /backup/bin on the remote host. If it
1605contains "bin/" (note the trailing slash), the immediate contents of
1606the directory would also be sent (without needing to be explicitly
1607mentioned in the file -- this began in version 2.6.4). In both cases,
1608if the bf(-r) option was enabled, that dir's entire hierarchy would
1609also be transferred (keep in mind that bf(-r) needs to be specified
1610explicitly with bf(--files-from), since it is not implied by bf(-a)).
1611Also note
faa82484 1612that the effect of the (enabled by default) bf(--relative) option is to
f177b7cc
WD
1613duplicate only the path info that is read from the file -- it does not
1614force the duplication of the source-spec path (/usr in this case).
1615
faa82484 1616In addition, the bf(--files-from) file can be read from the remote host
f177b7cc
WD
1617instead of the local host if you specify a "host:" in front of the file
1618(the host must match one end of the transfer). As a short-cut, you can
1619specify just a prefix of ":" to mean "use the remote end of the
1620transfer". For example:
1621
faa82484 1622quote(tt( rsync -a --files-from=:/path/file-list src:/ /tmp/copy))
f177b7cc
WD
1623
1624This would copy all the files specified in the /path/file-list file that
1625was located on the remote "src" host.
1626
0dd2310c
WD
1627If the bf(--iconv) and bf(--protect-args) options are specified and the
1628bf(--files-from) filenames are being sent from one host to another, the
1629filenames will be translated from the sending host's charset to the
1630receiving host's charset.
1631
49eb0c4a
WD
1632NOTE: sorting the list of files in the --files-from input helps rsync to be
1633more efficient, as it will avoid re-visiting the path elements that are shared
1634between adjacent entries. If the input is not sorted, some path elements
1635(implied directories) may end up being scanned multiple times, and rsync will
1636eventually unduplicate them after they get turned into file-list elements.
1637
fa92818a 1638dit(bf(-0, --from0)) This tells rsync that the rules/filenames it reads from a
f177b7cc 1639file are terminated by a null ('\0') character, not a NL, CR, or CR+LF.
faa82484
WD
1640This affects bf(--exclude-from), bf(--include-from), bf(--files-from), and any
1641merged files specified in a bf(--filter) rule.
1642It does not affect bf(--cvs-exclude) (since all names read from a .cvsignore
f01b6368 1643file are split on whitespace).
41059f75 1644
0dd2310c 1645dit(bf(-s, --protect-args)) This option sends all filenames and most options to
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WD
1646the remote rsync without allowing the remote shell to interpret them. This
1647means that spaces are not split in names, and any non-wildcard special
1648characters are not translated (such as ~, $, ;, &, etc.). Wildcards are
1649expanded on the remote host by rsync (instead of the shell doing it).
1650
0dd2310c
WD
1651If you use this option with bf(--iconv), the args related to the remote
1652side will also be translated
0b52f94d 1653from the local to the remote character-set. The translation happens before
82f37486
WD
1654wild-cards are expanded. See also the bf(--files-from) option.
1655
2b2a4738
WD
1656You may also control this option via the RSYNC_PROTECT_ARGS environment
1657variable. If this variable has a non-zero value, this option will be enabled
1658by default, otherwise it will be disabled by default. Either state is
1659overridden by a manually specified positive or negative version of this option
1660(note that bf(--no-s) and bf(--no-protect-args) are the negative versions).
1661Since this option was first introduced in 3.0.0, you'll need to make sure it's
1662disabled if you ever need to interact with a remote rsync that is older than
1663that.
1664
1665Rsync can also be configured (at build time) to have this option enabled by
1666default (with is overridden by both the environment and the command-line).
1667This option will eventually become a new default setting at some
1668as-yet-undetermined point in the future.
1669
b5679335 1670dit(bf(-T, --temp-dir=DIR)) This option instructs rsync to use DIR as a
a9af5d8e
WD
1671scratch directory when creating temporary copies of the files transferred
1672on the receiving side. The default behavior is to create each temporary
1673file in the same directory as the associated destination file.
41059f75 1674
9ec1ef25
WD
1675This option is most often used when the receiving disk partition does not
1676have enough free space to hold a copy of the largest file in the transfer.
d770837e 1677In this case (i.e. when the scratch directory is on a different disk
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WD
1678partition), rsync will not be able to rename each received temporary file
1679over the top of the associated destination file, but instead must copy it
1680into place. Rsync does this by copying the file over the top of the
1681destination file, which means that the destination file will contain
a9af5d8e
WD
1682truncated data during this copy. If this were not done this way (even if
1683the destination file were first removed, the data locally copied to a
1684temporary file in the destination directory, and then renamed into place)
1685it would be possible for the old file to continue taking up disk space (if
1686someone had it open), and thus there might not be enough room to fit the
1687new version on the disk at the same time.
9ec1ef25
WD
1688
1689If you are using this option for reasons other than a shortage of disk
1690space, you may wish to combine it with the bf(--delay-updates) option,
a0d9819f
WD
1691which will ensure that all copied files get put into subdirectories in the
1692destination hierarchy, awaiting the end of the transfer. If you don't
1693have enough room to duplicate all the arriving files on the destination
1694partition, another way to tell rsync that you aren't overly concerned
1695about disk space is to use the bf(--partial-dir) option with a relative
1696path; because this tells rsync that it is OK to stash off a copy of a
1697single file in a subdir in the destination hierarchy, rsync will use the
1698partial-dir as a staging area to bring over the copied file, and then
1699rename it into place from there. (Specifying a bf(--partial-dir) with
1700an absolute path does not have this side-effect.)
9ec1ef25 1701
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1702dit(bf(-y, --fuzzy)) This option tells rsync that it should look for a
1703basis file for any destination file that is missing. The current algorithm
1704looks in the same directory as the destination file for either a file that
1705has an identical size and modified-time, or a similarly-named file. If
1706found, rsync uses the fuzzy basis file to try to speed up the transfer.
1707
1708Note that the use of the bf(--delete) option might get rid of any potential
1709fuzzy-match files, so either use bf(--delete-after) or specify some
1710filename exclusions if you need to prevent this.
1711
b127c1dc 1712dit(bf(--compare-dest=DIR)) This option instructs rsync to use em(DIR) on
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1713the destination machine as an additional hierarchy to compare destination
1714files against doing transfers (if the files are missing in the destination
1715directory). If a file is found in em(DIR) that is identical to the
1716sender's file, the file will NOT be transferred to the destination
1717directory. This is useful for creating a sparse backup of just files that
1718have changed from an earlier backup.
1719
faa82484 1720Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple bf(--compare-dest) directories may be
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1721provided, which will cause rsync to search the list in the order specified
1722for an exact match.
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WD
1723If a match is found that differs only in attributes, a local copy is made
1724and the attributes updated.
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WD
1725If a match is not found, a basis file from one of the em(DIR)s will be
1726selected to try to speed up the transfer.
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1727
1728If em(DIR) is a relative path, it is relative to the destination directory.
2f03ce67 1729See also bf(--copy-dest) and bf(--link-dest).
b127c1dc 1730
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WD
1731dit(bf(--copy-dest=DIR)) This option behaves like bf(--compare-dest), but
1732rsync will also copy unchanged files found in em(DIR) to the destination
1733directory using a local copy.
1734This is useful for doing transfers to a new destination while leaving
1735existing files intact, and then doing a flash-cutover when all files have
1736been successfully transferred.
1737
1738Multiple bf(--copy-dest) directories may be provided, which will cause
1739rsync to search the list in the order specified for an unchanged file.
1740If a match is not found, a basis file from one of the em(DIR)s will be
1741selected to try to speed up the transfer.
1742
1743If em(DIR) is a relative path, it is relative to the destination directory.
1744See also bf(--compare-dest) and bf(--link-dest).
1745
1746dit(bf(--link-dest=DIR)) This option behaves like bf(--copy-dest), but
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1747unchanged files are hard linked from em(DIR) to the destination directory.
1748The files must be identical in all preserved attributes (e.g. permissions,
1749possibly ownership) in order for the files to be linked together.
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1750An example:
1751
faa82484 1752quote(tt( rsync -av --link-dest=$PWD/prior_dir host:src_dir/ new_dir/))
59c95e42 1753
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1754If file's aren't linking, double-check their attributes. Also check if some
1755attributes are getting forced outside of rsync's control, such a mount option
1756that squishes root to a single user, or mounts a removable drive with generic
1757ownership (such as OS X's "Ignore ownership on this volume" option).
1758
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1759Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple bf(--link-dest) directories may be
1760provided, which will cause rsync to search the list in the order specified
1761for an exact match.
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WD
1762If a match is found that differs only in attributes, a local copy is made
1763and the attributes updated.
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1764If a match is not found, a basis file from one of the em(DIR)s will be
1765selected to try to speed up the transfer.
e49f61f5 1766
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1767This option works best when copying into an empty destination hierarchy, as
1768rsync treats existing files as definitive (so it never looks in the link-dest
1769dirs when a destination file already exists), and as malleable (so it might
1770change the attributes of a destination file, which affects all the hard-linked
1771versions).
1772
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1773Note that if you combine this option with bf(--ignore-times), rsync will not
1774link any files together because it only links identical files together as a
1775substitute for transferring the file, never as an additional check after the
1776file is updated.
1777
e49f61f5 1778If em(DIR) is a relative path, it is relative to the destination directory.
2f03ce67 1779See also bf(--compare-dest) and bf(--copy-dest).
b127c1dc 1780
e0204f56 1781Note that rsync versions prior to 2.6.1 had a bug that could prevent
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1782bf(--link-dest) from working properly for a non-super-user when bf(-o) was
1783specified (or implied by bf(-a)). You can work-around this bug by avoiding
1784the bf(-o) option when sending to an old rsync.
e0204f56 1785
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1786dit(bf(-z, --compress)) With this option, rsync compresses the file data
1787as it is sent to the destination machine, which reduces the amount of data
1788being transmitted -- something that is useful over a slow connection.
41059f75 1789
02184920 1790Note that this option typically achieves better compression ratios than can
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1791be achieved by using a compressing remote shell or a compressing transport
1792because it takes advantage of the implicit information in the matching data
1793blocks that are not explicitly sent over the connection.
41059f75 1794
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1795See the bf(--skip-compress) option for the default list of file suffixes
1796that will not be compressed.
1797
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1798dit(bf(--compress-level=NUM)) Explicitly set the compression level to use
1799(see bf(--compress)) instead of letting it default. If NUM is non-zero,
1800the bf(--compress) option is implied.
1801
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1802dit(bf(--skip-compress=LIST)) Override the list of file suffixes that will
1803not be compressed. The bf(LIST) should be one or more file suffixes
1804(without the dot) separated by slashes (/).
1805
1806You may specify an empty string to indicate that no file should be skipped.
1807
1808Simple character-class matching is supported: each must consist of a list
1809of letters inside the square brackets (e.g. no special classes, such as
4b660bae 1810"[:alpha:]", are supported, and '-' has no special meaning).
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1811
1812The characters asterisk (*) and question-mark (?) have no special meaning.
1813
1814Here's an example that specifies 6 suffixes to skip (since 1 of the 5 rules
1815matches 2 suffixes):
1816
1817verb( --skip-compress=gz/jpg/mp[34]/7z/bz2)
1818
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1819The default list of suffixes that will not be compressed is this (in this
1820version of rsync):
1821
1822bf(7z)
1823bf(ace)
1824bf(avi)
1825bf(bz2)
1826bf(deb)
1827bf(gpg)
1828bf(gz)
1829bf(iso)
1830bf(jpeg)
1831bf(jpg)
aff48500 1832bf(lz)
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1833bf(lzma)
1834bf(lzo)
1835bf(mov)
1836bf(mp3)
1837bf(mp4)
1838bf(ogg)
aff48500 1839bf(png)
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1840bf(rar)
1841bf(rpm)
1842bf(rzip)
1843bf(tbz)
1844bf(tgz)
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1845bf(tlz)
1846bf(txz)
1847bf(xz)
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1848bf(z)
1849bf(zip)
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1850
1851This list will be replaced by your bf(--skip-compress) list in all but one
1852situation: a copy from a daemon rsync will add your skipped suffixes to
1853its list of non-compressing files (and its list may be configured to a
1854different default).
1855
41059f75 1856dit(bf(--numeric-ids)) With this option rsync will transfer numeric group
4d888108 1857and user IDs rather than using user and group names and mapping them
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AT
1858at both ends.
1859
4d888108 1860By default rsync will use the username and groupname to determine
41059f75 1861what ownership to give files. The special uid 0 and the special group
faa82484 18620 are never mapped via user/group names even if the bf(--numeric-ids)
41059f75
AT
1863option is not specified.
1864
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1865If a user or group has no name on the source system or it has no match
1866on the destination system, then the numeric ID
1867from the source system is used instead. See also the comments on the
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1868"use chroot" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage for information on how
1869the chroot setting affects rsync's ability to look up the names of the
1870users and groups and what you can do about it.
41059f75 1871
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1872dit(bf(--usermap=STRING, --groupmap=STRING)) These options allow you to
1873specify users and groups that should be mapped to other values by the
1874receiving side. The bf(STRING) is one or more bf(FROM):bf(TO) pairs of
1875values separated by commas. Any matching bf(FROM) value from the sender is
1876replaced with a bf(TO) value from the receiver. You may specify usernames
1877or user IDs for the bf(FROM) and bf(TO) values, and the bf(FROM) value may
1878also be a wild-card string, which will be matched against the sender's
1879names (wild-cards do NOT match against ID numbers, though see below for
1880why a '*' matches everything). You may instead specify a range of ID
1881numbers via an inclusive range: LOW-HIGH. For example:
1882
1883verb( --usermap=0-99:nobody,wayne:admin,*:normal --groupmap=usr:1,1:usr)
1884
1885The first match in the list is the one that is used. You should specify
1886all your user mappings using a single bf(--usermap) option, and/or all
1887your group mappings using a single bf(--groupmap) option.
1888
1889Note that the sender's name for the 0 user and group are not transmitted
1890to the receiver, so you should either match these values using a 0, or use
1891the names in effect on the receiving side (typically "root"). All other
1892bf(FROM) names match those in use on the sending side. All bf(TO) names
1893match those in use on the receiving side.
1894
1895Any IDs that do not have a name on the sending side are treated as having an
1896empty name for the purpose of matching. This allows them to be matched via
1897a "*" or using an empty name. For instance:
1898
1899verb( --usermap=:nobody --groupmap=*:nobody)
1900
1901When the bf(--numeric-ids) option is used, the sender does not send any
1902names, so all the IDs are treated as having an empty name. This means that
1903you will need to specify numeric bf(FROM) values if you want to map these
1904nameless IDs to different values.
1905
1906For the bf(--usermap) option to have any effect, the bf(-o) (bf(--owner))
1907option must be used (or implied), and the receiver will need to be running
1908as a super-user (see also the bf(--fake-super) option). For the bf(--groupmap)
1909option to have any effect, the bf(-g) (bf(--groups)) option must be used
1910(or implied), and the receiver will need to have permissions to set that
1911group.
1912
1913dit(bf(--chown=USER:GROUP)) This option forces all files to be owned by USER
1914with group GROUP. This is a simpler interface than using bf(--usermap) and
1915bf(--groupmap) directly, but it is implemented using those options internally,
1916so you cannot mix them. If either the USER or GROUP is empty, no mapping for
1917the omitted user/group will occur. If GROUP is empty, the trailing colon may
1918be omitted, but if USER is empty, a leading colon must be supplied.
1919
1920If you specify "--chown=foo:bar, this is exactly the same as specifying
1921"--usermap=*:foo --groupmap=*:bar", only easier.
1922
b5accaba 1923dit(bf(--timeout=TIMEOUT)) This option allows you to set a maximum I/O
de2fd20e
AT
1924timeout in seconds. If no data is transferred for the specified time
1925then rsync will exit. The default is 0, which means no timeout.
41059f75 1926
ba22c9e2
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1927dit(bf(--contimeout)) This option allows you to set the amount of time
1928that rsync will wait for its connection to an rsync daemon to succeed.
1929If the timeout is reached, rsync exits with an error.
1930
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1931dit(bf(--address)) By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when
1932connecting to an rsync daemon. The bf(--address) option allows you to
1933specify a specific IP address (or hostname) to bind to. See also this
1934option in the bf(--daemon) mode section.
1935
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1936dit(bf(--port=PORT)) This specifies an alternate TCP port number to use
1937rather than the default of 873. This is only needed if you are using the
1938double-colon (::) syntax to connect with an rsync daemon (since the URL
1939syntax has a way to specify the port as a part of the URL). See also this
faa82484 1940option in the bf(--daemon) mode section.
c259892c 1941
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1942dit(bf(--sockopts)) This option can provide endless fun for people
1943who like to tune their systems to the utmost degree. You can set all
1944sorts of socket options which may make transfers faster (or
49f4cfdf 1945slower!). Read the man page for the code(setsockopt()) system call for
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1946details on some of the options you may be able to set. By default no
1947special socket options are set. This only affects direct socket
1948connections to a remote rsync daemon. This option also exists in the
1949bf(--daemon) mode section.
1950
b5accaba 1951dit(bf(--blocking-io)) This tells rsync to use blocking I/O when launching
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1952a remote shell transport. If the remote shell is either rsh or remsh,
1953rsync defaults to using
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WD
1954blocking I/O, otherwise it defaults to using non-blocking I/O. (Note that
1955ssh prefers non-blocking I/O.)
64c704f0 1956
0cfdf226 1957dit(bf(-i, --itemize-changes)) Requests a simple itemized list of the
4f90eb43 1958changes that are being made to each file, including attribute changes.
4b90820d 1959This is exactly the same as specifying bf(--out-format='%i %n%L').
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1960If you repeat the option, unchanged files will also be output, but only
1961if the receiving rsync is at least version 2.6.7 (you can use bf(-vv)
1962with older versions of rsync, but that also turns on the output of other
1963verbose messages).
ea67c715 1964
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1965The "%i" escape has a cryptic output that is 11 letters long. The general
1966format is like the string bf(YXcstpoguax), where bf(Y) is replaced by the
4f417448 1967type of update being done, bf(X) is replaced by the file-type, and the
a314f7c1 1968other letters represent attributes that may be output if they are being
ee171c6d 1969modified.
ea67c715 1970
2d5279ac 1971The update types that replace the bf(Y) are as follows:
ea67c715 1972
b8a6dae0 1973quote(itemization(
cc3e0770 1974 it() A bf(<) means that a file is being transferred to the remote host
a314f7c1 1975 (sent).
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WD
1976 it() A bf(>) means that a file is being transferred to the local host
1977 (received).
c48cff9f 1978 it() A bf(c) means that a local change/creation is occurring for the item
ee171c6d 1979 (such as the creation of a directory or the changing of a symlink, etc.).
02184920 1980 it() A bf(h) means that the item is a hard link to another item (requires
b4875de4 1981 bf(--hard-links)).
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WD
1982 it() A bf(.) means that the item is not being updated (though it might
1983 have attributes that are being modified).
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WD
1984 it() A bf(*) means that the rest of the itemized-output area contains
1985 a message (e.g. "deleting").
a314f7c1 1986))
ea67c715 1987
a314f7c1 1988The file-types that replace the bf(X) are: bf(f) for a file, a bf(d) for a
4e7d07c8
WD
1989directory, an bf(L) for a symlink, a bf(D) for a device, and a bf(S) for a
1990special file (e.g. named sockets and fifos).
ea67c715 1991
a314f7c1 1992The other letters in the string above are the actual letters that
ea67c715
WD
1993will be output if the associated attribute for the item is being updated or
1994a "." for no change. Three exceptions to this are: (1) a newly created
b9f0ca72
WD
1995item replaces each letter with a "+", (2) an identical item replaces the
1996dots with spaces, and (3) an unknown attribute replaces each letter with
81c453b1 1997a "?" (this can happen when talking to an older rsync).
ea67c715
WD
1998
1999The attribute that is associated with each letter is as follows:
2000
b8a6dae0 2001quote(itemization(
1ed9018e
WD
2002 it() A bf(c) means either that a regular file has a different checksum
2003 (requires bf(--checksum)) or that a symlink, device, or special file has
2004 a changed value.
600b56b3 2005 Note that if you are sending files to an rsync prior to 3.0.1, this
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WD
2006 change flag will be present only for checksum-differing regular files.
2007 it() A bf(s) means the size of a regular file is different and will be updated
ea67c715
WD
2008 by the file transfer.
2009 it() A bf(t) means the modification time is different and is being updated
5a727522 2010 to the sender's value (requires bf(--times)). An alternate value of bf(T)
42b06481 2011 means that the modification time will be set to the transfer time, which happens
1ed56a05
WD
2012 when a file/symlink/device is updated without bf(--times) and when a
2013 symlink is changed and the receiver can't set its time.
1ed9018e
WD
2014 (Note: when using an rsync 3.0.0 client, you might see the bf(s) flag combined
2015 with bf(t) instead of the proper bf(T) flag for this time-setting failure.)
ea67c715 2016 it() A bf(p) means the permissions are different and are being updated to
5a727522 2017 the sender's value (requires bf(--perms)).
4dc67d5e 2018 it() An bf(o) means the owner is different and is being updated to the
d38772e0 2019 sender's value (requires bf(--owner) and super-user privileges).
4dc67d5e 2020 it() A bf(g) means the group is different and is being updated to the
5a727522 2021 sender's value (requires bf(--group) and the authority to set the group).
7869953b 2022 it() The bf(u) slot is reserved for future use.
1c3344a1 2023 it() The bf(a) means that the ACL information changed.
7869953b 2024 it() The bf(x) means that the extended attribute information changed.
ea67c715
WD
2025))
2026
2027One other output is possible: when deleting files, the "%i" will output
ee171c6d 2028the string "*deleting" for each item that is being removed (assuming that
ea67c715
WD
2029you are talking to a recent enough rsync that it logs deletions instead of
2030outputting them as a verbose message).
dc0f2497 2031
4b90820d 2032dit(bf(--out-format=FORMAT)) This allows you to specify exactly what the
951e826b
WD
2033rsync client outputs to the user on a per-update basis. The format is a
2034text string containing embedded single-character escape sequences prefixed
2035with a percent (%) character. A default format of "%n%L" is assumed if
2036either bf(--info=name) or bf(-v) is specified (this tells you just the name
2037of the file and, if the item is a link, where it points). For a full list
2038of the possible escape characters, see the "log format" setting in the
2039rsyncd.conf manpage.
2040
2041Specifying the bf(--out-format) option implies the bf(--info=name) option,
2042which will mention each file, dir, etc. that gets updated in a significant
2043way (a transferred file, a recreated symlink/device, or a touched
2044directory). In addition, if the itemize-changes escape (%i) is included in
2045the string (e.g. if the bf(--itemize-changes) option was used), the logging
2046of names increases to mention any item that is changed in any way (as long
2047as the receiving side is at least 2.6.4). See the bf(--itemize-changes)
2048option for a description of the output of "%i".
ea67c715 2049
4b90820d 2050Rsync will output the out-format string prior to a file's transfer unless
ea67c715
WD
2051one of the transfer-statistic escapes is requested, in which case the
2052logging is done at the end of the file's transfer. When this late logging
2053is in effect and bf(--progress) is also specified, rsync will also output
2054the name of the file being transferred prior to its progress information
4b90820d
WD
2055(followed, of course, by the out-format output).
2056
2057dit(bf(--log-file=FILE)) This option causes rsync to log what it is doing
2058to a file. This is similar to the logging that a daemon does, but can be
2059requested for the client side and/or the server side of a non-daemon
2060transfer. If specified as a client option, transfer logging will be
2061enabled with a default format of "%i %n%L". See the bf(--log-file-format)
2062option if you wish to override this.
2063
2064Here's a example command that requests the remote side to log what is
2065happening:
2066
7a2eca41 2067verb( rsync -av --remote-option=--log-file=/tmp/rlog src/ dest/)
4b90820d
WD
2068
2069This is very useful if you need to debug why a connection is closing
2070unexpectedly.
2071
2072dit(bf(--log-file-format=FORMAT)) This allows you to specify exactly what
2073per-update logging is put into the file specified by the bf(--log-file) option
2074(which must also be specified for this option to have any effect). If you
2075specify an empty string, updated files will not be mentioned in the log file.
2076For a list of the possible escape characters, see the "log format" setting
2077in the rsyncd.conf manpage.
b6062654 2078
e129500c
WD
2079The default FORMAT used if bf(--log-file) is specified and this option is not
2080is '%i %n%L'.
2081
b72f24c7 2082dit(bf(--stats)) This tells rsync to print a verbose set of statistics
adc4ebdd 2083on the file transfer, allowing you to tell how effective rsync's delta-transfer
951e826b
WD
2084algorithm is for your data. This option is equivalent to bf(--info=stats2)
2085if combined with 0 or 1 bf(-v) options, or bf(--info=stats3) if combined
2086with 2 or more bf(-v) options.
b72f24c7 2087
b8a6dae0 2088The current statistics are as follows: quote(itemization(
7b13ff97 2089 it() bf(Number of files) is the count of all "files" (in the generic
b320b7d6
WD
2090 sense), which includes directories, symlinks, etc. The total count will
2091 be followed by a list of counts by filetype (if the total is non-zero).
2092 For example: "(reg: 5, dir: 3, link: 2, dev: 1, special: 1)" lists the
2093 totals for regular files, directories, symlinks, devices, and special
2094 files. If any of value is 0, it is completely omitted from the list.
2095 it() bf(Number of created files) is the count of how many "files" (generic
2096 sense) were created (as opposed to updated). The total count will be
2097 followed by a list of counts by filetype (if the total is non-zero).
2098 it() bf(Number of deleted files) is the count of how many "files" (generic
2099 sense) were created (as opposed to updated). The total count will be
2100 followed by a list of counts by filetype (if the total is non-zero).
2101 Note that this line is only output if deletions are in effect, and only
2102 if protocol 31 is being used (the default for rsync 3.1.x).
2103 it() bf(Number of regular files transferred) is the count of normal files
2104 that were updated via rsync's delta-transfer algorithm, which does not
2105 include dirs, symlinks, etc. Note that rsync 3.1.0 added the word
2106 "regular" into this heading.
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WD
2107 it() bf(Total file size) is the total sum of all file sizes in the transfer.
2108 This does not count any size for directories or special files, but does
2109 include the size of symlinks.
2110 it() bf(Total transferred file size) is the total sum of all files sizes
2111 for just the transferred files.
2112 it() bf(Literal data) is how much unmatched file-update data we had to
2113 send to the receiver for it to recreate the updated files.
2114 it() bf(Matched data) is how much data the receiver got locally when
2115 recreating the updated files.
2116 it() bf(File list size) is how big the file-list data was when the sender
2117 sent it to the receiver. This is smaller than the in-memory size for the
2118 file list due to some compressing of duplicated data when rsync sends the
2119 list.
2120 it() bf(File list generation time) is the number of seconds that the
2121 sender spent creating the file list. This requires a modern rsync on the
2122 sending side for this to be present.
2123 it() bf(File list transfer time) is the number of seconds that the sender
2124 spent sending the file list to the receiver.
2125 it() bf(Total bytes sent) is the count of all the bytes that rsync sent
2126 from the client side to the server side.
2127 it() bf(Total bytes received) is the count of all non-message bytes that
2128 rsync received by the client side from the server side. "Non-message"
2129 bytes means that we don't count the bytes for a verbose message that the
2130 server sent to us, which makes the stats more consistent.
38a4b9c2 2131))
7b13ff97 2132
a6a27602 2133dit(bf(-8, --8-bit-output)) This tells rsync to leave all high-bit characters
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WD
2134unescaped in the output instead of trying to test them to see if they're
2135valid in the current locale and escaping the invalid ones. All control
2136characters (but never tabs) are always escaped, regardless of this option's
2137setting.
2138
2139The escape idiom that started in 2.6.7 is to output a literal backslash (\)
2140and a hash (#), followed by exactly 3 octal digits. For example, a newline
2141would output as "\#012". A literal backslash that is in a filename is not
2142escaped unless it is followed by a hash and 3 digits (0-9).
2143
955c3145 2144dit(bf(-h, --human-readable)) Output numbers in a more human-readable format.
adc2476f
WD
2145There are 3 possible levels: (1) output numbers with a separator between each
2146set of 3 digits (either a comma or a period, depending on if the decimal point
2147is represented by a period or a comma); (2) output numbers in units of 1000
2148(with a character suffix for larger units -- see below); (3) output numbers in
2149units of 1024.
2150
2151The default is human-readable level 1. Each bf(-h) option increases the level
2152by one. You can take the level down to 0 (to output numbers as pure digits) by
2153specifing the bf(--no-human-readable) (bf(--no-h)) option.
2154
2155The unit letters that are appended in levels 2 and 3 are: K (kilo), M (mega),
2156G (giga), or T (tera). For example, a 1234567-byte file would output as 1.23M
2157in level-2 (assuming that a period is your local decimal point).
2158
2159Backward compatibility note: versions of rsync prior to 3.1.0 do not support
2160human-readable level 1, and they default to level 0. Thus, specifying one or
b320b7d6
WD
2161two bf(-h) options will behave in a comparable manner in old and new versions
2162as long as you didn't specify a bf(--no-h) option prior to one or more bf(-h)
2163options. See the bf(--list-only) option for one difference.
3b4ecc6b 2164
d9fcc198
AT
2165dit(bf(--partial)) By default, rsync will delete any partially
2166transferred file if the transfer is interrupted. In some circumstances
2167it is more desirable to keep partially transferred files. Using the
faa82484 2168bf(--partial) option tells rsync to keep the partial file which should
d9fcc198
AT
2169make a subsequent transfer of the rest of the file much faster.
2170
c2582307
WD
2171dit(bf(--partial-dir=DIR)) A better way to keep partial files than the
2172bf(--partial) option is to specify a em(DIR) that will be used to hold the
2173partial data (instead of writing it out to the destination file).
2174On the next transfer, rsync will use a file found in this
9ec1ef25 2175dir as data to speed up the resumption of the transfer and then delete it
c2582307 2176after it has served its purpose.
9ec1ef25 2177
c2582307
WD
2178Note that if bf(--whole-file) is specified (or implied), any partial-dir
2179file that is found for a file that is being updated will simply be removed
2180(since
adc4ebdd 2181rsync is sending files without using rsync's delta-transfer algorithm).
44cad59f 2182
c2582307
WD
2183Rsync will create the em(DIR) if it is missing (just the last dir -- not
2184the whole path). This makes it easy to use a relative path (such as
2185"bf(--partial-dir=.rsync-partial)") to have rsync create the
2186partial-directory in the destination file's directory when needed, and then
2187remove it again when the partial file is deleted.
44cad59f 2188
ee554411
WD
2189If the partial-dir value is not an absolute path, rsync will add an exclude
2190rule at the end of all your existing excludes. This will prevent the
2191sending of any partial-dir files that may exist on the sending side, and
2192will also prevent the untimely deletion of partial-dir items on the
2193receiving side. An example: the above bf(--partial-dir) option would add
f49c8376 2194the equivalent of "bf(-f '-p .rsync-partial/')" at the end of any other
ee554411
WD
2195filter rules.
2196
2197If you are supplying your own exclude rules, you may need to add your own
2198exclude/hide/protect rule for the partial-dir because (1) the auto-added
2199rule may be ineffective at the end of your other rules, or (2) you may wish
2200to override rsync's exclude choice. For instance, if you want to make
2201rsync clean-up any left-over partial-dirs that may be lying around, you
2202should specify bf(--delete-after) and add a "risk" filter rule, e.g.
2203bf(-f 'R .rsync-partial/'). (Avoid using bf(--delete-before) or
2204bf(--delete-during) unless you don't need rsync to use any of the
2205left-over partial-dir data during the current run.)
44cad59f 2206
faa82484 2207IMPORTANT: the bf(--partial-dir) should not be writable by other users or it
b4d1e854
WD
2208is a security risk. E.g. AVOID "/tmp".
2209
2210You can also set the partial-dir value the RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR environment
faa82484 2211variable. Setting this in the environment does not force bf(--partial) to be
02184920 2212enabled, but rather it affects where partial files go when bf(--partial) is
faa82484
WD
2213specified. For instance, instead of using bf(--partial-dir=.rsync-tmp)
2214along with bf(--progress), you could set RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR=.rsync-tmp in your
2215environment and then just use the bf(-P) option to turn on the use of the
9ec1ef25
WD
2216.rsync-tmp dir for partial transfers. The only times that the bf(--partial)
2217option does not look for this environment value are (1) when bf(--inplace) was
2218specified (since bf(--inplace) conflicts with bf(--partial-dir)), and (2) when
faa82484 2219bf(--delay-updates) was specified (see below).
01b835c2 2220
5a727522 2221For the purposes of the daemon-config's "refuse options" setting,
c2582307
WD
2222bf(--partial-dir) does em(not) imply bf(--partial). This is so that a
2223refusal of the bf(--partial) option can be used to disallow the overwriting
2224of destination files with a partial transfer, while still allowing the
2225safer idiom provided by bf(--partial-dir).
2226
01b835c2 2227dit(bf(--delay-updates)) This option puts the temporary file from each
c2582307 2228updated file into a holding directory until the end of the
01b835c2
WD
2229transfer, at which time all the files are renamed into place in rapid
2230succession. This attempts to make the updating of the files a little more
c2582307 2231atomic. By default the files are placed into a directory named ".~tmp~" in
64318670 2232each file's destination directory, but if you've specified the
ee554411
WD
2233bf(--partial-dir) option, that directory will be used instead. See the
2234comments in the bf(--partial-dir) section for a discussion of how this
2235".~tmp~" dir will be excluded from the transfer, and what you can do if
c5b6e57a 2236you want rsync to cleanup old ".~tmp~" dirs that might be lying around.
64318670 2237Conflicts with bf(--inplace) and bf(--append).
01b835c2
WD
2238
2239This option uses more memory on the receiving side (one bit per file
2240transferred) and also requires enough free disk space on the receiving
2241side to hold an additional copy of all the updated files. Note also that
5efbddba
WD
2242you should not use an absolute path to bf(--partial-dir) unless (1)
2243there is no
01b835c2
WD
2244chance of any of the files in the transfer having the same name (since all
2245the updated files will be put into a single directory if the path is
5efbddba
WD
2246absolute)
2247and (2) there are no mount points in the hierarchy (since the
2248delayed updates will fail if they can't be renamed into place).
01b835c2
WD
2249
2250See also the "atomic-rsync" perl script in the "support" subdir for an
faa82484 2251update algorithm that is even more atomic (it uses bf(--link-dest) and a
01b835c2 2252parallel hierarchy of files).
44cad59f 2253
a272ff8c 2254dit(bf(-m, --prune-empty-dirs)) This option tells the receiving rsync to get
fb72aaba
WD
2255rid of empty directories from the file-list, including nested directories
2256that have no non-directory children. This is useful for avoiding the
2257creation of a bunch of useless directories when the sending rsync is
2258recursively scanning a hierarchy of files using include/exclude/filter
a272ff8c
WD
2259rules.
2260
fd2b6046
WD
2261Note that the use of transfer rules, such as the bf(--min-size) option, does
2262not affect what goes into the file list, and thus does not leave directories
2263empty, even if none of the files in a directory match the transfer rule.
2264
a272ff8c
WD
2265Because the file-list is actually being pruned, this option also affects
2266what directories get deleted when a delete is active. However, keep in
2267mind that excluded files and directories can prevent existing items from
fd2b6046
WD
2268being deleted due to an exclude both hiding source files and protecting
2269destination files. See the perishable filter-rule option for how to avoid
2270this.
a272ff8c
WD
2271
2272You can prevent the pruning of certain empty directories from the file-list
2273by using a global "protect" filter. For instance, this option would ensure
2274that the directory "emptydir" was kept in the file-list:
2275
2276quote( --filter 'protect emptydir/')
fb72aaba
WD
2277
2278Here's an example that copies all .pdf files in a hierarchy, only creating
2279the necessary destination directories to hold the .pdf files, and ensures
2280that any superfluous files and directories in the destination are removed
a272ff8c
WD
2281(note the hide filter of non-directories being used instead of an exclude):
2282
58718881 2283quote( rsync -avm --del --include='*.pdf' -f 'hide,! */' src/ dest)
fb72aaba 2284
a272ff8c 2285If you didn't want to remove superfluous destination files, the more
4743f0f4 2286time-honored options of "bf(--include='*/' --exclude='*')" would work fine
a272ff8c 2287in place of the hide-filter (if that is more natural to you).
fb72aaba 2288
eb86d661
AT
2289dit(bf(--progress)) This option tells rsync to print information
2290showing the progress of the transfer. This gives a bored user
2291something to watch.
951e826b
WD
2292With a modern rsync this is the same as specifying
2293bf(--info=flist2,name,progress), but any user-supplied settings for those
2294info flags takes precedence (e.g. "--info=flist0 --progress").
7b10f91d 2295
5e1f082d
WD
2296While rsync is transferring a regular file, it updates a progress line that
2297looks like this:
68f9910d 2298
faa82484 2299verb( 782448 63% 110.64kB/s 0:00:04)
68f9910d 2300
5e1f082d
WD
2301In this example, the receiver has reconstructed 782448 bytes or 63% of the
2302sender's file, which is being reconstructed at a rate of 110.64 kilobytes
2303per second, and the transfer will finish in 4 seconds if the current rate
2304is maintained until the end.
2305
adc4ebdd 2306These statistics can be misleading if rsync's delta-transfer algorithm is
5e1f082d
WD
2307in use. For example, if the sender's file consists of the basis file
2308followed by additional data, the reported rate will probably drop
2309dramatically when the receiver gets to the literal data, and the transfer
2310will probably take much longer to finish than the receiver estimated as it
2311was finishing the matched part of the file.
2312
2313When the file transfer finishes, rsync replaces the progress line with a
2314summary line that looks like this:
2315
8d10cbfc 2316verb( 1,238,099 100% 146.38kB/s 0:00:08 (xfr#5, to-chk=169/396))
5e1f082d 2317
8d10cbfc 2318In this example, the file was 1,238,099 bytes long in total, the average rate
5e1f082d
WD
2319of transfer for the whole file was 146.38 kilobytes per second over the 8
2320seconds that it took to complete, it was the 5th transfer of a regular file
2321during the current rsync session, and there are 169 more files for the
2322receiver to check (to see if they are up-to-date or not) remaining out of
2323the 396 total files in the file-list.
68f9910d 2324
8d10cbfc
WD
2325In an incremental recursion scan, rsync won't know the total number of files
2326in the file-list until it reaches the ends of the scan, but since it starts to
2327transfer files during the scan, it will display a line with the text "ir-chk"
2328(for incremental recursion check) instead of "to-chk" until the point that it
2329knows the full size of the list, at which point it will switch to using
2330"to-chk". Thus, seeing "ir-chk" lets you know that the total count of files
2331in the file list is still going to increase (and each time it does, the count
2332of files left to check will increase by the number of the files added to the
2333list).
2334
faa82484 2335dit(bf(-P)) The bf(-P) option is equivalent to bf(--partial) bf(--progress). Its
183150b7
WD
2336purpose is to make it much easier to specify these two options for a long
2337transfer that may be interrupted.
d9fcc198 2338
951e826b
WD
2339There is also a bf(--info=progress2) option that outputs statistics based
2340on the whole transfer, rather than individual files. Use this flag without
2341outputting a filename (e.g. avoid bf(-v) or specify bf(--info=name0) if you
2342want to see how the transfer is doing without scrolling the screen with a
2343lot of names. (You don't need to specify the bf(--progress) option in
2344order to use bf(--info=progress2).)
2345
9586e593
WD
2346dit(bf(--password-file)) This option allows you to provide a password in a
2347file for accessing an rsync daemon. The file must not be world readable.
6437b817
WD
2348It should contain just the password as the first line of the file (all
2349other lines are ignored).
9586e593 2350
b2057d38
WD
2351This option does not supply a password to a remote shell transport such as
2352ssh; to learn how to do that, consult the remote shell's documentation.
9586e593
WD
2353When accessing an rsync daemon using a remote shell as the transport, this
2354option only comes into effect after the remote shell finishes its
2355authentication (i.e. if you have also specified a password in the daemon's
2356config file).
65575e96 2357
09ed3099 2358dit(bf(--list-only)) This option will cause the source files to be listed
b4c7c1ca
WD
2359instead of transferred. This option is inferred if there is a single source
2360arg and no destination specified, so its main uses are: (1) to turn a copy
2361command that includes a
32b9011a
WD
2362destination arg into a file-listing command, or (2) to be able to specify
2363more than one source arg (note: be sure to include the destination).
2364Caution: keep in mind that a source arg with a wild-card is expanded by the
2365shell into multiple args, so it is never safe to try to list such an arg
b4c7c1ca
WD
2366without using this option. For example:
2367
2368verb( rsync -av --list-only foo* dest/)
09ed3099 2369
b320b7d6
WD
2370Starting with rsync 3.1.0, the sizes output by bf(--list-only) are affected
2371by the bf(--human-readable) option. By default they will contain digit
2372separators, but higher levels of readability will output the sizes with
2373unit suffixes. Note also that the column width for the size output has
2374increased from 11 to 14 characters for all human-readable levels. Use
2375bf(--no-h) if you want just digits in the sizes, and the old column width
2376of 11 characters.
2377
32b9011a
WD
2378Compatibility note: when requesting a remote listing of files from an rsync
2379that is version 2.6.3 or older, you may encounter an error if you ask for a
2380non-recursive listing. This is because a file listing implies the bf(--dirs)
2381option w/o bf(--recursive), and older rsyncs don't have that option. To
2382avoid this problem, either specify the bf(--no-dirs) option (if you don't
2383need to expand a directory's content), or turn on recursion and exclude
2384the content of subdirectories: bf(-r --exclude='/*/*').
2385
ce795fcd
WD
2386dit(bf(--bwlimit=RATE)) This option allows you to specify the maximum transfer
2387rate for the data sent over the socket, specified in units per second. The
2388RATE value can be suffixed with a string to indicate a size multiplier, and may
2389be a fractional value (e.g. "bf(--bwlimit=1.5m)"). If no suffix is specified,
2390the value will be assumed to be in units of 1024 bytes (as if "K" or "KiB" had
2391been appended). See the bf(--max-size) option for a description of all the
2392available suffixes. A value of zero specifies no limit.
2393
2394For backward-compatibility reasons, the rate limit will be rounded to the
2395nearest KiB unit, so no rate smaller than 1024 bytes per second is possible.
2396
2397Rsync writes data over the socket in blocks, and this option both limits the
2398size of the blocks that rsync writes, and tries to keep the average transfer
2399rate at the requested limit. Some "burstiness" may be seen where rsync writes
2400out a block of data and then sleeps to bring the average rate into compliance.
2401
2402Due to the internal buffering of data, the bf(--progress) option may not be an
2403accurate reflection on how fast the data is being sent. This is because some
2404files can show up as being rapidly sent when the data is quickly buffered,
2405while other can show up as very slow when the flushing of the output buffer
2406occurs. This may be fixed in a future version.
ef5d23eb 2407
b9f592fb 2408dit(bf(--write-batch=FILE)) Record a file that can later be applied to
faa82484 2409another identical destination with bf(--read-batch). See the "BATCH MODE"
32c7f91a 2410section for details, and also the bf(--only-write-batch) option.
6902ed17 2411
326bb56e
WD
2412dit(bf(--only-write-batch=FILE)) Works like bf(--write-batch), except that
2413no updates are made on the destination system when creating the batch.
2414This lets you transport the changes to the destination system via some
32c7f91a
WD
2415other means and then apply the changes via bf(--read-batch).
2416
2417Note that you can feel free to write the batch directly to some portable
2418media: if this media fills to capacity before the end of the transfer, you
2419can just apply that partial transfer to the destination and repeat the
2420whole process to get the rest of the changes (as long as you don't mind a
2421partially updated destination system while the multi-update cycle is
2422happening).
2423
2424Also note that you only save bandwidth when pushing changes to a remote
2425system because this allows the batched data to be diverted from the sender
2426into the batch file without having to flow over the wire to the receiver
2427(when pulling, the sender is remote, and thus can't write the batch).
326bb56e 2428
b9f592fb 2429dit(bf(--read-batch=FILE)) Apply all of the changes stored in FILE, a
faa82484 2430file previously generated by bf(--write-batch).
78be8e0f 2431If em(FILE) is bf(-), the batch data will be read from standard input.
c769702f 2432See the "BATCH MODE" section for details.
6902ed17 2433
0b941479
WD
2434dit(bf(--protocol=NUM)) Force an older protocol version to be used. This
2435is useful for creating a batch file that is compatible with an older
2436version of rsync. For instance, if rsync 2.6.4 is being used with the
2437bf(--write-batch) option, but rsync 2.6.3 is what will be used to run the
81c453b1
WD
2438bf(--read-batch) option, you should use "--protocol=28" when creating the
2439batch file to force the older protocol version to be used in the batch
2440file (assuming you can't upgrade the rsync on the reading system).
0b941479 2441
332cf6df
WD
2442dit(bf(--iconv=CONVERT_SPEC)) Rsync can convert filenames between character
2443sets using this option. Using a CONVERT_SPEC of "." tells rsync to look up
2444the default character-set via the locale setting. Alternately, you can
2445fully specify what conversion to do by giving a local and a remote charset
0b52f94d
WD
2446separated by a comma in the order bf(--iconv=LOCAL,REMOTE), e.g.
2447bf(--iconv=utf8,iso88591). This order ensures that the option
2448will stay the same whether you're pushing or pulling files.
2449Finally, you can specify either bf(--no-iconv) or a CONVERT_SPEC of "-"
2450to turn off any conversion.
332cf6df
WD
2451The default setting of this option is site-specific, and can also be
2452affected via the RSYNC_ICONV environment variable.
2453
0b52f94d
WD
2454For a list of what charset names your local iconv library supports, you can
2455run "iconv --list".
2456
82f37486
WD
2457If you specify the bf(--protect-args) option (bf(-s)), rsync will translate
2458the filenames you specify on the command-line that are being sent to the
2459remote host. See also the bf(--files-from) option.
2460
332cf6df 2461Note that rsync does not do any conversion of names in filter files
82f37486
WD
2462(including include/exclude files). It is up to you to ensure that you're
2463specifying matching rules that can match on both sides of the transfer.
2464For instance, you can specify extra include/exclude rules if there are
2465filename differences on the two sides that need to be accounted for.
332cf6df 2466
0b52f94d
WD
2467When you pass an bf(--iconv) option to an rsync daemon that allows it, the
2468daemon uses the charset specified in its "charset" configuration parameter
2469regardless of the remote charset you actually pass. Thus, you may feel free to
2470specify just the local charset for a daemon transfer (e.g. bf(--iconv=utf8)).
2471
e40a46de
WD
2472dit(bf(-4, --ipv4) or bf(-6, --ipv6)) Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6
2473when creating sockets. This only affects sockets that rsync has direct
2474control over, such as the outgoing socket when directly contacting an
faa82484 2475rsync daemon. See also these options in the bf(--daemon) mode section.
e40a46de 2476
24d677fc
WD
2477If rsync was complied without support for IPv6, the bf(--ipv6) option
2478will have no effect. The bf(--version) output will tell you if this
2479is the case.
2480
e129500c 2481dit(bf(--checksum-seed=NUM)) Set the checksum seed to the integer
c8d895de 2482NUM. This 4 byte checksum seed is included in each block and file
e129500c 2483checksum calculation. By default the checksum seed is generated
49f4cfdf 2484by the server and defaults to the current code(time()). This option
c8d895de
WD
2485is used to set a specific checksum seed, which is useful for
2486applications that want repeatable block and file checksums, or
2487in the case where the user wants a more random checksum seed.
886df221 2488Setting NUM to 0 causes rsync to use the default of code(time())
b9f592fb 2489for checksum seed.
41059f75
AT
2490enddit()
2491
faa82484
WD
2492manpagesection(DAEMON OPTIONS)
2493
bdf278f7
WD
2494The options allowed when starting an rsync daemon are as follows:
2495
2496startdit()
bdf278f7 2497dit(bf(--daemon)) This tells rsync that it is to run as a daemon. The
62f27e3c
WD
2498daemon you start running may be accessed using an rsync client using
2499the bf(host::module) or bf(rsync://host/module/) syntax.
bdf278f7
WD
2500
2501If standard input is a socket then rsync will assume that it is being
2502run via inetd, otherwise it will detach from the current terminal and
2503become a background daemon. The daemon will read the config file
2504(rsyncd.conf) on each connect made by a client and respond to
49f4cfdf 2505requests accordingly. See the bf(rsyncd.conf)(5) man page for more
bdf278f7
WD
2506details.
2507
3ae5367f
WD
2508dit(bf(--address)) By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when
2509run as a daemon with the bf(--daemon) option. The bf(--address) option
2510allows you to specify a specific IP address (or hostname) to bind to. This
2511makes virtual hosting possible in conjunction with the bf(--config) option.
2512See also the "address" global option in the rsyncd.conf manpage.
bdf278f7 2513
ce795fcd
WD
2514dit(bf(--bwlimit=RATE)) This option allows you to specify the maximum transfer
2515rate for the data the daemon sends over the socket. The client can still
2516specify a smaller bf(--bwlimit) value, but no larger value will be allowed.
2517See the client version of this option (above) for some extra details.
1f69bec4 2518
bdf278f7 2519dit(bf(--config=FILE)) This specifies an alternate config file than
faa82484 2520the default. This is only relevant when bf(--daemon) is specified.
bdf278f7 2521The default is /etc/rsyncd.conf unless the daemon is running over
d38772e0 2522a remote shell program and the remote user is not the super-user; in that case
bdf278f7
WD
2523the default is rsyncd.conf in the current directory (typically $HOME).
2524
2206abf8
WD
2525dit(bf(-M, --dparam=OVERRIDE)) This option can be used to set a daemon-config
2526parameter when starting up rsync in daemon mode. It is equivalent to adding
2527the parameter at the end of the global settings prior to the first module's
2528definition. The parameter names can be specified without spaces, if you so
2529desire. For instance:
2530
2531verb( rsync --daemon -M pidfile=/path/rsync.pid )
2532
bdf278f7
WD
2533dit(bf(--no-detach)) When running as a daemon, this option instructs
2534rsync to not detach itself and become a background process. This
2535option is required when running as a service on Cygwin, and may also
2536be useful when rsync is supervised by a program such as
2537bf(daemontools) or AIX's bf(System Resource Controller).
2538bf(--no-detach) is also recommended when rsync is run under a
2539debugger. This option has no effect if rsync is run from inetd or
2540sshd.
2541
c259892c
WD
2542dit(bf(--port=PORT)) This specifies an alternate TCP port number for the
2543daemon to listen on rather than the default of 873. See also the "port"
2544global option in the rsyncd.conf manpage.
bdf278f7 2545
a2ed5801
WD
2546dit(bf(--log-file=FILE)) This option tells the rsync daemon to use the
2547given log-file name instead of using the "log file" setting in the config
2548file.
2549
4b90820d
WD
2550dit(bf(--log-file-format=FORMAT)) This option tells the rsync daemon to use the
2551given FORMAT string instead of using the "log format" setting in the config
2552file. It also enables "transfer logging" unless the string is empty, in which
2553case transfer logging is turned off.
2554
04f48837
WD
2555dit(bf(--sockopts)) This overrides the bf(socket options) setting in the
2556rsyncd.conf file and has the same syntax.
2557
24b0922b
WD
2558dit(bf(-v, --verbose)) This option increases the amount of information the
2559daemon logs during its startup phase. After the client connects, the
2560daemon's verbosity level will be controlled by the options that the client
2561used and the "max verbosity" setting in the module's config section.
2562
bdf278f7
WD
2563dit(bf(-4, --ipv4) or bf(-6, --ipv6)) Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6
2564when creating the incoming sockets that the rsync daemon will use to
2565listen for connections. One of these options may be required in older
2566versions of Linux to work around an IPv6 bug in the kernel (if you see
2567an "address already in use" error when nothing else is using the port,
faa82484 2568try specifying bf(--ipv6) or bf(--ipv4) when starting the daemon).
bdf278f7 2569
24d677fc
WD
2570If rsync was complied without support for IPv6, the bf(--ipv6) option
2571will have no effect. The bf(--version) output will tell you if this
2572is the case.
2573
faa82484 2574dit(bf(-h, --help)) When specified after bf(--daemon), print a short help
bdf278f7 2575page describing the options available for starting an rsync daemon.
bdf278f7
WD
2576enddit()
2577
16e5de84 2578manpagesection(FILTER RULES)
43bd68e5 2579
16e5de84
WD
2580The filter rules allow for flexible selection of which files to transfer
2581(include) and which files to skip (exclude). The rules either directly
2582specify include/exclude patterns or they specify a way to acquire more
2583include/exclude patterns (e.g. to read them from a file).
43bd68e5 2584
16e5de84
WD
2585As the list of files/directories to transfer is built, rsync checks each
2586name to be transferred against the list of include/exclude patterns in
2587turn, and the first matching pattern is acted on: if it is an exclude
2588pattern, then that file is skipped; if it is an include pattern then that
2589filename is not skipped; if no matching pattern is found, then the
43bd68e5
AT
2590filename is not skipped.
2591
16e5de84
WD
2592Rsync builds an ordered list of filter rules as specified on the
2593command-line. Filter rules have the following syntax:
2594
faa82484 2595quote(
d91de046
WD
2596tt(RULE [PATTERN_OR_FILENAME])nl()
2597tt(RULE,MODIFIERS [PATTERN_OR_FILENAME])nl()
16e5de84
WD
2598)
2599
d91de046
WD
2600You have your choice of using either short or long RULE names, as described
2601below. If you use a short-named rule, the ',' separating the RULE from the
2602MODIFIERS is optional. The PATTERN or FILENAME that follows (when present)
2603must come after either a single space or an underscore (_).
2604Here are the available rule prefixes:
16e5de84 2605
faa82484 2606quote(
d91de046
WD
2607bf(exclude, -) specifies an exclude pattern. nl()
2608bf(include, +) specifies an include pattern. nl()
2609bf(merge, .) specifies a merge-file to read for more rules. nl()
2610bf(dir-merge, :) specifies a per-directory merge-file. nl()
0dfffb88
WD
2611bf(hide, H) specifies a pattern for hiding files from the transfer. nl()
2612bf(show, S) files that match the pattern are not hidden. nl()
2613bf(protect, P) specifies a pattern for protecting files from deletion. nl()
2614bf(risk, R) files that match the pattern are not protected. nl()
d91de046 2615bf(clear, !) clears the current include/exclude list (takes no arg) nl()
16e5de84
WD
2616)
2617
d91de046
WD
2618When rules are being read from a file, empty lines are ignored, as are
2619comment lines that start with a "#".
2620
faa82484 2621Note that the bf(--include)/bf(--exclude) command-line options do not allow the
16e5de84 2622full range of rule parsing as described above -- they only allow the
d91de046
WD
2623specification of include/exclude patterns plus a "!" token to clear the
2624list (and the normal comment parsing when rules are read from a file).
2625If a pattern
16e5de84
WD
2626does not begin with "- " (dash, space) or "+ " (plus, space), then the
2627rule will be interpreted as if "+ " (for an include option) or "- " (for
faa82484 2628an exclude option) were prefixed to the string. A bf(--filter) option, on
d91de046
WD
2629the other hand, must always contain either a short or long rule name at the
2630start of the rule.
16e5de84 2631
faa82484 2632Note also that the bf(--filter), bf(--include), and bf(--exclude) options take one
16e5de84 2633rule/pattern each. To add multiple ones, you can repeat the options on
faa82484
WD
2634the command-line, use the merge-file syntax of the bf(--filter) option, or
2635the bf(--include-from)/bf(--exclude-from) options.
16e5de84 2636
16e5de84
WD
2637manpagesection(INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERN RULES)
2638
0dfffb88
WD
2639You can include and exclude files by specifying patterns using the "+",
2640"-", etc. filter rules (as introduced in the FILTER RULES section above).
bb5f4e72
WD
2641The include/exclude rules each specify a pattern that is matched against
2642the names of the files that are going to be transferred. These patterns
2643can take several forms:
16e5de84 2644
b8a6dae0 2645itemization(
16e5de84
WD
2646 it() if the pattern starts with a / then it is anchored to a
2647 particular spot in the hierarchy of files, otherwise it is matched
2648 against the end of the pathname. This is similar to a leading ^ in
2649 regular expressions.
809724d7 2650 Thus "/foo" would match a name of "foo" at either the "root of the
16e5de84
WD
2651 transfer" (for a global rule) or in the merge-file's directory (for a
2652 per-directory rule).
809724d7
WD
2653 An unqualified "foo" would match a name of "foo" anywhere in the
2654 tree because the algorithm is applied recursively from the
16e5de84 2655 top down; it behaves as if each path component gets a turn at being the
809724d7 2656 end of the filename. Even the unanchored "sub/foo" would match at
16e5de84
WD
2657 any point in the hierarchy where a "foo" was found within a directory
2658 named "sub". See the section on ANCHORING INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS for
2659 a full discussion of how to specify a pattern that matches at the root
2660 of the transfer.
16e5de84 2661 it() if the pattern ends with a / then it will only match a
809724d7 2662 directory, not a regular file, symlink, or device.
9639c718
WD
2663 it() rsync chooses between doing a simple string match and wildcard
2664 matching by checking if the pattern contains one of these three wildcard
2665 characters: '*', '?', and '[' .
7fdb3bda 2666 it() a '*' matches any path component, but it stops at slashes.
9639c718
WD
2667 it() use '**' to match anything, including slashes.
2668 it() a '?' matches any character except a slash (/).
2669 it() a '[' introduces a character class, such as [a-z] or [[:alpha:]].
2670 it() in a wildcard pattern, a backslash can be used to escape a wildcard
2671 character, but it is matched literally when no wildcards are present.
2672 it() if the pattern contains a / (not counting a trailing /) or a "**",
16e5de84
WD
2673 then it is matched against the full pathname, including any leading
2674 directories. If the pattern doesn't contain a / or a "**", then it is
2675 matched only against the final component of the filename.
2676 (Remember that the algorithm is applied recursively so "full filename"
ae283632 2677 can actually be any portion of a path from the starting directory on
16e5de84 2678 down.)
d3db3eef 2679 it() a trailing "dir_name/***" will match both the directory (as if
809724d7 2680 "dir_name/" had been specified) and everything in the directory
c575f8ce
WD
2681 (as if "dir_name/**" had been specified). This behavior was added in
2682 version 2.6.7.
16e5de84
WD
2683)
2684
faa82484
WD
2685Note that, when using the bf(--recursive) (bf(-r)) option (which is implied by
2686bf(-a)), every subcomponent of every path is visited from the top down, so
16e5de84
WD
2687include/exclude patterns get applied recursively to each subcomponent's
2688full name (e.g. to include "/foo/bar/baz" the subcomponents "/foo" and
2689"/foo/bar" must not be excluded).
2690The exclude patterns actually short-circuit the directory traversal stage
2691when rsync finds the files to send. If a pattern excludes a particular
2692parent directory, it can render a deeper include pattern ineffectual
2693because rsync did not descend through that excluded section of the
2694hierarchy. This is particularly important when using a trailing '*' rule.
2695For instance, this won't work:
2696
faa82484
WD
2697quote(
2698tt(+ /some/path/this-file-will-not-be-found)nl()
2699tt(+ /file-is-included)nl()
2700tt(- *)nl()
16e5de84
WD
2701)
2702
2703This fails because the parent directory "some" is excluded by the '*'
2704rule, so rsync never visits any of the files in the "some" or "some/path"
2705directories. One solution is to ask for all directories in the hierarchy
a5a26484 2706to be included by using a single rule: "+ */" (put it somewhere before the
58718881
WD
2707"- *" rule), and perhaps use the bf(--prune-empty-dirs) option. Another
2708solution is to add specific include rules for all
16e5de84
WD
2709the parent dirs that need to be visited. For instance, this set of rules
2710works fine:
2711
faa82484
WD
2712quote(
2713tt(+ /some/)nl()
2714tt(+ /some/path/)nl()
2715tt(+ /some/path/this-file-is-found)nl()
2716tt(+ /file-also-included)nl()
2717tt(- *)nl()
16e5de84
WD
2718)
2719
2720Here are some examples of exclude/include matching:
2721
b8a6dae0 2722itemization(
809724d7 2723 it() "- *.o" would exclude all names matching *.o
58718881
WD
2724 it() "- /foo" would exclude a file (or directory) named foo in the
2725 transfer-root directory
2726 it() "- foo/" would exclude any directory named foo
2727 it() "- /foo/*/bar" would exclude any file named bar which is at two
2728 levels below a directory named foo in the transfer-root directory
2729 it() "- /foo/**/bar" would exclude any file named bar two
2730 or more levels below a directory named foo in the transfer-root directory
faa82484 2731 it() The combination of "+ */", "+ *.c", and "- *" would include all
58718881
WD
2732 directories and C source files but nothing else (see also the
2733 bf(--prune-empty-dirs) option)
16e5de84
WD
2734 it() The combination of "+ foo/", "+ foo/bar.c", and "- *" would include
2735 only the foo directory and foo/bar.c (the foo directory must be
2736 explicitly included or it would be excluded by the "*")
2737)
2738
d960af72
MM
2739The following modifiers are accepted after a "+" or "-":
2740
2741itemization(
2742 it() A bf(/) specifies that the include/exclude rule should be matched
2743 against the absolute pathname of the current item. For example,
2744 "-/ /etc/passwd" would exclude the passwd file any time the transfer
2745 was sending files from the "/etc" directory, and "-/ subdir/foo"
2746 would always exclude "foo" when it is in a dir named "subdir", even
2747 if "foo" is at the root of the current transfer.
2748 it() A bf(!) specifies that the include/exclude should take effect if
2749 the pattern fails to match. For instance, "-! */" would exclude all
2750 non-directories.
2751 it() A bf(C) is used to indicate that all the global CVS-exclude rules
2752 should be inserted as excludes in place of the "-C". No arg should
2753 follow.
2754 it() An bf(s) is used to indicate that the rule applies to the sending
2755 side. When a rule affects the sending side, it prevents files from
2756 being transferred. The default is for a rule to affect both sides
2757 unless bf(--delete-excluded) was specified, in which case default rules
2758 become sender-side only. See also the hide (H) and show (S) rules,
2759 which are an alternate way to specify sending-side includes/excludes.
2760 it() An bf(r) is used to indicate that the rule applies to the receiving
2761 side. When a rule affects the receiving side, it prevents files from
2762 being deleted. See the bf(s) modifier for more info. See also the
2763 protect (P) and risk (R) rules, which are an alternate way to
2764 specify receiver-side includes/excludes.
2765 it() A bf(p) indicates that a rule is perishable, meaning that it is
2766 ignored in directories that are being deleted. For instance, the bf(-C)
2767 option's default rules that exclude things like "CVS" and "*.o" are
2768 marked as perishable, and will not prevent a directory that was removed
2769 on the source from being deleted on the destination.
2770)
2771
16e5de84
WD
2772manpagesection(MERGE-FILE FILTER RULES)
2773
2774You can merge whole files into your filter rules by specifying either a
d91de046
WD
2775merge (.) or a dir-merge (:) filter rule (as introduced in the FILTER RULES
2776section above).
16e5de84
WD
2777
2778There are two kinds of merged files -- single-instance ('.') and
2779per-directory (':'). A single-instance merge file is read one time, and
2780its rules are incorporated into the filter list in the place of the "."
2781rule. For per-directory merge files, rsync will scan every directory that
2782it traverses for the named file, merging its contents when the file exists
2783into the current list of inherited rules. These per-directory rule files
2784must be created on the sending side because it is the sending side that is
2785being scanned for the available files to transfer. These rule files may
2786also need to be transferred to the receiving side if you want them to
2787affect what files don't get deleted (see PER-DIRECTORY RULES AND DELETE
2788below).
2789
2790Some examples:
2791
faa82484 2792quote(
d91de046 2793tt(merge /etc/rsync/default.rules)nl()
faa82484 2794tt(. /etc/rsync/default.rules)nl()
d91de046
WD
2795tt(dir-merge .per-dir-filter)nl()
2796tt(dir-merge,n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes)nl()
faa82484 2797tt(:n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes)nl()
16e5de84
WD
2798)
2799
d91de046 2800The following modifiers are accepted after a merge or dir-merge rule:
16e5de84 2801
b8a6dae0 2802itemization(
62bf783f 2803 it() A bf(-) specifies that the file should consist of only exclude
d91de046 2804 patterns, with no other rule-parsing except for in-file comments.
62bf783f 2805 it() A bf(+) specifies that the file should consist of only include
d91de046
WD
2806 patterns, with no other rule-parsing except for in-file comments.
2807 it() A bf(C) is a way to specify that the file should be read in a
2808 CVS-compatible manner. This turns on 'n', 'w', and '-', but also
2809 allows the list-clearing token (!) to be specified. If no filename is
2810 provided, ".cvsignore" is assumed.
2811 it() A bf(e) will exclude the merge-file name from the transfer; e.g.
a5a26484 2812 "dir-merge,e .rules" is like "dir-merge .rules" and "- .rules".
62bf783f
WD
2813 it() An bf(n) specifies that the rules are not inherited by subdirectories.
2814 it() A bf(w) specifies that the rules are word-split on whitespace instead
16e5de84
WD
2815 of the normal line-splitting. This also turns off comments. Note: the
2816 space that separates the prefix from the rule is treated specially, so
d91de046
WD
2817 "- foo + bar" is parsed as two rules (assuming that prefix-parsing wasn't
2818 also disabled).
2819 it() You may also specify any of the modifiers for the "+" or "-" rules
d960af72 2820 (above) in order to have the rules that are read in from the file
c8fa85b2
MM
2821 default to having that modifier set (except for the bf(!) modifier, which
2822 would not be useful). For instance, "merge,-/ .excl" would
0dfffb88
WD
2823 treat the contents of .excl as absolute-path excludes,
2824 while "dir-merge,s .filt" and ":sC" would each make all their
c8fa85b2
MM
2825 per-directory rules apply only on the sending side. If the merge rule
2826 specifies sides to affect (via the bf(s) or bf(r) modifier or both),
2827 then the rules in the file must not specify sides (via a modifier or
2828 a rule prefix such as bf(hide)).
16e5de84
WD
2829)
2830
2831Per-directory rules are inherited in all subdirectories of the directory
2832where the merge-file was found unless the 'n' modifier was used. Each
2833subdirectory's rules are prefixed to the inherited per-directory rules
2834from its parents, which gives the newest rules a higher priority than the
d91de046 2835inherited rules. The entire set of dir-merge rules are grouped together in
16e5de84 2836the spot where the merge-file was specified, so it is possible to override
d91de046 2837dir-merge rules via a rule that got specified earlier in the list of global
16e5de84
WD
2838rules. When the list-clearing rule ("!") is read from a per-directory
2839file, it only clears the inherited rules for the current merge file.
2840
d91de046 2841Another way to prevent a single rule from a dir-merge file from being inherited is to
16e5de84
WD
2842anchor it with a leading slash. Anchored rules in a per-directory
2843merge-file are relative to the merge-file's directory, so a pattern "/foo"
d91de046 2844would only match the file "foo" in the directory where the dir-merge filter
16e5de84
WD
2845file was found.
2846
faa82484 2847Here's an example filter file which you'd specify via bf(--filter=". file":)
16e5de84 2848
faa82484 2849quote(
d91de046 2850tt(merge /home/user/.global-filter)nl()
faa82484 2851tt(- *.gz)nl()
d91de046 2852tt(dir-merge .rules)nl()
faa82484
WD
2853tt(+ *.[ch])nl()
2854tt(- *.o)nl()
16e5de84
WD
2855)
2856
2857This will merge the contents of the /home/user/.global-filter file at the
2858start of the list and also turns the ".rules" filename into a per-directory
467688dc 2859filter file. All rules read in prior to the start of the directory scan
16e5de84
WD
2860follow the global anchoring rules (i.e. a leading slash matches at the root
2861of the transfer).
2862
2863If a per-directory merge-file is specified with a path that is a parent
2864directory of the first transfer directory, rsync will scan all the parent
2865dirs from that starting point to the transfer directory for the indicated
faa82484 2866per-directory file. For instance, here is a common filter (see bf(-F)):
16e5de84 2867
faa82484 2868quote(tt(--filter=': /.rsync-filter'))
16e5de84
WD
2869
2870That rule tells rsync to scan for the file .rsync-filter in all
2871directories from the root down through the parent directory of the
2872transfer prior to the start of the normal directory scan of the file in
2873the directories that are sent as a part of the transfer. (Note: for an
2874rsync daemon, the root is always the same as the module's "path".)
2875
2876Some examples of this pre-scanning for per-directory files:
2877
faa82484
WD
2878quote(
2879tt(rsync -avF /src/path/ /dest/dir)nl()
2880tt(rsync -av --filter=': ../../.rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir)nl()
2881tt(rsync -av --filter=': .rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir)nl()
16e5de84
WD
2882)
2883
2884The first two commands above will look for ".rsync-filter" in "/" and
2885"/src" before the normal scan begins looking for the file in "/src/path"
2886and its subdirectories. The last command avoids the parent-dir scan
2887and only looks for the ".rsync-filter" files in each directory that is
2888a part of the transfer.
2889
2890If you want to include the contents of a ".cvsignore" in your patterns,
d91de046
WD
2891you should use the rule ":C", which creates a dir-merge of the .cvsignore
2892file, but parsed in a CVS-compatible manner. You can
faa82484 2893use this to affect where the bf(--cvs-exclude) (bf(-C)) option's inclusion of the
d91de046 2894per-directory .cvsignore file gets placed into your rules by putting the
16e5de84 2895":C" wherever you like in your filter rules. Without this, rsync would
d91de046 2896add the dir-merge rule for the .cvsignore file at the end of all your other
16e5de84
WD
2897rules (giving it a lower priority than your command-line rules). For
2898example:
2899
faa82484
WD
2900quote(
2901tt(cat <<EOT | rsync -avC --filter='. -' a/ b)nl()
2902tt(+ foo.o)nl()
2903tt(:C)nl()
2904tt(- *.old)nl()
2905tt(EOT)nl()
2906tt(rsync -avC --include=foo.o -f :C --exclude='*.old' a/ b)nl()
16e5de84
WD
2907)
2908
2909Both of the above rsync commands are identical. Each one will merge all
2910the per-directory .cvsignore rules in the middle of the list rather than
2911at the end. This allows their dir-specific rules to supersede the rules
bafa4875
WD
2912that follow the :C instead of being subservient to all your rules. To
2913affect the other CVS exclude rules (i.e. the default list of exclusions,
2914the contents of $HOME/.cvsignore, and the value of $CVSIGNORE) you should
2915omit the bf(-C) command-line option and instead insert a "-C" rule into
4743f0f4 2916your filter rules; e.g. "bf(--filter=-C)".
16e5de84
WD
2917
2918manpagesection(LIST-CLEARING FILTER RULE)
2919
2920You can clear the current include/exclude list by using the "!" filter
2921rule (as introduced in the FILTER RULES section above). The "current"
2922list is either the global list of rules (if the rule is encountered while
2923parsing the filter options) or a set of per-directory rules (which are
2924inherited in their own sub-list, so a subdirectory can use this to clear
2925out the parent's rules).
2926
2927manpagesection(ANCHORING INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS)
2928
2929As mentioned earlier, global include/exclude patterns are anchored at the
2930"root of the transfer" (as opposed to per-directory patterns, which are
2931anchored at the merge-file's directory). If you think of the transfer as
2932a subtree of names that are being sent from sender to receiver, the
2933transfer-root is where the tree starts to be duplicated in the destination
2934directory. This root governs where patterns that start with a / match.
a4b6f305
WD
2935
2936Because the matching is relative to the transfer-root, changing the
faa82484 2937trailing slash on a source path or changing your use of the bf(--relative)
a4b6f305
WD
2938option affects the path you need to use in your matching (in addition to
2939changing how much of the file tree is duplicated on the destination
16e5de84 2940host). The following examples demonstrate this.
a4b6f305 2941
b5ebe6d9
WD
2942Let's say that we want to match two source files, one with an absolute
2943path of "/home/me/foo/bar", and one with a path of "/home/you/bar/baz".
2944Here is how the various command choices differ for a 2-source transfer:
a4b6f305 2945
faa82484
WD
2946quote(
2947 Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me /home/you /dest nl()
2948 +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar nl()
2949 +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz nl()
2950 Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar nl()
2951 Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz nl()
2952)
2953
2954quote(
2955 Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me/ /home/you/ /dest nl()
2956 +/- pattern: /foo/bar (note missing "me") nl()
2957 +/- pattern: /bar/baz (note missing "you") nl()
2958 Target file: /dest/foo/bar nl()
2959 Target file: /dest/bar/baz nl()
2960)
2961
2962quote(
2963 Example cmd: rsync -a --relative /home/me/ /home/you /dest nl()
2964 +/- pattern: /home/me/foo/bar (note full path) nl()
2965 +/- pattern: /home/you/bar/baz (ditto) nl()
2966 Target file: /dest/home/me/foo/bar nl()
2967 Target file: /dest/home/you/bar/baz nl()
2968)
2969
2970quote(
2971 Example cmd: cd /home; rsync -a --relative me/foo you/ /dest nl()
2972 +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar (starts at specified path) nl()
2973 +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz (ditto) nl()
2974 Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar nl()
2975 Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz nl()
a4b6f305
WD
2976)
2977
16e5de84 2978The easiest way to see what name you should filter is to just
faa82484
WD
2979look at the output when using bf(--verbose) and put a / in front of the name
2980(use the bf(--dry-run) option if you're not yet ready to copy any files).
d1cce1dd 2981
16e5de84 2982manpagesection(PER-DIRECTORY RULES AND DELETE)
43bd68e5 2983
16e5de84
WD
2984Without a delete option, per-directory rules are only relevant on the
2985sending side, so you can feel free to exclude the merge files themselves
2986without affecting the transfer. To make this easy, the 'e' modifier adds
2987this exclude for you, as seen in these two equivalent commands:
27b9a19b 2988
faa82484
WD
2989quote(
2990tt(rsync -av --filter=': .excl' --exclude=.excl host:src/dir /dest)nl()
2991tt(rsync -av --filter=':e .excl' host:src/dir /dest)nl()
43bd68e5
AT
2992)
2993
16e5de84
WD
2994However, if you want to do a delete on the receiving side AND you want some
2995files to be excluded from being deleted, you'll need to be sure that the
2996receiving side knows what files to exclude. The easiest way is to include
faa82484 2997the per-directory merge files in the transfer and use bf(--delete-after),
16e5de84
WD
2998because this ensures that the receiving side gets all the same exclude
2999rules as the sending side before it tries to delete anything:
43bd68e5 3000
faa82484 3001quote(tt(rsync -avF --delete-after host:src/dir /dest))
20af605e 3002
16e5de84
WD
3003However, if the merge files are not a part of the transfer, you'll need to
3004either specify some global exclude rules (i.e. specified on the command
3005line), or you'll need to maintain your own per-directory merge files on
3006the receiving side. An example of the first is this (assume that the
3007remote .rules files exclude themselves):
20af605e 3008
faa82484
WD
3009verb(rsync -av --filter=': .rules' --filter='. /my/extra.rules'
3010 --delete host:src/dir /dest)
20af605e 3011
16e5de84
WD
3012In the above example the extra.rules file can affect both sides of the
3013transfer, but (on the sending side) the rules are subservient to the rules
3014merged from the .rules files because they were specified after the
3015per-directory merge rule.
43bd68e5 3016
16e5de84
WD
3017In one final example, the remote side is excluding the .rsync-filter
3018files from the transfer, but we want to use our own .rsync-filter files
3019to control what gets deleted on the receiving side. To do this we must
3020specifically exclude the per-directory merge files (so that they don't get
3021deleted) and then put rules into the local files to control what else
3022should not get deleted. Like one of these commands:
3023
faa82484
WD
3024verb( rsync -av --filter=':e /.rsync-filter' --delete \
3025 host:src/dir /dest
3026 rsync -avFF --delete host:src/dir /dest)
43bd68e5 3027
6902ed17
MP
3028manpagesection(BATCH MODE)
3029
088aac85
DD
3030Batch mode can be used to apply the same set of updates to many
3031identical systems. Suppose one has a tree which is replicated on a
3032number of hosts. Now suppose some changes have been made to this
3033source tree and those changes need to be propagated to the other
3034hosts. In order to do this using batch mode, rsync is run with the
3035write-batch option to apply the changes made to the source tree to one
3036of the destination trees. The write-batch option causes the rsync
b9f592fb
WD
3037client to store in a "batch file" all the information needed to repeat
3038this operation against other, identical destination trees.
3039
b9f592fb
WD
3040Generating the batch file once saves having to perform the file
3041status, checksum, and data block generation more than once when
088aac85 3042updating multiple destination trees. Multicast transport protocols can
b9f592fb
WD
3043be used to transfer the batch update files in parallel to many hosts
3044at once, instead of sending the same data to every host individually.
088aac85 3045
7f2591ea
WD
3046To apply the recorded changes to another destination tree, run rsync
3047with the read-batch option, specifying the name of the same batch
3048file, and the destination tree. Rsync updates the destination tree
3049using the information stored in the batch file.
3050
3051For your convenience, a script file is also created when the write-batch
3052option is used: it will be named the same as the batch file with ".sh"
3053appended. This script file contains a command-line suitable for updating a
3054destination tree using the associated batch file. It can be executed using
3055a Bourne (or Bourne-like) shell, optionally passing in an alternate
3056destination tree pathname which is then used instead of the original
3057destination path. This is useful when the destination tree path on the
3058current host differs from the one used to create the batch file.
3059
4602eafa 3060Examples:
088aac85 3061
faa82484
WD
3062quote(
3063tt($ rsync --write-batch=foo -a host:/source/dir/ /adest/dir/)nl()
3064tt($ scp foo* remote:)nl()
3065tt($ ssh remote ./foo.sh /bdest/dir/)nl()
4602eafa
WD
3066)
3067
faa82484
WD
3068quote(
3069tt($ rsync --write-batch=foo -a /source/dir/ /adest/dir/)nl()
3070tt($ ssh remote rsync --read-batch=- -a /bdest/dir/ <foo)nl()
4602eafa
WD
3071)
3072
98f51bfb
WD
3073In these examples, rsync is used to update /adest/dir/ from /source/dir/
3074and the information to repeat this operation is stored in "foo" and
3075"foo.sh". The host "remote" is then updated with the batched data going
3076into the directory /bdest/dir. The differences between the two examples
3077reveals some of the flexibility you have in how you deal with batches:
3078
b8a6dae0 3079itemization(
98f51bfb
WD
3080 it() The first example shows that the initial copy doesn't have to be
3081 local -- you can push or pull data to/from a remote host using either the
3082 remote-shell syntax or rsync daemon syntax, as desired.
98f51bfb
WD
3083 it() The first example uses the created "foo.sh" file to get the right
3084 rsync options when running the read-batch command on the remote host.
98f51bfb
WD
3085 it() The second example reads the batch data via standard input so that
3086 the batch file doesn't need to be copied to the remote machine first.
3087 This example avoids the foo.sh script because it needed to use a modified
faa82484 3088 bf(--read-batch) option, but you could edit the script file if you wished to
98f51bfb 3089 make use of it (just be sure that no other option is trying to use
faa82484 3090 standard input, such as the "bf(--exclude-from=-)" option).
98f51bfb 3091)
088aac85
DD
3092
3093Caveats:
3094
98f51bfb 3095The read-batch option expects the destination tree that it is updating
088aac85
DD
3096to be identical to the destination tree that was used to create the
3097batch update fileset. When a difference between the destination trees
0b941479 3098is encountered the update might be discarded with a warning (if the file
7432ccf4
WD
3099appears to be up-to-date already) or the file-update may be attempted
3100and then, if the file fails to verify, the update discarded with an
3101error. This means that it should be safe to re-run a read-batch operation
59d73bf3 3102if the command got interrupted. If you wish to force the batched-update to
faa82484 3103always be attempted regardless of the file's size and date, use the bf(-I)
59d73bf3
WD
3104option (when reading the batch).
3105If an error occurs, the destination tree will probably be in a
7432ccf4 3106partially updated state. In that case, rsync can
088aac85
DD
3107be used in its regular (non-batch) mode of operation to fix up the
3108destination tree.
3109
b9f592fb 3110The rsync version used on all destinations must be at least as new as the
59d73bf3
WD
3111one used to generate the batch file. Rsync will die with an error if the
3112protocol version in the batch file is too new for the batch-reading rsync
0b941479
WD
3113to handle. See also the bf(--protocol) option for a way to have the
3114creating rsync generate a batch file that an older rsync can understand.
3115(Note that batch files changed format in version 2.6.3, so mixing versions
3116older than that with newer versions will not work.)
088aac85 3117
7432ccf4
WD
3118When reading a batch file, rsync will force the value of certain options
3119to match the data in the batch file if you didn't set them to the same
3120as the batch-writing command. Other options can (and should) be changed.
bb5f4e72
WD
3121For instance bf(--write-batch) changes to bf(--read-batch),
3122bf(--files-from) is dropped, and the
3123bf(--filter)/bf(--include)/bf(--exclude) options are not needed unless
3124one of the bf(--delete) options is specified.
b9f592fb 3125
faa82484 3126The code that creates the BATCH.sh file transforms any filter/include/exclude
98f51bfb
WD
3127options into a single list that is appended as a "here" document to the
3128shell script file. An advanced user can use this to modify the exclude
faa82484 3129list if a change in what gets deleted by bf(--delete) is desired. A normal
98f51bfb 3130user can ignore this detail and just use the shell script as an easy way
faa82484 3131to run the appropriate bf(--read-batch) command for the batched data.
98f51bfb 3132
59d73bf3
WD
3133The original batch mode in rsync was based on "rsync+", but the latest
3134version uses a new implementation.
6902ed17 3135
eb06fa95
MP
3136manpagesection(SYMBOLIC LINKS)
3137
f28bd833 3138Three basic behaviors are possible when rsync encounters a symbolic
eb06fa95
MP
3139link in the source directory.
3140
3141By default, symbolic links are not transferred at all. A message
3142"skipping non-regular" file is emitted for any symlinks that exist.
3143
3144If bf(--links) is specified, then symlinks are recreated with the same
3145target on the destination. Note that bf(--archive) implies
3146bf(--links).
3147
3148If bf(--copy-links) is specified, then symlinks are "collapsed" by
3149copying their referent, rather than the symlink.
3150
6f098b0f
WD
3151Rsync can also distinguish "safe" and "unsafe" symbolic links. An
3152example where this might be used is a web site mirror that wishes to
3153ensure that the rsync module that is copied does not include symbolic links to
eb06fa95
MP
3154bf(/etc/passwd) in the public section of the site. Using
3155bf(--copy-unsafe-links) will cause any links to be copied as the file
3156they point to on the destination. Using bf(--safe-links) will cause
6efe9416
WD
3157unsafe links to be omitted altogether. (Note that you must specify
3158bf(--links) for bf(--safe-links) to have any effect.)
eb06fa95 3159
7bd0cf5b 3160Symbolic links are considered unsafe if they are absolute symlinks
4743f0f4 3161(start with bf(/)), empty, or if they contain enough ".."
7bd0cf5b
MP
3162components to ascend from the directory being copied.
3163
6efe9416
WD
3164Here's a summary of how the symlink options are interpreted. The list is
3165in order of precedence, so if your combination of options isn't mentioned,
3166use the first line that is a complete subset of your options:
3167
3168dit(bf(--copy-links)) Turn all symlinks into normal files (leaving no
3169symlinks for any other options to affect).
3170
3171dit(bf(--links --copy-unsafe-links)) Turn all unsafe symlinks into files
3172and duplicate all safe symlinks.
3173
3174dit(bf(--copy-unsafe-links)) Turn all unsafe symlinks into files, noisily
3175skip all safe symlinks.
3176
02184920 3177dit(bf(--links --safe-links)) Duplicate safe symlinks and skip unsafe
6efe9416
WD
3178ones.
3179
3180dit(bf(--links)) Duplicate all symlinks.
3181
faa82484 3182manpagediagnostics()
d310a212 3183
14d43f1f 3184rsync occasionally produces error messages that may seem a little
d310a212 3185cryptic. The one that seems to cause the most confusion is "protocol
faa82484 3186version mismatch -- is your shell clean?".
d310a212
AT
3187
3188This message is usually caused by your startup scripts or remote shell
3189facility producing unwanted garbage on the stream that rsync is using
14d43f1f 3190for its transport. The way to diagnose this problem is to run your
d310a212
AT
3191remote shell like this:
3192
faa82484
WD
3193quote(tt(ssh remotehost /bin/true > out.dat))
3194
d310a212 3195then look at out.dat. If everything is working correctly then out.dat
2cfeab21 3196should be a zero length file. If you are getting the above error from
d310a212
AT
3197rsync then you will probably find that out.dat contains some text or
3198data. Look at the contents and try to work out what is producing
14d43f1f 3199it. The most common cause is incorrectly configured shell startup
d310a212
AT
3200scripts (such as .cshrc or .profile) that contain output statements
3201for non-interactive logins.
3202
16e5de84 3203If you are having trouble debugging filter patterns, then
faa82484 3204try specifying the bf(-vv) option. At this level of verbosity rsync will
e6c64e79
MP
3205show why each individual file is included or excluded.
3206
55b64e4b
MP
3207manpagesection(EXIT VALUES)
3208
3209startdit()
a73de5f3 3210dit(bf(0)) Success
faa82484
WD
3211dit(bf(1)) Syntax or usage error
3212dit(bf(2)) Protocol incompatibility
a73de5f3
WD
3213dit(bf(3)) Errors selecting input/output files, dirs
3214dit(bf(4)) Requested action not supported: an attempt
8212336a 3215was made to manipulate 64-bit files on a platform that cannot support
f28bd833 3216them; or an option was specified that is supported by the client and
8212336a 3217not by the server.
a73de5f3 3218dit(bf(5)) Error starting client-server protocol
124f349e 3219dit(bf(6)) Daemon unable to append to log-file
faa82484
WD
3220dit(bf(10)) Error in socket I/O
3221dit(bf(11)) Error in file I/O
3222dit(bf(12)) Error in rsync protocol data stream
3223dit(bf(13)) Errors with program diagnostics
3224dit(bf(14)) Error in IPC code
3225dit(bf(20)) Received SIGUSR1 or SIGINT
49f4cfdf 3226dit(bf(21)) Some error returned by code(waitpid())
faa82484 3227dit(bf(22)) Error allocating core memory buffers
3c1e2ad9
WD
3228dit(bf(23)) Partial transfer due to error
3229dit(bf(24)) Partial transfer due to vanished source files
124f349e 3230dit(bf(25)) The --max-delete limit stopped deletions
faa82484 3231dit(bf(30)) Timeout in data send/receive
ba22c9e2 3232dit(bf(35)) Timeout waiting for daemon connection
55b64e4b
MP
3233enddit()
3234
de2fd20e
AT
3235manpagesection(ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES)
3236
3237startdit()
de2fd20e 3238dit(bf(CVSIGNORE)) The CVSIGNORE environment variable supplements any
faa82484 3239ignore patterns in .cvsignore files. See the bf(--cvs-exclude) option for
de2fd20e 3240more details.
332cf6df 3241dit(bf(RSYNC_ICONV)) Specify a default bf(--iconv) setting using this
2b2a4738
WD
3242environment variable. (First supported in 3.0.0.)
3243dit(bf(RSYNC_PROTECT_ARGS)) Specify a non-zero numeric value if you want the
3244bf(--protect-args) option to be enabled by default, or a zero value to make
3245sure that it is disabled by default. (First supported in 3.1.0.)
de2fd20e 3246dit(bf(RSYNC_RSH)) The RSYNC_RSH environment variable allows you to
ea7f8108 3247override the default shell used as the transport for rsync. Command line
faa82484 3248options are permitted after the command name, just as in the bf(-e) option.
4c3b4b25
AT
3249dit(bf(RSYNC_PROXY)) The RSYNC_PROXY environment variable allows you to
3250redirect your rsync client to use a web proxy when connecting to a
3251rsync daemon. You should set RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair.
de2fd20e 3252dit(bf(RSYNC_PASSWORD)) Setting RSYNC_PASSWORD to the required
bb18e755 3253password allows you to run authenticated rsync connections to an rsync
de2fd20e 3254daemon without user intervention. Note that this does not supply a
b2057d38
WD
3255password to a remote shell transport such as ssh; to learn how to do that,
3256consult the remote shell's documentation.
de2fd20e 3257dit(bf(USER) or bf(LOGNAME)) The USER or LOGNAME environment variables
5a727522 3258are used to determine the default username sent to an rsync daemon.
4b2f6a7c 3259If neither is set, the username defaults to "nobody".
14d43f1f 3260dit(bf(HOME)) The HOME environment variable is used to find the user's
de2fd20e 3261default .cvsignore file.
de2fd20e
AT
3262enddit()
3263
41059f75
AT
3264manpagefiles()
3265
30e8c8e1